Second Battle of Panipat
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on November 5,1556, between the forces of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu king of Delhi and the army of the Mughal emperor, Akbar. Hemu had conquered Delhi a month earlier by defeating the Mughals led by Tardi Beg Khan at the Battle of Delhi and his guardian, Bairam Khan, had immediately marched to Delhi to reclaim the city. The two armies clashed at Panipat not far from the site of the First Battle of Panipat of 1526, although Hemu had lost his artillery to the Mughals before the battle, his forces held the numerical superiority. However, Hemu was wounded by an arrow in the middle of the battle. Seeing their leader going down, his army panicked and dispersed, Hemu was captured and subsequently beheaded. The battle ended in a victory for Akbar. Humayun, the successor of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, had lost his inheritance when he was chased out of India by Sher Shah Suri who established the Sur Empire in 1540. Delhi and Agra fell into Sher Shahs hands, but he died soon after in 1545 at Kalinjar and he was succeeded by his younger son, Islam Shah Suri, who was a capable ruler.
However, upon his death in 1553, the Sur Empire was caught up in a battle and was plagued by rebellion. Humayun made use of this discord to recapture what was lost and on 23 July 1555, Islam Shahs rightful successor, his 12-year-old son, Firoz Khan, had been murdered by his maternal uncle who had taken the throne as Adil Shah Suri. The new ruler was however, more interested in the pursuit of pleasure than in the affairs of his state. Those were largely left to Hemu, a Hindu from Rewari and he was in Bengal when Humayun died on 26 January 1556. The Mughal emperors death provided an opportunity to defeat the Mughals. Hemu started a march from Bengal and drove the Mughals out of Bayana, Sambhal, Kalpi. In Agra, the governor evacuated the city and fled without a fight upon hearing of Hemus impending invasion and he took possession of Delhi after a days battle on 7 October 1556 and claimed royal status assuming the title of Vikramaditya. On hearing the news from Tughlaqabad, Humayuns successor, the 13-year-old Akbar.
In a stroke of luck, Ali Quli Khan Shaibani, who had sent ahead with 10, 000-strong cavalry force. He was easily able to capture the train of artillery from the Afghans who abandoned the guns
First Anglo-Afghan War
The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Initially, the British successfully intervened in a dispute between emir Dost Mohammad and former emir Shah Shujah, whom they installed upon conquering Kabul in August 1839. The main British Indian and Sikh force occupying Kabul, having endured harsh winters as well, was almost completely annihilated while retreating in January 1842. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century was a period of diplomatic competition between the British and Russian empires for spheres of influence in Asia known as the Great Game. The Russian Empire was slowly extending its domain into Central Asia, the Company sent an envoy to Kabul to form an alliance with Afghanistans Amir, Dost Mohammad Khan against Russia. Dost Mohammad had recently lost Afghanistans second capital of Peshawar to the Sikh Empire and wanted support to retake it, for this reason, Lord Auckland preferred an alliance with the Punjab over an alliance with Afghanistan, which had nothing equivalent to the Dal Khalsa.
The British could have an alliance with the Punjab or Afghanistan, British fears of a Russian invasion of India took one step closer to becoming a reality when negotiations between the Afghans and Russians broke down in 1838. The Qajar dynasty of Persia, with Russian support, attempted the Siege of Herat, Lord Aucklands plan was to drive away the besiegers and replace Dost Mohammad with Shuja Shah Durrani, who had once ruled Afghanistan and was considered pro-British. Shuja Shah had been deposed in 1809 and been living in exile in British India since 1818, collecting a pension from the East India Company, the British denied that they were invading Afghanistan, claiming they were merely supporting its legitimate Shuja government against foreign interference and factious opposition. But this point, Auckland was committed to putting Afghanistan into the British sphere of influence, the Army of the Indus. which included 21,000 British and Indian troops under the command of John Keane, 1st Baron Keane set out from Punjab in December 1838.
