Shahaji II of the Bhonsle dynasty of the Marathas, was the Maharaja of Kolhapur between 1947 and 1949. Before adoption to the Gadi of Kolhapur, he was the Maharaja of Dewas State between 1937 and 1947, when he abdicated, he was the first Maharaja of Kolhapur to be adopted from the Puar dynasty. He was the son of Maharaja Tukoji Rao III Puar of Dewas Senior, his grandson Shahu II from his eldest daughter succeeded him as the titular Maharaja of Kolhapur. Maratha Empire List of Maratha dynasties and states List of Indian princely states Krishnajirao III Tukojirao IV Vikram Singh Rao II Puar Dhar State
Pralhad Keshav Atre
Prahlād Keshav Atre, popularly known as Āchārya Atre, was a multi-faceted Indian figure. He was a prominent Marathi writer, a poet, an educationist, a newspaper founder–editor of Maratha, a political leader, a movie producer–director–script writer and above all, a noted orator, his Marathi film, Shyamchi Aai won the 1954 National Film Award for Best Feature Film. Atre wrote seven plays. All of them received high public acclaim, his comedy-play, Moruchi Mavshi was adapted into Hindi film, Aunty No. 1, starring Govinda and Raveena Tandon. His movie Mahatma Phule received the President's Silver Medal. Atre's two autobiographical works, Mi Kasā Jhālo and Karheche Pāni received much public acclaim. Atre was the founder–editor of four Marathi newspapers. Two of them had a short life, but the other two and Navayug, ran for many years with a large circulation. Member of Local Municipal Board of Pune during 1936–1938. Member of Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti during 1956–60. Member of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha from Dadar constituency 1962–1967However his ambition of becoming a member of the Indian Parliament could not be fulfilled as he lost these elections.
Plays Sāshtāng Namaskār Gharābāher Bhramāchā Bhopalā Udyāchā Sansār Lagnāchi Bedi Moruchi Māwashi a Marathi comedy play To Mi Navhech Novels and Essays Chāngunā Battāshi Wa Itar Kathā Mahātmā Jyotibā Phule Suryāsta Samādhiwaril Ashru Kelyāne Deshātan Atre Uwāch Lalit Wāngmaya Hashā Āni Tālyā Poetry zenduuchi Phule Autobiographical Works Karheche Pāni Mi Kasā Jhālo Movies Brahmachari Shyāmchi Aai Premveer Dharmveer Brandichi Bātali Paayaachi Daasi. Producer. Mahātmā Phule Parinde Journalism Founder/Editor of Sāptāhik Navyug and Tukārām Evening newspaper Jai Hind Daily Marāthā President of 27th Maharashatra Sahitya Sammelan at Nashik President of 38th Natya Sammelan at Belgaon President of 10th Maharashatra Patrakar Sammelan President of Regional Sahitya Sammelan at Baroda and Gwalior In his honor there is an Acharya atre bhavan in Saswad National Film Awards 1st National Film Awards – President's Gold Medal for the All India Best Feature Film – Shyamchi Aai 2nd National Film Awards – President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Marathi – Mahatma Phule Prahlad Keshav Atre, by A. N. Pednekar.
Sahitya Akademi Publications. ISBN 81-260-1570-5. Pralhad Keshav Atre on IMDb Prahlad Keshav Atre
Deshastha Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin subcaste from the Indian state of Maharashtra and northern area of the state of Karnataka. The word Deshastha derives from the Sanskrit deśa and stha translating to "residents of the country"; the valleys of the Krishna and the Godavari rivers, a part of Deccan plateau adjacent to the Western Ghats, are collectively termed the Desha – the original home of the Deshastha Brahmins. Over the millennia, the community produced the eighth century Sanskrit scholar Bhavabhuti, the thirteenth century Varkari saint and philosopher Dnyaneshwar, his brother and guru Nivruttinath, his sister Muktabai, his brother Sopan, it produced other saints like Samarth Ramdas and Eknath. Traditionally, Deshastha Brahmins as big landholders had enjoyed a higher ritual status in Maharashtra. Deshasthas have occupied a core place in Maharashtrian politics and culture from the beginning of the Maharashtra's recorded history. Occupying high offices in the state and other offices at various levels of administration, they were recipients of state honours and more land grants of various types.
