Graham-Paige was an American automobile manufacturer founded by brothers Joseph B. Graham, Robert C. Graham, Ray A. Graham in 1927. Automobile production ceased in 1940, its automotive assets were acquired by Kaiser-Frazer in 1947; as a corporate entity, the Graham-Paige name continued until 1962. After successful involvement in a glass manufacturing company brothers Joseph B. Robert C. and Ray A. Graham began in 1919 to produce kits to modify TTs into trucks; that led to the brothers building their trucks using engines of various manufacturers and the Graham Brothers brand. They settled on Dodge engines, soon the trucks were sold by Dodge dealers; the Grahams expanded from beginnings in Evansville, opening plants in 1922 on Meldrum Avenue in Detroit, Michigan, of 13,000 square feet, in 1925 on Cherokee Lane in Stockton, California. The Canadian market was supplied by the Canadian Dodge plant. Dodge purchased the Graham Brothers truck firm in 1925, the three Graham brothers took on executive positions at Dodge.
The Graham Brothers brand lasted until 1929, Chrysler Corporation having taken over Dodge in 1928. In 1927, with the banking syndicate controlling Dodge trying to sell the company, the Graham brothers decided to enter the automobile business on their own. In 1927, they purchased the Paige-Detroit Motor Company, makers of Paige and Jewett automobiles, for $3.5 million. Joseph became Robert vice-president and Ray secretary-treasurer of the company; the company's initial offering included a line of Graham-Paige cars with six- and eight-cylinder engines. For a while a line of light trucks was offered under the Paige name, soon discontinued when Dodge reminded the Grahams about the non-competition agreement they had signed as part of the sale of the Graham Brothers Company. Grahams earned a reputation for quality and sales rose. Graham had some success in racing, which helped boost sales; the Graham company logo included profiles of the three brothers and was used in insignia on the cars including badges and taillight lens.
Graham-Paige made most of their own engines. The Graham brothers had solved a long-standing Paige body supply dilemma by purchasing the Wayne Body Company in Wayne and expanding the factory along with other body plants, they did not have a foundry and contracted with Continental for these services relative to their engines. Some models did use Continental stock engines. Graham-Paige's own engineering department designed most of the engines used in Graham-Paige cars; the 1938–1940 "Spirit of Motion" cars and Hollywood models are incorrectly stated to use Continental engines. After World War II Continental produced a lesser version of Graham-Paige's 217-cubic-inch-displacement engine used in the mentioned models; these engines were used in the post-war Frazer automobiles. Graham-Paige withstood the onset of the depression well, but sales fell as the decade wore on; the 1932 models were designed by Amos Northup. This particular design has been noted as the "single most influential design in automotive history."
The new 8-cylinder engine was called the "Blue Streak." However, the press and public adopted the name "Blue Streak" for the cars themselves. The design introduced a number of innovative ideas; the most copied was the enclosed fenders, thus covering the grime built up on the underside. The radiator cap was moved under the hood, which itself was modified to cover the cowl, end at the base of the windshield. For engineering, the rear kickup on the chassis frame was eliminated by the adoption of a'banjo' frame. Unlike contemporary practice, the rear axle was placed through large openings on both sides of the frame, with rubber snubbers to absorb any shock if the car axle should make contact; this in turn permitted a wider body. To help lower the car, the rear springs were mounted on the outer sides of the chassis frame and not under the frame; this idea was copied by other manufacturers - Chrysler, for example, in 1957. For 1934, Graham introduced a crankshaft-driven supercharger, designed in-house by Graham Assistant Chief Engineer Floyd F. Kishline.
At first offered only in the top eight-cylinder models, when the eights were dropped for 1936, the supercharger was adapted to the six. Through the years, Graham would produce more supercharged cars than any other automobile manufacturer until Buick surpassed them in the 1990s. By 1935, the "Blue Streak" styling was getting rather dated. A restyling of the front and rear ends for 1935 proved to be a disaster, making the cars appear higher and narrower. Having no money for a new body, Graham signed an agreement with Reo Motor Car Company to purchase car bodies, paying Reo $7.50 in royalties for each Hayes-built body. The engines did have new full water jackets. Graham added new front end styling and revised detailing to these bodies to create the 1936 and 1937 Grahams. Amos Northup of Murray Body was hired to design a new model for 1938, but he died before the design was complete, it is believed. The new 1938 Graham was introduced with the slogan "Spirit of Motion"; the fenders, wheel openings and grille all appeared to be moving forward.