With them was William Hay Macnaghten, the chief secretary of the Calcutta government. It included a train of 38,000 camp followers and 30,000 camels. By late March 1839 the British forces had crossed the Bolan Pass, reached the Baloch city of Quetta and they advanced through rough terrain, across deserts and 4, 000-metre-high mountain passes, but made good progress and finally set up camps at Kandahar on 25 April 1839. After reaching Kandahar, Keane decided to wait for the crops to ripen before resuming his march, Keane left behind his siege engines in Kandahar, which turned out to be a mistake as he discovered that the walls of the Ghazni fortress were far more powerful than he expected. A deserter, Abdul Rashed Khan, a nephew of Dost Mohammad Khan, informed the British that one of the gates of the fortress was in bad state of repair and might be blasted open with a gunpowder charge. The British took fifty prisoners who were brought before Shuja, where one of them stabbed a minister to death with a hidden knife.
On 22 July 1839, in an attack, the British-led forces captured the fortress of Ghazni. The British troops blew up one city gate and marched into the city in a euphoric mood, in taking this fortress, they suffered 200 men killed and wounded, while the Afghans lost nearly 500 men
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and armoury or armory are mostly regarded as synonyms, although differences in usage exist. A sub-armory is a place of storage or carrying of weapons and ammunition. From Italian and French, from Arabic, دار تعبئة, dār a-tabiya, in a second-class arsenal, the factories would be replaced by workshops. The situation of an arsenal should be governed by strategic considerations. If of the first class, it should be situated at the base of operations and supply, secure from attack, not too near a frontier, the importance of a large arsenal is such that its defences would be on the scale of those of a large fortress. The usual subdivision of branches in a great arsenal is into storekeeping, under construction, Gun factory, carriage factory, small-arms factory and tent factory, powder factory, etc. In a second-class arsenal there would be instead of these factories.
Frederick Taylor introduced command and control techniques to arsenals, including the U. S. s Watertown Arsenal, armorer Dresden Armory Halifax Armoury Harpers Ferry Armory Kremlin Armoury Royal Arsenal Royal Armouries Springfield Armory Zeughaus Magazine
Second Anglo-Afghan War
This was the second time British India invaded Afghanistan. The war ended after the British emerged victorious against the Afghan rebels, most of the British and Indian soldiers withdrew from Afghanistan. This was aimed to thwart expansion by the Russian Empire into India, after tension between Russia and Britain in Europe ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia. That same summer, Russia sent a diplomatic mission to Kabul. Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan, tried unsuccessfully to keep them out, Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on 22 July 1878, and on 14 August, the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission too. The Amir not only refused to receive a British mission under Neville Bowles Chamberlain, a British force of about 50,000 fighting men, mostly Indians, was distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points. An alarmed Sher Ali attempted to appeal in person to the Russian Tsar for assistance, but unable to do so, he returned to Mazar-i-Sharif, where he died on 21 February 1879.
According to this agreement and in return for a subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression. Ghazi Mohammad Jan Khan Wardak, and a force of 10,000 Afghans, staged an uprising, despite besieging the British garrison there, he failed to maintain the Siege of Sherpur, instead shifting focus to Roberts force, and this resulted in the collapse of this rebellion. Yaqub Khan, suspected of complicity in the massacre of Cavagnari, Ayub Khan, who had been serving as governor of Herat, rose in revolt, defeated a British detachment at the Battle of Maiwand in July 1880 and besieged Kandahar. Roberts led the main British force from Kabul and decisively defeated Ayub Khan on 1 September at the Battle of Kandahar, abandoning the provocative policy of maintaining a British resident in Kabul, but having achieved all their other objectives, the British withdrew. They used a method involving urine, Pathan women urinated into prisoners mouths. Captured British soldiers were out and fastened with restraints to the ground, a stick.
Pathan women squatted and urinated directly into the mouth of the man until he drowned in the urine, there were several decisive actions in the Second Anglo–Afghan War, from 1878 to 1880. Here are the battles and actions in chronological order, an asterisk indicates a clasp was awarded for that particular battle with the Afghanistan Medal. Afghan Wars and the North-West Frontier 1839–1947, National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations. Afghanistan, A Short Account of Afghanistan, Its History, and Our Dealings with It
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar is an Afghan politician and warlord. He is the founder and current leader of the Hezb-e Islami political party, after escaping from prison in Afghanistan in 1973, he moved to Pakistan. When the Soviet occupation began in 1979, the CIA began funding his rapidly growing Hezb-e Islami mujahideen organization through the Pakistani ISI. Following the ouster of Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah in 1992, Hekmatyar and other warlords began a civil war, sometime after the Talibans fall in 2001 he went to Pakistan, leading his party militia to a new armed campaign against Hamid Karzais government and the international coalition in Afghanistan. He has accused of spending more time fighting other Mujahideen than killing Soviets. In 2016, he signed a deal with the Afghan government. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar was born in 1947 in Imam Sahib District of the Kunduz province, northern Afghanistan and his father, Ghulam Qader, who migrated to Kunduz, is originally from the center of Ghazni province.
From 1970 to 1972, Hekmatyar attended Kabul Universitys engineering department, though he did not complete his degree, his followers still wrongly address him as Engineer Hekmatyar. Within this moment of his life, Hekmatyar was affiliated with the rather influential Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, in 1972 he was arrested for the murder of a rival Maoist student, Saydal Sokhandan, at Kabul University, but was released as part of an amnesty. He was released when the monarchy of Zahir Shah was overthrown by his cousin, Hekmatyars radicalism put him in confrontation with elements in the Muslim Youth surrounding Ahmad Shah Massoud, an engineering student at Kabul University. In 1975, trying to murder a rival for the time in three years, Hekmatyar with Pakistani help tried to assassinate Massoud, 22 years old. Akbarzadeh and Yasmeen describe Hekmatyars approach as radical and antagonistic as opposed to an inclusive, the arrival of Afghan opposition militants in Peshawar coincided with a period of diplomatic tension between Pakistan and Afghanistan, due to Daouds revival of the Pashtunistan issue.
Rabbani advocated for the building of a widely based movement that would create popular support, the other movement, called Hezb-i Islami, was led by Hekmatyar, who favored a radical approach in the form of violent armed conflict. Pakistani support largely went to Hekmatyars group, who, in October 1975, without popular support, the rebellion ended in complete failure, and hundreds of militants were arrested. It had its base in the Nasir Bagh, Worsak. From 1976–1977 Afghan President Daoud made overtures to Pakistan which led to reconciliation with Pakistani leader Bhutto, bhuttos support to Hekmatyar, however and when Bhutto was removed from power in Pakistan by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977, Zia continued supporting Hekmatyar. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Hekmatyar received large amounts of aid from Saudi Arabia, Hekmatyar gained the support of the British MI6 and even met Margaret Thatcher in Downing Street. According to the ISI, their decision to allocate the highest percentage of aid to Hekmatyar was based on his record as an effective anti-Soviet military commander in Afghanistan
The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, most of Pakistan, and northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers, in 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah set out westward to take possession of Herat and he next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir, early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over the Punjab and Kashmir. Additionally, among the Durranis other military conquests, the Pashtun instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab, the Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as Father of the Nation.
In 1709 Mir Wais Hotak, chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, from 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly ruled large parts of Iran and declared himself as Shah of Persia. However, the Hotak dynasty came to a end in 1738 after being toppled and banished by the Afsharids who were led by Nader Shah Afshar of Persia. The year 1747 marks the appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. In October 1747 a loya jirga concluded near the city of Kandahar with Ahmad Shah Durrani being selected as the new leader of the Afghans, despite being younger than the other contenders, Ahmad Shah had several overriding factors in his favor. He belonged to a family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. He had a larger army and possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shahs treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond. One of Ahmad Shahs first military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, in 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and the important trans Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack.
Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, Ahmad Shah next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the army brought under its control the Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen. Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time and he sacked Delhi in 1757, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shahs suzerainty over Punjab and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah halted trade with Qing China and dispatched troops to Kokand. Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune, Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, to counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao
Bala Hissar, Peshawar
Bala Hissar is a historic fortress located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The fort was used as a residence for the Durrani Empire. The fort now serves as headquarters for Pakistans Frontier Corps, the word Bala Hissar is from Dari Persian, elevated or high fort. Not long ago, the used to be conspicuously away from the old city of Peshawar. However, the position on a high mound gives a commanding and panoramic view of Peshawar. On a clear day, one can see the mountains encircling Peshawar valley, the area covered by the inner wall of the fort is about 10 acres and the outer wall is about 15 acres. The height of the fort is about 90 feet above ground level, renowned historian Dr A. H. Dani in his book Peshawar-Historic City of Frontier writes that when Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese traveller, visited Peshawar in 630 AD, he spoke of a royal residence. He says that Chinese word Kung Shing used for its significance and is explained as fortified or walled portion of the town in which the palace stood.