The Maharashtrian Brahmins are about 10% of the population in Maharashtra. 60 percent of Maharashtrian Brahmins are Deshastha Brahmins Deshastha Brahmins fall under the Pancha Dravida Brahmin classification of the Brahmin community in India. Along with the Karhade and Konkanastha Brahmins, they are referred to as Maharashtrian Brahmins, which denotes those Brahmin subcastes of the Deccan Plateau which have a regional significance in Maharashtra. Deshastha Brahmins are further classified in two major sub-sects, the Deshastha Rigvedi and the Deshastha Yajurvedi, who earlier used to inter-dine but not inter-marry but now intermarriages between the two sub-groups is common; these sub-sects are based on the Veda they follow. The Yajurvedis are further classified into two groups called the Kanavas; the Madhyandins follow the Madhyandin branch of the Shukla Yajurveda. The word Madhyandin is a fusion of two words din which mean middle and day respectively, they are so called. Some Yajurvedi Deshasthas follow the'Apastamba' subdivision of Krishna Yajurveda.
The Yajurvedi Madhyandin and Yajurvedi Kannava Brahmins have been colloquially being referred to as Deshastha Yajurvedi Madhyandin and Deshastha Yajurvedi Kannava, although not all have traditionally lived or belonged to the Desh. The Deshastha Rigvedi Brahmins are treated as a separate and distinct caste from the Yajurvedi Madhyandina and Kannavas Brahmins by several authors, including Malhotra and Iravati Karve. Deshastha Rigvedi Brahmins are endogomous group which include families from two difference linguistic regions. Deshastha Rigvedi Brahmins include some families that speak Marathi and some speak Kannada, majority of marriages happen within the families of same language but the marriages between Marathi and Kannada speaking families do happen often. Deshasthas have produced a number of acharyas; these seats of learning spread the teachings of the vedas, smritis and Advaita and Dvaita philosophies all over India. This brings out the fact that deshasthas have Smathas as well as Madhwas among them.
Deshashtas who are followers of Madhvacharya are known as Deshastha Madhwa Brahmins or Deshastha Madhwas and the followers of Adi Shankara are known as Deshastha Smartha Brahmins or Deshastha Smarthas. The Deshastha Madhwa Brahmins in the South India have traditionally been bilingual in Marathi and Kannada, Telugu or Tamil; the valleys of the Krishna and Godavari rivers, the plateaus of the Western Ghats, are collectively called the Desha – the original home of the Deshastha Brahmins. The Deshastha Brahmins are distributed all through the state of Maharashtra, ranging from villages to urban areas. Deshastha settled outside Maharashtra, such as in the cities of Indore in Madhya Pradesh and those of Chennai and Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, which were a part of or were influenced by the Maratha Empire; the Deshastha Brahmins of Baroda in Gujarat are immigrants who came from the Deccan for state service, their presence has been recorded in the Bijapur, Gulbarga, Bidar, Raichur and Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka.
In Andhra Pradesh, the Deshastha Brahmins have settled in various parts in the cities of Anantapur, Tirupati, Hyderabad. In Coastal Andhra, Deshastha Brahmins settled in Guntur district; the military settlers included Brahmins of different sub-castes and by reason of their isolation from their distant home, the sub-divisions which separated these castes in their mother-country were forgotten, they were all welded together under the common name of Deshasthas. The Brahmin and the Maratha migrants migrated, in the 17th and 18th centuries, to Tanjore and other regions of present day Tamil nadu and andhra pradesh, from the Desh region of Maharashtra, but till today maintain their separate identities. Today's Marathi speaking population in Tanjore are descendants of these Marathi speaking people; the isolation from their homeland has made them culturally and linguistically alien to Brahmins in Maharashtra. The word Deshastha comes from the Sanskrit words Desha and Stha, which mean inland or country and resident respectively.