The design was praised in the American press and by American designers. It won the prestigious Concours D'Elegance in Paris, France. Wins were recorded in the Prix d'Avant-Garde at Lyon, the Prix d'Elegance at Bordeaux, the Grand Prix d'Honneur at Deauville, France, its cut-back grille gained the car the name "sharknose", which appears to have origins in the 1950s. The styling was
Arthur Morton Godfrey was an American radio and television broadcaster and entertainer, sometimes introduced by his nickname, The Old Redhead. An infamous on-air incident undermined his folksy image and resulted in a marked decline in his popularity. At the peak of his success in the mid-1950s, Godfrey helmed two CBS-TV weekly series and a daily 90-minute television mid-morning show, but, by the early 1960s, his presence had been reduced to hosting the occasional TV special and his daily network radio show, which ended in 1972. One of the medium's early master commercial pitchmen, he was identified with many of his sponsors Chesterfield cigarettes and Lipton Tea. Having advertised Chesterfield for many years, during which time he devised the slogan "Buy'em by the carton", Godfrey terminated his relationship with the company after he quit smoking, five years before he was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1959. Subsequently, he became a prominent spokesman for anti-smoking education. Godfrey was born in Manhattan in 1903.
His mother, Kathryn Morton Godfrey, was from a well-to-do Oswego, New York, family which disapproved of her marriage to an older Englishman, Arthur's father Arthur Hanbury Godfrey. The senior Godfrey was a sportswriter and considered an expert on surrey and hackney horses, but the advent of the automobile devastated the family's finances. By 1915, when Arthur was 12, the family had moved to Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey. Arthur, the eldest of five children, tried to help them survive by working before and after school, but at age 14 left home to ease the financial burden on the family. By 15 he was a civilian typist at Camp Merritt, New Jersey, enlisted in the Navy two years later. Godfrey's father was something of a "free thinker" by the standards of the era, he did not disdain organized religion but insisted that his children explore all faiths before deciding for themselves which to embrace. Their childhood friends included Catholic and every kind of Protestant playmates; the senior Godfrey was friends with the Vanderbilts, but was as to spend his time talking with the shoeshine man or the hotdog vendor about issues of the day.
In the book, Genius in the Family, written about their mother by Godfrey's youngest sister, Dorothy Gene, with the help of their sister, Kathy, it was reported that the angriest they saw their father was when a man on the ferry declared the Ku Klux Klan a civic organization vital to the good of the community. They rode the ferry back and forth three times, with their father arguing with the man that the Klan was a bunch of "Blasted, bigoted fools, led'round by the nose!" Godfrey's mother, was a gifted artist and composer whose aspirations to fame were laid aside to take care of her family after her husband, Arthur or "Darl'", died. Her creativity enabled the family to get through some hard times by playing the piano to accompany silent movies, making jams and jellies and crocheting bedspreads to sell, cutting off and selling her floor length hair, as it was difficult for a woman of her "class" to find work without violating social mores of the time; the one household item, never sold or turned into firewood was the piano, she believed at least some of her children would succeed in show business.
In her years some of her compositions were performed by symphony orchestras in Canada, which earned her a mention in Time. In 1957, at the age of 78, her sauciness made her a big hit with the audience when she appeared on Groucho Marx's quiz show You Bet Your Life, she died of cancer in 1968 at a nursing home in a suburb north of Chicago. Godfrey served in the United States Navy from 1920 to 1924 as a radio operator on naval destroyers, but returned home to care for the family after his father's death. Additional radio training came during Godfrey's service in the Coast Guard from 1927 to 1930, he passed a stringent qualifying examination and was admitted to the prestigious Radio Materiel School at the Naval Research Laboratory, graduating in 1929. It was during a Coast Guard stint in Baltimore that on October 5 of that year he appeared on a local talent show and became popular enough to land his own brief weekly program. On leaving the Coast Guard, Godfrey became a radio announcer for the Baltimore station WFBR and moved to Washington, D.
C. to become a staff announcer for NBC-owned station WRC the same year and remained there until 1934. Recovering from a near-fatal automobile accident en route to a flying lesson in 1931, he decided to listen to the radio and realized that the stiff, formal style used by announcers could not connect with the average radio listener; the announcers spoke in stentorian tones, as if giving a formal speech to a crowd and not communicating on a personal level. Godfrey vowed that when he returned to the airwaves, he would affect a relaxed, informal style as if he were talking to just one person, he used that style to do his own commercials and became a regional star. Over time, he added wisecracks to his commercials and would kid the sponsors, a risky move that offended advertising agency executives whose staff worked on the commercial scripts. Nonetheless, Godfrey's antics gained acceptance when his sponsors discovered their sales increased after Godfrey's added jokes. At times, he would read an ad agency script on television as he mockingly rolled his eyes, used a sarcastic tone of voice or added his own wisecracks.
