Mardān is a city in the Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Mardan is the second-largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, after the nearby city of Peshawar. Mardan is located in a region rich in archaeological sites. In 1962, the Sanghao Caves were discovered outside of Mardan, which yielded artifacts from the Middle Paleolithic period, over 30,000 years ago. Other sites in the immediate area have yielded evidence of human activity from the Upper Paleolithic period. Further excavations from the area around Jamal Garhi near Mardan recovered artifacts from the Mesolithic period; the area around Mardan formed part of the homeland of the Gandhara grave culture around 1800 BCE. The Gandharan grave culture appears to have been a Central Asian group that may represent part of the Indo-Aryan invasion into the subcontinent. Mardan formed part of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara. Rock edicts of Ashoka in nearby Shahbaz Garhi date from the Mauryan period in the mid-200s BCE, are written in the ancient Kharosthi script.
The nearby UNECO World Heritage Site of Takht-i-Bahi was established as a monastery around 46 CE. The Bakhshali Manuscript, which contains the earliest record of the use of the number 0 in the Indian Subcontinent, was found near Mardan in 1891, dates from the 3rd or 4th century CE; the nearby Kashmir Smast caves served Buddhist hermit monks, dates from the 4th to 9th century CE. During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, Mardan was not a scene of heavy fighting as many of the native troops had been disarmed by British forces. Mardan's famous Guides' Memorial was established in 1892 to honour fallen soldiers who fought during the 1879 Siege of the British Residency in Kabul; the city's Women's Hospital was established in 1906. In 1920, Mardan was visited by head of British armed forces in British India; until 1937, Mardan district was a part of Peshawar district, when it was elevated to the status of its own independent district. During the Viceroy's visit in 1946, large numbers of Mardan residents travelled to Peshawar to participate in a Muslim League rally in favour of Pakistan's establishment.
The Mardan Museum was established in 1991 to showcase the region's rich ancient history. The population of Mardan city and cantonment, according to the 2017 census, is 358,604. Mardan is the de facto headquarters of the Yousafzai tribe of Pashtuns. A significant number of Mohmand tribe members have settled in the city over the years; the population of the city over the years is shown in the table below. According to 1998 census, the total number of households in Mardan were 29,116; the total population was 245,926. The average household size was 8.45 while the average annual growth rate between 1981-1998 was 3.03. There was no public or private sector university in Mardan till 2009; the first public sector university, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan was established in 2009. In 2016, a public sector women university Women University Mardan started functioning while in 2017, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar Mardan campus was upgraded to full-fledge university and named University of Engineering and Technology Madan.
Bacha Khan Medical College, established in 2010, is the city only medical college. There is a campus of University of Agriculture, named as Agriculture university Ameer Mohammad Khan Campus Mardan. There are two Postgraduate colleges in Mardan, one each for boys and girls. Government Post Graduate College Mardan, established in 1952 while Government Post Graduate College for women Mardan was established in 1963. There are numerous private Schools and colleges for Boys and Girls in Mardan. Among them, the most renowned and famous is Fazal e Haq Mardan. Mardan is located in the south west of the district at 34°12'0N 72°1'60E and an altitude of 283 metres. Mardan is a district headquarter of Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Risalpur is located to the south, Charsadda is located to the west, Yar Hussain to the east and Takht Bahi & Katlang to the north, it is the 2nd largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while 19th largest city of Pakistan. With an influence from the local steppe climate, Mardan features a hot semi-arid climate.
The average temperature in Mardan is 22.2 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 559 mm. October is the driest month with an average rainfall of 12 mm, while the wettest month is August, with an average 122 mm of precipitation. June is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 33.2 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 10.0 °C. Mardan is part of a growing industrial centre, is home to textile and edible oil mills, as well as one of the largest sugar mills in South Asia. An economic zone is planned as a part of the multi-billion dollar China-Pakistan Economic Corridor near Rashakai. Although Rashakai is part of Nowshera District, its proximity with Mardan is expected to directly benefit the city In 2006, Mardan district government with the help of Government of Pakistan created a sports complex in Mardan city; the complex, Mardan Sports Complex, has facilities for all major sports such as cricket, field hockey and basketball. The swimming pool facility was built in 2011 while an international standard hockey turf was constructed at the sports complex at the cost Rs.67.69 million in 2016.
Pakistan international football player Mansoor Khan is from Mardan. Mardan District Mardan Tehsil Baghdada Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan Women University Mardan Rustam Mardan Takht Bhai Mardan mardan.com website
Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be cut and sewn, which has made it a valuable building and writing material, since pre-historic times. Today, birch bark remains a popular type of wood for various handicrafts and arts. Birch bark contains substances of medicinal and chemical interest; some of those products have fungicidal properties that help preserve bark artifacts, as well as food preserved in bark containers. Removing birch bark from live trees is harmful to tree health and should be avoided. Instead, it can be removed easily from the trunk or branches of dead wood, by cutting a slit lengthwise through the bark and pulling or prying it away from the wood; the best time for collection is spring or early summer, as the bark is of better quality and most removed. Removing the outer layer of bark from the trunk of a living tree may not kill it, but weakens it and makes it more prone to infections.
Removal of the inner layer, the phloem, kills the tree by preventing the flow of sap to the roots. To prevent it from rolling up during storage, the bark kept pressed flat. Birch bark can be cut with a sharp knife, worked like cardboard. For sharp bending, the fold should be scored first with a blunt stylus. Fresh bark can be worked. Birch bark was a valuable construction material in any part of the world where birch trees were available. Containers like wrappings, baskets, boxes, or quivers were made by most societies well before pottery was invented. Other uses include: In various Asian countries birch bark was used to make storage boxes, tinder, roof coverings and waterproof covering for composite bows, such as the Mongol bow, the Chinese bow, Korean bow, Turkish bows, Assyrian bow, the Perso-Parthian bow....etc. It is still being used. More than one variety of birch is used. In North America, the native population used birch bark for canoes, scrolls, ritual art, torches, musical instruments and more.
In Scandinavia and Finland, it was used as the substratum of sod roofs and birch-bark roofs, for making boxes and buckets, fishing implements, shoes. In Russia, many birch bark manuscripts have survived from the Middle Ages. Birch bark knife handles are popular tools to be made currently. In India, birch-bark, along with dried palm leaves, were the primary writing supports before the widespread advent of paper in the second millennium CE; the oldest known Buddhist manuscripts, from Afghanistan, were written on birch bark. Neanderthals used birch bark to make a tar adhesive through the process of dry or destructive distillation. Birch bark makes an outstanding tinder, as the inner layers will stay dry through heavy rainstorms. Mazinibaganjigan Wiigwaasabak Wiigwaasi-makak Magewappa The Algonquin Birchbark Canoe, by David Gidmark. McPhee, The Survival of the Bark Canoe, Farrar and Giroux, New York, 1975. Adney, Edwin Tappan and Howard Chapelle, Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America, Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
2007, 2014. Jennings, Bark Canoes: The Art and Obsession of Tappan Adney, Firefly Books Ltd. 2004. Behne, C. Ted, The Travel Journals of Tappan Adney, 1887-1890, Estate of Tappan Adney, 2010. Goode, F. W. Ojibwe Birch Bark Canoes: Anishinaabe Wigwassi-Jiimaan, Beaver Bark Canoes, 2012. Birchbark articles from the NativeTech site. Birch and Birch Bark, an article by John Zasada at a University of Minnesota site. Birch Bark Canoe page on the site of the Algonquins of Pikwàganagàn. César's Bark Canoe—Watch a documentary on how to build a Birch bark canoe Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Digital Image Collection at Marquette University. Wiigwaasi-Jiimaan: These Canoes Carry Culture—Short documentary featuring the building of an Anishinaabe-Ojibwe birchbark canoe in Wisconsin
Takht-i-Bahi mispronounced as Takht-i-Bhai, is an Indo-Parthian archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The site is considered among the most imposing relics of Buddhism in all of Gandhara, has been "exceptionally well-preserved."The Buddhist monastery was founded in the 1st century CE, was in use until the 7th century. The complex is regarded by archaeologists as being representative of the architecture of Buddhist monastic centers from its era. Takht-i-Bahi was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980; the word Takht-i-Bahi may have different explanations. Local believes that site got its name from two wells on the springs nearby. In Persian, Takht means "top" or "throne" while bahi means "spring" or "water"; when combined together its meaning is Spring from the Top or High Spring, there were two springs on the top of mountains. Another meaning suggested; the ruins are located about 15 kilometers from Mardan in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province.
A small fortified city, dating from the same era, sits nearby. The ruins sit near a modern village known by the same name, it is around 2 km from village bazar. The surrounding area is famous for sugar cane, maize and orchard cultivation. There are four main areas of the Takht Bahi complex: The Stupa Court, a cluster of stupas located in a central courtyard; the monastic chambers, consisting of individual cells arranged around a courtyard, assembly halls, a dining area. A temple complex, consisting of stupas and similar to the Stupa Court, but of construction; the Tantric monastic complex, which consists of small, dark cells with low openings, which may have been used for certain forms of Tantric meditation. Additional structures on the site may have served as residences or meeting halls, or for secular purposes. All of the buildings on the site are constructed from local stone, are mortared with lime and mud. Archaeologists have divided the history of the complex into four periods, beginning in the 1st century BCE.
The monastic complex was founded in the early 1st century CE. It is proven by an inscriptions found bearing the name of Gondophares. After Gondophares, the place fell under control of the first Kushan king; this first era continued until the 2nd century CE, is associated with another Kushan king Kanishka, as well as early Parthian and Kushan kings. The second construction period, which included the creation of the Stupa Court and assembly hall, took place during the 3rd and 4th centuries CE. A third construction period, associated with the Kushan dynasty and the Kidara Kushana rulers, occurred during the 4th and 5th centuries; the final construction period, which saw the creation of the so-called Tantric complex, took place in the 6th and 7th centuries CE, was overseen by invading Hun rulers. Despite numerous invasions into the area, Takht-i-Bahi's hilltop location seems to have protected it from destruction, unlike many comparable early Buddhist monastic complexes; the complex was occupied continuously until Late Antiquity, when charitable funding for the site ended.
The first modern historical reference to these ruins was made in 1836 by the French Officer, the Buddhist remains are in a village named Mazdoorabad. Explorations and excavations on this site began in 1864. A significant number of objects from the site can be found in the British Museum; the site underwent a major restoration in the 1920s. The villages of Thordher, Lund Khwar, Sher Garh, Saroo Shah, Sehri-Bahlol, Mazdoorabad, Fazl-e-abad, Hathian, Pirsaddi and Mashal Khan Kalai are other historical places in the vicinity of Takht-Bhai; the most historical location in the era is Sehri Bahlol. This Buddhist monastery is situated on Malakand Road; the word "Sehri-Bahlol" has been explained by various people in different ways. Local people claim that this is a Hindko word meaning "Sir Bahlol", a prominent political and religious leader of the area. However, the name is not as old as the village of Sehri-Bahlol. Meager economic conditions, poor educational facilities, the nefarious effect of dealers of antiquities result in severe hazard for the proper preservation of archaeological heritage in minor, less controlled sites.
List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan List of museums in Pakistan Ranigat Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol - UNESCO World Heritage List UNESCO Periodic Report Summary - Includes a map of the complex. Map of Gandhara archeological sites, from the Huntington Collection, Ohio State University
The Bakhshali manuscript is an ancient Indian mathematical text written on birch bark, found in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, Mardan. It is "the oldest extant manuscript in Indian mathematics." For some portions a carbon-date was proposed of AD 224–383 while for other portions a carbon-date as late as AD 885–993 in a recent study, criticized by specialists on methodological grounds. It contains the earliest known Indian use of a zero symbol, it is written in Sanskrit with significant influence of local dialects. The manuscript was unearthed from a field in 1881, by a peasant in the village of Bakhshali, near Mardan, now in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; the first research on the manuscript was done by A. F. R. Hoernlé. After his death, it was examined by G. R. Kaye, who edited the work and published it as a book in 1927; the extant manuscript is incomplete, consisting of seventy leaves of birch bark, whose intended order is not known. It is in the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford, is said to be too fragile to be examined by scholars.
The manuscript is a compendium of rules and illustrative examples. Each example is stated as a problem, the solution is described, it is verified that the problem has been solved; the sample problems are in verse and the commentary is in prose associated with calculations. The problems involve arithmetic and geometry, including mensuration; the topics covered include fractions, square roots and geometric progressions, solutions of simple equations, simultaneous linear equations, quadratic equations and indeterminate equations of the second degree. The manuscript is written in an earlier form of Śāradā script, a script, known for having been in use from the 8th to the 12th century in the northwestern part of India, such as Kashmir and neighbouring regions; the language of the manuscript, though intended to be Sanskrit, was influenced in its phonetics and morphology by a local dialect or dialects, some of the resultant linguistic peculiarities of the text are shared with Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit.
The overlying dialects, though sharing affinities with Apabhraṃśa and with Old Kashmiri, have not been identified precisely. It is probable that most of the rules and examples had been composed in Sanskrit, while one of the sections was written in a dialect, it is possible that the manuscript might be a compilation of fragments from different works composed in a number of language varieties. Hayashi admits that some of the irregularities are due to errors by scribes or may be orthographical. A colophon to one of the sections states that it was written by a brahmin identified as "the son of Chajaka", a "king of calculators," for the use of Vasiṣṭha's son Hasika; the brahmin might have been the author of the commentary as well as the scribe of the manuscript. Near the colophon appears a broken word rtikāvati, interpreted as the place Mārtikāvata mentioned by Varāhamihira as being in northwestern India, the supposed place where the manuscript might have been written; the manuscript is a compilation of mathematical rules and examples, prose commentaries on these verses.
A rule is given, with one or more examples, where each example is followed by a "statement" of the example's numerical information in tabular form a computation that works out the example by following the rule step-by-step while quoting it, a verification to confirm that the solution satisfies the problem. This is a style similar to that of Bhāskara I's commentary on the gaṇita chapter of the Āryabhaṭīya, including the emphasis on verification that became obsolete in works; the rules are algorithms and techniques for a variety of problems, such as systems of linear equations, quadratic equations, arithmetic progressions and arithmetico-geometric series, computing square roots dealing with negative numbers, measurement such as of the fineness of gold, etc. Scholar Takao Hayashi has compared the text of the manuscript with several Sanskrit texts, he mentions. He discusses similar passages in Ramayana, Lokaprakasha of Kshemendra etc; some of the mathematical rules appear in Aryabhatiya of Aryabhatta, Aryabhatiyabhashya of Bhaskara I, Patiganita and Trairashika of Sridhara, Ganitasarasamgraha of Mahavira, Lilavati and Bijaganita of Bhaskara II.
An unnamed manuscript than Thakkar Pheru, in the Patan Jain library, a compilation of mathematical rules from various sources resembles the Bakhshali manuscript, contains data in an example which are strikingly similar. The Bakshali manuscript uses numerals with a place-value system, using a dot as a place holder for zero; the dot symbol came to be called the shunya-bindu. References to the concept are found in Subandhu's Vasavadatta, dated between 385 and 465 by the scholar Maan Singh. Prior to the 2017 carbon dating -- which, has in the meantime been refuted, see below under Date -- a 9th-century inscription of zero on the wall of a temple in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, was thought to be the oldest Indian use of a zero symbol. In 2017, three samples from the manuscript were thought to come from three different centuries, from AD 224–383, 680–779, 885–993, on the basis of a study involving radiocarbon dating. If the dates were accepted, it is not known how fragments from different centuries came to be packaged together.
A detailed reconsideration of all relevant evidence regarding the date of the Bakhshali manuscript, led
South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia; the current territories of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka form South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an economic cooperation organisation in the region, established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2, 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.
Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, is home to a vast array of people. In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus and Sikhs, it has the largest population of Muslims in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as over 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists. The total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Aside from the central region of South Asia part of the British Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries. Myanmar is included in Southeast Asia by others; some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of South Asia or the Middle East. The current territories of Bangladesh and Pakistan, which were the core of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947, form the central region of South Asia, in addition to Afghanistan, a British protectorate until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war.
The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are included as well. Myanmar is added, by various deviating definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well; the common concept of South Asia is inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. Additionally Burma was administered as part of the Raj until 1937, but is now considered a part of Southeast Asia and is a member state of ASEAN; the 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining Union of India or Dominion of Pakistan. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India,The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries – Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka – and added Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007.
China and Myanmar have applied for the status of full members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj – Nepal, Bhutan. Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war; the World Factbook, based on geo-politics and economy defines South Asia as comprising Afghanistan, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement incorporated Afghanistan in 2011, the World Bank grouping of countries in the region includes all eight members comprising South Asia and SAARC as well, the same goes for the United Nations Children's Fund; the United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions include all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia, along with Iran only for statistical purposes. Population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia.
Maldives, in view of its characteristics, was admitted as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network only in principle. The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region includes only the original seven signatories of SAARC; the British Indian Ocean Territory is connected to the region by a publication of Jane's for security considerations. The region may include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang; the inclusion of Myanmar in South Asia is without consensus, with many considering it a part of Southeast Asia and others including it within South Asia. Afghanistan was of importance to the British colonial empire after the Second Anglo-Afghan War over 1878–1880. Afghanistan remained a British protectorate until 1919, when a treaty with Vladimir Lenin included the granting of independe
Subahdar was one of the designations of a governor of a Subah during the Mughal era of India, alternately designated as Sahib-i-Subah or Nazim. The word, Subahdar is of Persian origin; the Subahdar was the head of the Mughal provincial administration. He was assisted by the provincial Diwan, Faujdar, Qazi, Waqa-i-Navis and Patwari; the Subahdars were appointed from the Mughal princes or the officers holding the highest mansabs. A nazim is the coordinator of towns in Pakistan. Nazim is the title in Urdu of the chief elected official of a local government in Pakistan, such as a district, union council, or village council. A deputy mayor is known as a Naib nazim; the word naib in Urdu means "assistant" or "deputy" hence Naib nazim is similar in function to a deputy mayor. He is custodian of the house; the name, used for the president of Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba, the Islamic Union of Students in Pakistan, is Nazim-e-ala. The nazim-e-ala is elected for one year, after completing that tenure, all the members of IJT who are called elect a new one.
The "chief nazim," or district nazim, is elected by the nazims of Union Councils, Union Councillors, Tehsil Nazims, who themselves are elected directly by the votes of the local public. Pakistan had a system inherited from the time of British rule, in which a mayor was the head of a district. Under the Local Government Act, the role of the nazim became distinct from that of a mayor, with more power; the nazim system was introduced after the commissionerate system, imposed during British rule, was lifted by the government of Pakistan. Now there is no commissioner for any of the divisions, deputy commissioner for the districts, or assistant commissioners, since the Local Government act was imposed in the country in 2001. One exception, however, is Islamabad, the federal capital, where the commissionerate system remains in effect. In 2009, the new government restored the commissionerate system in the divisions but the nazims remain in power. A Nazim is empowered to decide criminal cases; the Nazim is the lowliest of elected officials in Pakistan
Katlang is a tehsil of Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is situated about 19 km north of Mardan, bordering with District Malakand, it is surrounded by canals in north. "Kooh-e-Rama"is located in the East of Katlang, whereas "Madhu Dhere" is in the West, the tail of Kooh-e-Rama the historic site of old civilization are located called "kafaro Kothay" by the locals shows deep relation of Katlang with the Ghandhara Civilization. In the main village of Katlang two muhallahs are named as "Odeeg Ram" and "Darband" booth are of Hindu origin. A village with same name of "Odeeg Ram" is located in the Swat valley near Mingora whereas "Darband" in Hazara... Dag Bangla Katlang was established in 1913, Primary school Katlang in 1916 and Police Station of Katlang was established in 2017, it shows that Katlang was a developed area in the British India. In the year 1966 Katlang got its first Hospital. Katlang became tehsil in February 2010, when NWFP government announced the establishment of new tehsil in Mardan.