Fused together, the two words mean "residents of the country". Deshastha are the Maharashtrian Brahmin community with the longest known history, making them the original and the oldest Hindu Brahmin sub-caste from Maharashtra; the Deshastha community may be as old as the Vedas, as vedic literature describes people stro
Krishnaswami Venkataraman FRS, popularly known as KV, was an Indian organic chemist and the director of National Chemical Laboratory, Pune. He was known for the demonstration of an organic chemical reaction involving 2-acetoxyacetophenones which came to be known as the Baker–Venkataraman rearrangement and for his contributions in developing NCL into one of the leading research centres in organic chemistry, he was an elected fellow of several science academies which included the Royal Society of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, USSR Academy of Sciences, Chemical Society, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy. The Government of India awarded him the Padma Bhushan, the third highest Indian civilian award, in 1961. Krishnaswami Venkataraman was born on June 7, 1901 in Madras, in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu, to P. S. Krishnaswami, a civil engineer, Sanskrit scholar and the translator of Valmiki Ramayana into Tamil, as the middle-born of his three sons.
His brothers were K. Swaminathan, a professor of English, the chief editor of the collected works of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Krishnaswami Srinivas Sanjivi, a noted medical doctor who founded Voluntary Health Services and is considered by many to be the father of the primary health care movement in India, he studied chemistry at Presidency College and obtained his MA from Madras University in 1923. Subsequently, he moved to England where he joined the University of Manchester on a scholarship from the Government of Tamil Nadu and obtained MSc in colour chemistry, he remained in England for his doctoral research, along with another noted chemist, T. R. Seshadri, at the laboratory of Robert Robinson which earned him a PhD and a DSc from the University of Manchester. On his return to India in 1927, he worked at the Indian Institute of Science as a research fellow for a year and in 1928, joined Forman Christian College, Lahore, he stayed in Lahore until 1934 when he joined the newly formed University Department of Chemical Technology of the University of Bombay as a reader and became a full Professor of Chemical Engineering in 1936.
In 1938, he was appointed as the head of the department and as the director in 1943, thus becoming the first Indian director of the Institute. After retiring from UDCT in 1957, he became the third director of the National Chemical Laboratory, the first Indian director to hold the post, he served as the director of NCL until 1966, but continued his association with the laboratory eve after his retirement. Venkataraman married Shakunthala at the age of nineteen; the couple had Dharma Kumar, who went on to become a noted economic historian. Lovraj Kumar, an Indian civil servant and a former secretary of the ministries of Petroleum and Steel, was his son-in-law and Radha Kumar, a noted author, historian and academic was his granddaughter. Venkataraman died on May 1981 at New Delhi, survived by his wife and daughter. One of the major scientific achievements of Venkataraman was his experiments with 2-acetoxyacetophenones when he demonstrated, along with Wilson Baker, English organic chemist, that the compound transformed into o-hydroxydibenzoylmethanes and to flavones which came to be known as Baker-Venkataraman transformation.
This process, a variant of Allan–Robinson reaction, is in use for the synthesis of flavones and chromones. Through his experiments with Artocarpus heterophyllus known as Jackfruit, he was able to isolate artocarpanone, a tyrosinase inhibitor, as well as eight flavones and he isolated similar flavones from Morus alba; these experiments helped establish the taxonomical relationship between the two species. Shortly after the Second World War, Venkataraman was invited for a visit IG Farben, a German dyestuff manufacturing company, this gave him an opportunity to study the international dyestuff industry, he collected data, compied and published as an 8-volume book, The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, considered by many as a seminal work on dye chemistry. He submitted a report to the Government of India for the development of dyestuff and intermediaries industry in India, known as the Pai/Venkataraman report which paved way for the development of the industry in the country, earning him the moniker, the father of the Indian dyestuff industry.