Hiuen Tsang makes a mention of the city, which was not fortified. This shows that the royal residence formed the nucleus of a Citadel, Dr Dani further says that a channel of old Bara River surrounded by a high spot, which includes the Bala Hissar and Inder Shahr. The higher area could have been the citadel, which is the present Bala Hissar, Peshawar has always been a strategic city and its capturing and ruling over it was of great importance for the invaders and kings. In the 11th century AD, the Hindu ruler, Raja Jaipal of the Hindushahi dynasty was defeated in the vicinity of Peshawar and Mehmud Ghaznavi garrisoned the fort with his army, says Dr Taj Ali. The British officers who visited Peshawar in the 19th century mentioned that the used to be a royal residence of Afghan rulers. The Bala Hissar has seen its construction and destruction by conquerors, invaders, after the overthrow of emperor Humayun by the Afghan King Sher Shah Suri, the Afghans destroyed the fort. When Hamayun was staying in it he decided to rebuild it before proceeding to Kabul and he wanted to use the fort for his conquest of India at a stage.
As his officers did not want to back, Hamayun himself supervised the rebuilding of the fort. The Afghan rulers named it Bala Hissar a Persian name meaning high fort while the Sikhs renamed and rebuilt it calling their fort Sumergarh in 1834 but the name did not become popular, says Dr Taj. The fort was constructed on a mound with commanding view of the area including Shalimar gardens presently known as Jinnah Park towards its north
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It serves as the centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Situated in a valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan. Making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia, Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. According to the last census, it is the ninth-largest city of Pakistan, the earliest settlement established in the area of Peshawar was called Puruṣapura, from which the current name Peshawar is derived. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, after the Ghaznavid invasion, the citys name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni. The city became to be known as as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar, a name which is traditionally said to have been given by Akbar himself. The new name is said to have been based upon the Persian for frontier town, or more literally, forward city, though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the citys new name.
Akbars bibliographer, Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشاوَر, and Peshāwar. Peshawar was founded as the ancient city of Puruṣapura, on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar, the city likely first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE, within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, in the winter of 327-26 BCE, Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India, as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys. Following Alexanders conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, a locally-made vase fragment that was found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles play Antigone. Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE, as Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and quickly seized Puruṣapura around 190 BCE.
The city was ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms. Puruṣapura was captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery in 46 CE. In the first century of the Common era, came under control of Kujula Kadphises, the city was made the empires winter capital. The Kushans summer capital at Kapisi was seen as the capital of the empire. Ancient Peshawars population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time, around 128 CE, Puruṣapura was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972.
Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley.
It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library holds the Asia and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari
Cavagnari was born at Stenay, in the Meuse département, France, on 4 July 1841. After passing through college at the Addiscombe Military Seminary, he served through the Oudh campaign against the mutineers in 1858 and 1859. In September 1878 he was attached to the staff of a British mission to Kabul, which the Afghans refused to allow to proceed through the Khyber Pass. With this treaty, the Afghans agreed to admit a British representative to Kabul, and the post was conferred on Cavagnari and he took up his residence in July 1879. Cavagnari was survived by his wife, Lady Cavagnari, whom he had married in 1871, works by or about Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari at Internet Archive
Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan)
Dost Mohammad Khan was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War. With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became Emir of Afghanistan from 1826 to 1839, an ethnic Pashtun, he was the 11th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Dost Mohammads grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan, the Musahiban family started with his older brother, Sultan Muhammad Khan, nicknamed Telai, meaning golden, a nickname he was given because of his love of fine clothing. This brother was the ruler of Peshawar, Dost Mohammad Khan was born to an influential family on 23 December 1793 in Kandahar, Durrani Empire. His father, Payindah Khan, was chief of the Barakzai tribe and their family can be traced back to Abdal, through Hajji Jamal Khan, Yaru, Omar Khan, Khisar Khan, Nek, Daru and Barak. Abdal had Four sons, Barak, Dost Mohmmad Khans mother is believed to have been a Shia from the Persian Qizilbash group. His elder brother, the chief of the Barakzai, Fatteh Khan, took an important part in raising Mahmud Shah Durrani to the sovereignty of Afghanistan in 1800 and in restoring him to the throne in 1809.