Katlang has a busy market with most of the facilities available. Katlang fair, held on Friday, is popular among the residents of Katlang and the surroundings. Katlang has a government higher secondary school, a degree college and multiple other private schools and colleges; the union councils of Katlang Tehsil are Katlang I, Katlang II, Jamal Ghari, Sawal Dher, Katti Garhi, Dheri Lekpanni, Shamozai Babuzai, Kohi Barmol, Allo and Baizo Kharkai. There are different groups of pashtun tribes in katlang. Group of tribes include Yusufzai, Kakar, Uthmakhel, Fatah Khel, Katti Khel, Babar Khel, Awankhel X-Daman khel and others. Till 2002 Katlang had One provincial Assembly seat called PF 21, In party-based election held in 1988 this seat won by Munwaar Khan of Katlang and won again in 1990. After that It became a permanent seat of ANP till 1997. Today Katlang is divided in two constituencies, PK 28 and 29. PK 29 constituency consists of union councils Katlang 1 and 11, Kati Garhi, Jamal Garhi, Sawal Dher and five union councils of Sodham Rustum.
Mahmoti tribe is the largest tribe in union councils Katlang 1 and 11. Katlang bazar and its surrounding area belongs to Mahmoti tribe. Mahmoti tribe is considered to be the original inhabitant of Katlang Tehsil. All other tribes are considered to be migrated to Katlang from other parts of KPK. Mahmoti tribe is considered to be the descendants of great warrior and leader Mahmud of Ghazni of Afghanistan. Khan Bahadur Mohammad Akbar Khan of Katlang is considered to be the first chief of Mahmoti tribe, it is believed that the Upper Swat Canal was dug by Khan Bahadur Mohammad Akbar Khan to irrigate the lands of Katlang. Due to this canal, now the land of Katlang is an irrigated land giving flourishing crops to the people of the area. A sports groung was constructed by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government and was inaugurated on 16 May 2017, it was constructed at a cost of Rs. 14.5 million. This is spread over 400 kanals of area; the population of Katlang Tehsil, according 2017 consensus, is 343,144 while according 1998 consensus of the area covering current Katlang Tehsil, it was 221,546.
In Khan Bahadur Mohammad Akbar Khan's children one named Chairman Motabar Khan Of Shero Mashal Khan was a prominent political figure in President Ayub Khan's era in the 1960s. After his death, He was followed by Late Yarqand Khan in leading the Mahmoti tribe. Nowadays Motabar Khan and Yraqand Khan's nephew and great grandson of Khan Bahadur Mohammad Akbar Khan named Fazle Raziq Khan s/o late Haji Muqadar Khan of Shero Mashal Khan Kalley is a political figure of Katlang, he is a leader of PML and contested the last general election on Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz ticket. Fazle Raziq Khan is senior vice president of the Islahi Jirga Mardan. Wali Akbar khan S/O Mutabar Khan of Tazagram was previous candidate of Mazdoor Kisan Party of PF-28 in 1990 and contested election of Pk-28 in 2002 from PML and nowadays he is the Provincial Secretory General of Pakistan Awami Tehreek. Azim-U-din khan chairman District Zakat comity Mardan belonging to Tazagramm. Muhammad Iqbal khan of Dheri was previously elected from pk-28 and JUI-F candidate Akhtar ali.
Gohar shaha Bacha of ANP is member provincial assembly from pk-28. Rahimullah Yousafzai belongs to shamozai union council of katlang. Khudaye-khidmatghar Madad Khan of Katlang was a Pashtun nationalist from union council Dheri. Principal Qazi Aslam khan, ex-candidate NA-10 belongs to Katlang, a renowned reformer, social worker and educationist; the people of Katlang are conservative but they are humanist. The people of Katlang are accommodative, it is believed that people belonging to different sects and religions lived in this area before partition. Pushtoon's centuries old traditions and culture can be seen in the wide villages of Katlang. One such great tradition of Pashtun culture is Hujra. According to an reports, there are 9 million carats of pink topaz in Mardan, it is believed that Katlang's topaz is equivalent to its Brazilian variety in standard but many rating it of higher quality. It is as hard as diamond, it is estimated Mingora emerald and Katlang topaz can fetch prices up to Rs20,000 per carat but the prices can increase with their weight and beauty.
Constructed by the British government in 1909, through this bridge the water of swat river passes and enters to tonal and reaches to rustum. A 4 feet pavement is provided at each side of the bridge on which the people of the