Another of Venkataraman's contributions was his work on lac pigments. He focused his research on the chemistry of lacciac acid and on other anthraquinonoid insect pigments. With the help of his findings, he proposed revised structures for kermasic acid and ceroalbolinic acid, he was the first scientist in India to use X-ray crystallographers for finding solutions to problems of organic structure. During his tenure at UDCT, Venkataraman was instrumental in starting several courses chemical technology, combining pure science and technology, he guided around 85 students in their doctoral research which included such notable chemists as B. D. Tilak, B. S. Joshi, Nitya Anand and A. V. Rama Rao, his contributions are reported in the development of National Chemical Laboratory into one of World's leading research centre in dyestuff chemistry. He sat in the editorial boards of many journals which included Tetrahedron, Tetrahedron Letters and Indian Journal of Chemistry. Besides The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, he edited another 612-page book, The Analytical Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes and these nine books remain reference texts in the discipline.
Besides, he published 271 scientific articles. Venkataraman served as the president of the Indi
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin
Purushottam Laxman Deshpande
Purushottam Lakshman Deshpande, popularly known by his initials or as P. L. Deshpande, was a Marathi writer and humorist from Maharashtra, India, he was an accomplished film and stage actor, script writer, composer, musician and orator. He was referred to as "Maharashtra's beloved personality". Deshpande's works have been translated into several languages including Kannada. Purushottam was born in Gamdevi Area in Mumbai in a Gaud Saraswat Brahmin family to Laxman Trimbak Deshpande and Laxmibai Laxman Deshpande, his maternal grandfather, Vaman Mangesh Dubhashi, was a connoisseur of literature. He had translated Rabindranath Tagore's Gitanjali into Marathi under the title "Abhang Gitanjali"; the family used to stay at Proctor road, Grant Road. His family moved to Jogeshwari within Mumbai where he stayed at the newly formed Saraswati Baug Colony until the age of 8 years, his first 8 years and Saraswati Baug is described in the story titled "Balpanicha Kaal Sukhacha" in his book Purchundi. The family moved to Vile Parle.
Deshpande studied at Parle Tilak Vidyalaya. He attended Ismail Yusuf College after high school and Government law college for LLB, he attended Fergusson College in Pune and obtained his Bachelors in Arts, in 1950 and obtained his Masters in Arts from Willingdon college,sangli He took lessons in playing harmonium from Dattopant Rajopadhye of Bhaskar Sangitalaya. His first wife died soon after the wedding in the early 1940s. On 12 June 1946, Deshpande married Sunita Thakur. Thakur was to go on to become an accomplished writer in her own right; the couple did not have any children. Both Deshpande and his wife served as teachers in Mumbai, he worked for some years as a college professor in Rani Parvati Devi College Belgaum and Kirti College, Mumbai. He worked for newly founded Doordarshan, the state owned Indian TV, he was the first person to interview the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on Indian television. He was seconded to the BBC for a year-long training. After which he spent some time in West Germany.
It was this specific period and stays in these countries that his travelogue "Apoorvai" was to be based upon. His other travelogue include ”’’ Poorvaranga" and Jave Tyanchya Desha. Pu La Deshpande was a proficient Hindustani classical musician, he went on to gain fame as an author, screenplay writer, director, music director and singer. He participated in several philanthropist activities Deshpande died in Pune, Maharashtra on 12 June 2000 due to complications from Parkinson's disease, he was aged 80. He was survived by his wife Sunita, he died on the 54th anniversary of their wedding. Sunita died after PL despande in 2009. Most of Deshpande's literary contributions are rooted in Marathi language. Although he wrote across several genres, he was well-known for his humorist literature, he produced several original works and adapted of prominent works from other languages into Marathi. Prominent examples include the 1962 book काय वाट्टेल ते होईल etc.. He referred to his adaptations as भावानुवाद instead of the conventional "translation" or "adaptation".
कुबेर – 1947: actor and playback singer भाग्यरेषा – 1948: actor and playback singer वंदेमातरम् – 1948: actor and playback singer जागा भाड्याने देणे आहे – 1949: screenplay and dialogues मानाचे पान – 1949: – story and dialogues.