New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Oporto is an Australian fast food restaurant franchise with a Portuguese-theme. Oporto specialises in burgers. Oporto has more than 100'eat in' or'take-away' restaurants in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, although a large majority of these are located in New South Wales, where the company is headquartered, it also operated stores throughout China, expanded to Sri Lanka in August 2018. The first Oporto restaurant was founded in 1986 by António Cerqueira, an Australian of Portuguese descent, in North Bondi, New South Wales, Australia but was named Portuguese Style Bondi Charcoal Chicken. The'Oporto' name came from Portugal's second largest city. Oporto first opened a franchise store in 1995 and was named the fastest growing franchise in Australia in January 2005 by Business Review Weekly. In 2007 there were 100 locations in New South Wales, 14 in Queensland, 8 in Victoria, 5 in the Australian Capital Territory, 5 in South Australia and 6 in New Zealand; some of these restaurants are called Oporto Express and offer a smaller range of products – most this means they do not offer a breakfast menu.
Oporto opened their first store in the United Kingdom at London's Victoria Station in January 2009 although this store closed on the 18 October 2011, opened their first restaurant in the United States in Rancho Cucamonga, California on 25 February 2011. Oporto stores in the United States were all converted to Feisty Chicken Grill in 2013. There are now over 100 stores in operation in the world. Oporto has three types of Oporto store types. In July 2007, Quadrant Private Equity and Quick Service Restaurant Holdings now now as Craveable Brands purchased Oporto. In June 2011, Archer Capital acquired Quick Service Restaurant Holdings from Quadrant Private Equity for an estimated $450 million. On 26 March 2012 Oporto ceased trading in China. On 7 April 2013, Oporto's US franchisee closed its three outlets. In 2013, Oporto opened their first restaurant in Western Australia in South Perth on the corner of the Canning Highway and Berwick Street. Oporto has since increased to over 8 stores in the region.
Nando's – A Portuguese-style chicken restaurant of South African origin List of fast-food chicken restaurants List of restaurant chains in Australia Official website
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
Eagle Boys was an Australian fast food chain specialising in Italian-American cuisine, in particular pizza. The chain was acquired by Pizza Hut in November 2016 and was closed on the 1st of May 2017. Eagle Boys was founded in Albury, New South Wales by businessman Tom Potter in 1987. Since 1992, Eagle Boys national headquarters have been located in Queensland. In 2007 NBC Capital, a Queensland-based venture capital group, bought Eagle Boys from Potter. At the chain's peak, in 2013, more than 340 Eagle Boys stores were operating across Australia. Outlet numbers fell drastically between the end of 2013 and the end of 2014 to around 170. In July 2016, fewer than 130 stores remained open and administrators were brought in to the head office to identify restructuring options ahead of a potential sale of the business, although the move did not extend to franchisee-operated outlets. In November 2016, Pizza Hut announced to media; as at that date, 114 Eagle Boys stores operated throughout Australia. More than 340 Eagle Boys stores were operating across Australia at the pizza chain's peak, in 2013.
Outlet numbers fell drastically between the end of 2013 and the end of 2014 to around 170. At July 2014, Eagle Boys was the third largest pizza chain in Australia, with 12% share of Australia's pizza market. By the end of 2014, Eagle Boys' visitation rate dropped below that of Crust Pizza, fewer than 130 stores remained open; as at April 2016, Eagle Boys stores could be found in New South Wales, Northern Territory, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. The stores have a strong regional emphasis with most outlets located in non-metropolitan areas, including Bathurst and Mareeba; the first Eagle Boys store opened in Albury, New South Wales in 1987, a venture spearheaded by businessman Tom Potter in partnership with his mother, Barbara Potter, who guaranteed a $70,000 loan to enable him to open the store. The store was called "Beagle Boys" after the Disney Beagle Boys, but Potter dropped the'B' after a few months in operation, worrying that the naming may have been a copyright infringement.
Potter went on to become CEO of the chain. In 1989 Potter started recruiting franchisees. Eagle Boys' national headquarters were opened in 1992 in the Brisbane suburb of Annerley. Eagle Boys set up in New Zealand in 1996 when Stallone's Pizza owner Gavin Cook agreed to merge with Eagle Boys to provide an established base in the South Island. Rapid expansion saw the Eagle Boys chain grow to 54 national outlets in the country by early April 2000. In 2000, all New Zealand stores were sold to Restaurant Brands for NZ$28m and converted to Pizza Hut outlets; the company developed an express system "Eaglexpress" between 1999 and 2002, to serve two minute "express" pizzas between 5:30 and 8:00 pm, achieved by remaking their four most popular pizzas and keeping them in a warmer for sale. Unsold pizzas were discarded after 30 minutes. Between 2002, when the Eaglexpress concept was launched, 2003, sales at the chain rose by around 40%; the chain came to see the Eaglexpress two-minute pizza service and the its drive-through services as a "beachhead" to compete with its biggest fast-food competitors including Hungry Jack's and KFC.
In March 2007, Tom Potter handed his control of Eagle Boys on to NBC Capital, a Queensland-based venture capital group. He retained some shares in the company, worked in a consultancy role advising the chain on operations for 12 months. By 2008, Potter retained less than 10% of the vote for corporate decision making and was no longer involved in operations. In late 2007, Eagle Boys began trialing an online ordering system and announced plans to enable customers to order online from all of its stores by February 2008. By the end of 2008, the system was implemented. In July 2008, Eagle Boys entered into a deal to acquire the Pizza Haven chain across Australia; the deal saw Eagle Boys move into South Australia for the first time. Between July 2008 and June 2009, Eagle Boys opened 56 stores—the fastest growth the chain had experienced in its history. In February 2010, Eagle Boys was named in BRW Magazine's Fast Franchise list for the first time. By March 2011, Eagle Boys had more than 25 stores in Sydney.
It had overtaken Pizza Hut to become the second largest pizza maker in Australia. However, Pizza Hut regained second position by July 2014. CEO Todd Clayton departed Eagle Boys in 2012, he had been in the role since NBC Capital acquired a majority stake in 2007. At the time, the founder of NBC Bruce Scott stepped in as CEO. In July 2013, Eagle Boys commenced operations in Papua New Guinea. Worldwide, stores numbered over 330 by September 2013. On 3 October 2014 The Sydney Morning Herald reported that former franchisees asserted that the current franchisor, NBC Capital, had stopped print and media advertising since purchasing the business; the number of stores was reported to have halved from 340 locations. Franchise owners told media they were concerned at changes to the advertising mix, including the reduction of offline advertising activities. Revenue in 2014 fell to $17.4 million, down from $25.2 million in 2012 and $21.1 million in 2013. To capitalise on the benefits of cloud computing, Eagle Boys shifted its ordering system to Microsoft Azure in 2015.
Through providing improved website performance and uptime and providing more sophisticated performance metrics, the new hosting system should support more online orders, which the Eagle Boys IT chief says are worth 1.5 times the orders which are made in-store or by telephone. In May 2015, Eagle Boys announced it was aiming to expand with a plan for 50 outlets
Hog's Australia's Steakhouse
Hog's Australia's Steakhouse named Hog's Breath Cafe and known as Hog's Breath Saloon, is an Australian and international restaurant chain and franchise of steak house restaurants. The first Australian business restaurant model was opened in July 1989 at Airlie Beach, Queensland by Don Algie. In November the following year, a second store was opened in Mooloolaba. Additional locations followed with stores opening in Townsville and interstate Darwin, it purveys prime rib as its signature dish, slow-roasted for 18 hours. As of 2011 the Hog's Breath Company expanded overseas and has opened 75 Hog's Breath Cafes in 20 years, including Singapore and Thailand; as of December 2011, there were 69 outlets operating in Australia, 3 outlets in New Zealand, 2 outlets in Thailand and 1 in Singapore. Hog’s Breath Company controls the licensing and use of the Jamaica Joe's trademark in Australia and overseas. Hog’s Breath Company is embarking on further expansion in other Asian countries as well as the UK, Europe and North America.
The Hog’s Breath Australia web site identifies the company as being "Creators of restaurant and bar concepts for Australia and the world'", which some might consider ironic given the nature of the origin of the Australian operation. Hog's Breath Cafe celebrated 25 years in business in July 2014; the ‘Original Hog's Breath Saloon’ was established by Jerry Dorminy in Ft. Walton Beach, FL, in 1976. From the late 1980s, Dorminy has used the name ‘Hog's Breath Café’ in relation to the restaurant part of his business. In establishing the Australian operation Algie appropriated key elements of Dorminy’s business including the business name and logos/artwork. Jerry Dorminy’s association with Don Algie began in 1985 when he employed Algie to organise and promote a series of yacht races in the United States. In mid-1986, Dorminy visited Algie in Australia, during that visit Algie expressed interest in developing a bar and restaurant business in Australia. Dorminy subsequently asked Algie to register the business name ‘Hog's Breath Saloon’ in New South Wales, in his name.
Further discussions concerning the possibility of creating an operation in Australia are reported to have taken place in 1987 and 1988. Algie subsequently claimed that he wrote to Dorminy, saying that he intended to open a ‘Hog's Breath’ restaurant in Queensland. Dorminy denied receipt of that letter, asserted that he had told Algie that "he would not be authorised" to operate his own ‘Hog's Breath’ business in Australia. In July 1988, Algie applied on his own behalf to register the business names ‘Hog's Breath Saloon’ and ‘Hog's Breath Cafe’ in Queensland. Algie opened business as the ‘Hog's Breath Cafe’ at Airlie Beach in July 1989, in August 1989 he applied to register the first two ‘Hog's Breath’ trademarks. In the legal dispute that ensued, Dorminy’s primary argument was that Algie was not entitled to secure registration because the earlier relationship between himself and Algie gave rise to an obligation by Algie to act in his interest. For reasons set out in a detailed determination dated 30 June 1994, Helen Hardie, Assistant Registrar, declined the application by Dorminy to prevent Algie from registering five Hog’s Breath trademarks.
A September 2011 media report detailed a further related development. It stated that in 2006, American designer John Lamb commenced legal action against Hog’s Breath in the Federal Court of Perth. Before Justice Robert French on 22 June 2007, Lamb claimed he owned copyright to a cartoon of a pig known as the "Wave Hog Work", he said. Lamb alleged that, from 1996, companies controlled by a former worker at the Florida eatery had infringed his copyright in various ways including applying the pig logo to clothing related to the Hog’s Breath cafes in Australia. Hog's Breath subsequently agreed to pay Lamb inclusive of Lamb's legal fees. In April 2014, a story on A Current Affair claimed that Hog's Breath had engaged lawyers Finn Roche to demand that a small industrial area takeaway on the NSW Central Coast called "Hoggy's Takeaway" cease and desist using the name Hoggy's in their business name and branding; the owner, Sam Hogg, chose the name because of his surname. He subsequently received support from the public, with more than 14,000 people signing a petition to demand that Hog's Breath Cafe retract their legal threats.
Hog's Breath applied for the trademark Hoggy's Takeaway. List of restaurant chains in Australia and history List of steakhouses Official website
A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cakes and pies. Some retail bakeries are cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises. Baked goods have been around for thousands of years; the art of baking was developed early during the Roman Empire. It was a famous art as Roman citizens loved baked goods and demanded for them for important occasions such as feasts and weddings etc. Due to the fame and desire that the art of baking received, around 300 BC, baking was introduced as an occupation and respectable profession for Romans; the bakers began to prepare bread at home in an oven, using mills to grind grain into the flour for their breads. The oncoming demand for baked goods vigorously continued and the first bakers' guild was established in 168 BC in Rome; this drastic appeal for baked goods promoted baking all throughout Europe and expanded into the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers started selling them out on the streets.
This trend became common and soon, baked products were getting sold in streets of Rome, Germany and many more. This resulted in a system of delivering the goods to households, as the demand for baked breads and goods increased; this provoked the bakers to establish a place where people could purchase baked goods for themselves. Therefore, in Paris, the first open-air bakery of baked goods was developed and since bakeries became a common place to purchase delicious goods and get together around the world. By the colonial era, bakeries were viewed as places to gather and socialize. On July 7, 1928, a bakery in Chillicothe, Missouri introduced pre-cut bread using the automatic bread-slicing machine, invented by Otto Frederick Rohwedder. While the bread failed to sell, due to its "sloppy" aesthetic, the fact it went stale faster, it became popular. In World War II bread slicing machines were banned, as the metal in them was required for wartime use; when they were requisitioned, creating 100 tonnes of metal alloy, the decision proved unpopular with housewives.
World War II directly affected bread industries in the UK. Baking schools closed during this time so when the war did end there was an absence of skilled bakers; this resulted in new methods being developed to satisfy the world’s desire for bread. Methods like: adding chemicals to dough and specialised machinery; these old methods of baking were completely eradicated when these new methods were introduced and became industrialised. The old methods were seen as unnecessary and financially unsound, during this period there were not many traditional bakeries left; some bakeries provide services for special occasions or for people who have allergies or sensitivities to certain foods. Bakeries can provide a wide range of cakes designs such as sheet cakes, layer cakes, tiered cakes, wedding cakes. Other bakeries may specialize in traditional or hand made types of bread made with locally milled flour, without flour bleaching agents or flour treatment agents, baking what is sometimes referred to as artisan bread.
Grocery stores and supermarkets, in many countries, sell prepackaged or pre-sliced bread and other pastries. They can offer in-store baking and basic cake decoration. Nonetheless, many people still prefer to get their baked goods from a small artisanal bakery, either out of tradition, the availability of a greater variety of baked goods, or due to the higher quality products characteristic of the trade of baking. Media related to Bakeries at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of bakery at Wiktionary
Fast Eddys is a fast food and restaurant chain operating in Perth, Western Australia and New South Wales and in Adelaide, South Australia and Melbourne, Victoria. Fast Eddys was founded in 1979 at the west end of the Perth CBD, on the corner of Hay Street and Milligan Street by Christopher and Con Somas. In 2002 the company went with most of the stores closing down. In 2003 the company's former owner, Mark Galloway, took possession of the four remaining stores in Western Australia, it was most notable at the time of its establishment for being one of the few Perth restaurants open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week including public holidays. The restaurants are split up into two sections, a sit-down table service restaurant and a take away section; the take away section has similar food to the restaurant experience, however it is less expensive and tailored for the take-away market. The restaurants are decorated with various historic memorabilia such as old advertising signs and number plates; the flagship burger is the EddyBurger.
Other burgers include the Steakburger and the Super Hotdog. Other locations of Fast Eddys restaurants include Armadale. Fast Eddys takes its name from the Paul Newman fictional character Eddie Felson in the 1961 US drama film The Hustler. List of restaurant chains in Australia Poprzeczny, Joe. Food speeds down fast lane.. Business news - Perth, W. A. 15/3/2001, p. 4-5. Frommers Review of Fast Eddy's Cafe Perth