Dost Mohammad accompanied his brother and Prime Minister of Kabul Wazir Fateh Khan to the Battle of Attock against the invading Sikhs. Mahmud Shah repaid Fatteh Khans services by having him assassinated in 1818, after a bloody conflict, Mahmud Shah was deprived of all his possessions but Herat, the rest of his dominions being divided among Fatteh Khans brothers. Of these, Dost Mohammad received Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added Kabul, in 1834 Shah Shujah made a last attempt to recover his kingdom. He was defeated by Dost Mohammad Khan under the walls of Kandahar, Dost Mohammad sent his son Akbar Khan to defeat the Sikhs at the Battle of Jamrud in 1837. The non- recovery of the Jamrud Fort became the Afghan Amirs worst concern, at the intersection of British, Russian and, to a lesser degree, French imperial interests, political maneuvering was necessary. Rejecting overtures from Russia, he endeavoured to form an alliance with Great Britain, however, was unable to prevail on the governor-general, Lord Auckland, to respond to the emirs advances.
Dost Mohammad was enjoined to abandon the attempt to recover Peshawar and he replied by renewing his relations with Russia, and in 1838 Lord Auckland set the British troops in motion against him. To enable such an action, the British manufactured the evidence needed to justify the overthrow of the Afghan ruler, Dost Muhammad erected a fort at Ali Masjid at the other end. In the beginning of 1837, as Prince Nau Nihal Singh returned to Lahore to get married, Dost Muhammad Khan sent a 25,000 strong force, including a large number of local irregulars and equipped with 18 heavy guns, to invest Jam rud. The Sikh garrison there had only 600 men and a few artillery pieces. The Afghans besieged the fort and cut off its water supply, mahan Singh Mirpuri, the garrison commander of Jamrud, kept the invaders at bay for four days and managed meanwhile to send a desperate appeal for help to Hari Singh Nalva at Peshawar
Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud was an Afghan political and military leader. Massoud was assassinated on September 9,2001, Massoud came from an ethnic Tajik, Sunni Muslim background in the Panjshir valley of northern Afghanistan. He was part of a Pakistan-backed failed rebellion against Mohammed Daoud Khans government, after the Soviet occupation of 1979, his role as an insurgent leader earned him the nickname of Lion of Panjshir among his followers. He became the military and political leader of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan and his forces eventually won the two-month long war in December 2001, removing the Taliban from power. Massoud was posthumously named National Hero by the order of President Hamid Karzai after the Taliban were ousted from power, the date of Massoud’s death, September 9, is observed as a national holiday known as Massoud Day. His followers call him Amir Sāhib-e Shahīd, Ahmad Shah Massoud was born in 1953 in Bazarak, Panjshir, to a well-to-do family native to the Panjshir valley.
His name at birth was Ahmed Shah, he took the name Massoud as a nom de guerre when he went into the movement in 1974. His father, Dost Mohammad Khan, was a colonel in the Royal Afghan Army, from his native Panjshir, his family moved briefly to Herat and to Kabul, where Massoud spent most of his childhood. Massoud attended the renowned Franco-Afghan Lycée Esteqlal, regarded as a gifted student, he studied engineering at Kabul University after his graduation from the Lycée. Massoud spoke Dari, Pashto and French and had good English reading skills, in 1973, Mohammed Daoud Khan was brought to power in a coup détat backed by the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, and the Republic of Afghanistan was established. These developments gave rise to an Islamist movement opposed to the increasing communist, Kabul University was a centre for political debate and activism during that time. By 1975, after an uprising by the Muslim Youth. The conflict reached such a point that Hekmatyar reportedly tried to kill Massoud, on April 27,1978, the PDPA and military units loyal to it killed Daoud Khan, his immediate family, and bodyguards in a violent coup, and seized control of the capital Kabul.
The new PDPA government, led by a council, did not enjoy the support of the masses. It announced and implemented a doctrine hostile to political dissent, whether inside or outside the party, the PDPA started reforms along Marxist–Leninist and Soviet lines. Between 50,000 and 100,000 people were estimated to have arrested and killed by communist troops in the countryside alone. Due to the repression, large parts of the country, especially the rural areas, by spring 1979 unrest had reached 24 out of 28 Afghan provinces, including major urban areas. Over half of the Afghan army either deserted or joined the insurrection, believing that an uprising against the Soviet-backed communists would be supported by the people, Massoud, on July 6,1979, started an insurrection in the Panjshir, which initially failed