Since the sponsors approved, given their added sales, the agencies were powerless to stop him. In addition to announcing, Godfrey sang and played the ukulele. In 1934 he became a freelance enter
St. Regis Hotels & Resorts
St. Regis Hotels & Resorts is a luxury hotel chain, part of the Starwood hotel group. Marriott International purchased Starwood in 2016; the St. Regis hotel chain traces its roots back to 1904, when John Jacob Astor IV opened the St. Regis Hotel in New York City, USA. Starwood acquired the hotel in 1999. Within several years, they were opening other hotels using the St. Regis name; as of 2019, there are 46 St. Regis-branded hotels around the world. Official website
Florida State Road A1A
State Road A1A is a north-south Florida State Road that runs along the Atlantic Ocean, from Key West at the southern tip of Florida, to Fernandina Beach, just south of Georgia on Amelia Island. It is the main road through most oceanfront towns. Part of SR A1A is designated Historic Coastal Byway, a National Scenic Byway. A portion of A1A that passes through Volusia County is designated the Ormond Scenic Loop and Trail, a Florida Scenic Highway, it is called the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway from State Road 510 at Wabasso Beach to U. S. Route 1 in Cocoa. A1A is famous worldwide as a center of beach culture in the United States, a scenic coastal route through most Atlantic coastal cities and beach towns, including the unique tropical coral islands of the Florida Keys. A1A serves as a major thoroughfare through Miami Beach and other south Florida coastal cities. Other than SR A1A Alternate, only two other Florida state roads have begun with a letter: SR A19A, SR G1A; the road was designated as State Road 1 in the 1945 renumbering replacing the former State Road 140 designation.
The number reflected its location in the new grid as the easternmost major north–south road. About a year and a half in November 1946, the State Road Board resolved to renumber the route due to confusion with the parallel U. S. Highway 1; the new designation, A1A, was chosen to keep the number 1 in its place in the grid. The East Coast Greenway, a system of trails that connects Maine to Florida, travels along sections of State Road A1A. SR A1A is associated with Florida beach culture and is known for its lush tropical and subtropical scenery and ocean vistas. In many places, the highway runs directly along the waterfront of the Atlantic Ocean, but in other places, it runs one to five blocks inland from the beachfront. For most of its length, A1A runs along Florida's East Coast Barrier Islands, separated from the mainland of the state by the Intracoastal Waterway; because of the proximity of the highway to the ocean and its susceptibility to storm surges, sections of A1A are closed or damaged by hurricanes and tropical storms.
A1A has been a backbone of Florida's Spring Break serving as "the strip" in both Fort Lauderdale – a popular spring break destination during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s – and Daytona Beach, which became a popular destination for college spring breaks during the 1970s. Today, A1A serves as more a main coastal highway that connects beach towns for more than 375 miles along Florida's East Coast; the southern terminus of SR A1A is at the southern end of Bertha Street, where SR A1A begins as a two-lane a four-lane highway along the Straits of Florida in Key West, known locally as South Roosevelt Boulevard. The road heads east past East Martello Tower and Key West International Airport, before curving north with an intersection with CR 5A, followed by the northern terminus of the Key West section of SR A1A, U. S. Route 1 and State Road 5. Running along the south shore of Key West, SR A1A is the southmost numbered highway in the lower 48 states. SR A1A reappears at Interstate 395 and US 1 in Miami, beginning at MacArthur Causeway before becoming Collins Avenue at Fifth Street in Miami Beach, serving as one of Miami Beach's main north — south thoroughfares.
Just north in the town of Surfside, the northbound is Collins Avenue, the southbound is Harding Avenue. In Bal Harbour it is called Bal Harbour Boulevard. In Golden Beach it is called Ocean Boulevard, it serves Hallandale Beach, Hollywood Beach, Dania Beach. It joins with US 1 for 3.4 miles, passes the Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, it divides and serves Ft. Lauderdale Beach, Pompano Beach, continuing north, it serves as the main road throughout much of the exclusive Palm Beach, further to the north. In the area of Vero Beach, A1A is called the Robert C. Spillman Memorial Highway, it spans Sebastian Inlet at the Sebastian Inlet Bridge. A1A next passes just to the west of the John F. Kennedy Space Center. Two miles of A1A were used as part of the well-known Daytona Beach Road Course. A1A passes through St. Augustine, the oldest continuously-inhabited city on the mainland of the United States. A1A is called 3rd Street in Neptune Beach. Just south of Atlantic Beach, A1A turns inland for several blocks, following Atlantic Boulevard, before resuming a northward course along Mayport Road that ends at the St. Johns River.
A ferry takes traffic to the northern section of A1A that continues along the coast to just south of Fort Clinch State Park on the estuary of the Saint Mary's River. At that point A1A hooks back south to Fernandina Beach and turns west, going inland 20 miles through Yulee and crossing I-95 and U. S. Highway 17, it ends at U. S. Highway 1, U. S. Highway 23, U. S. Highway 301 in Florida; this section west of Fernandina Beach, is marked as SR 200, but SR A1A signs are displayed at every cluster of signs, though a designated direction is only above the SR 200 signs. Prior to the 1945 renumbering, the route that became SR 1 had the following numbers: SR 1 was defined in the 1945 renumbering as: Since the following changes have been made: The Jungle Trail was part of A1A in northeastern Indian River County, Florida; the narrow, 7 1⁄2-mile-long road is located between Old Winter Beach Road and the current A1A, along the western side of Orchid Island, is unpaved. It is part of the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway system, the southernmost road in the highway system
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste