Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias, nicknamed "the Peacemaker" and "Iron Duke", was an army officer and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Like his father and uncles, Caxias pursued a military career. In 1823 he fought as a young officer in the Brazilian War for Independence against Portugal spent three years in Brazil's southernmost province, Cisplatina, as the government unsuccessfully resisted that province's secession in the Cisplatine War. Though his own father and uncles renounced Emperor Dom Pedro I during the protests of 1831, Caxias remained loyal. Pedro I abdicated in favor of his young son Dom Pedro II, whom Caxias instructed in swordsmanship and horsemanship and befriended. During Pedro II's minority the governing regency faced countless rebellions throughout the country. Again breaking with his father and other relatives sympathetic to the rebels, from 1839 to 1845 Caxias commanded loyalist forces suppressing such uprisings as the Balaiada, the Liberal rebellions of 1842 and the Ragamuffin War.
In 1851, under his command, the Brazilian army prevailed against the Argentine Confederation in the Platine War. As a reward he was raised to the titled nobility, becoming successively a baron and marquis becoming the only person created duke during Pedro II's 58-year reign. In the early 1840s Caxias became a member of the Reactionary Party, which evolved into the Party of Order and the Conservative Party, he was elected senator in 1846. The Emperor appointed him president of the Council of Ministers in 1856. Over the decades Caxias witnessed the growth and zenith of his party its slow decline as internal conflict divided it. In 1875, he headed a cabinet for the last time, after years of failing health he died in May 1880. In the years after his death and following the downfall of the Brazilian monarchy, Caxias' reputation was overshadowed by that of Manuel Luís Osório, Marquis of Erval, but with time surpassed Erval's renown. In 1925 his birthday was established as the Day of the Soldier, a day of honor for the Brazilian army.
On 13 March 1962 he was designated the army's protector—its soldierly ideal and the most important figure in its tradition. Historians have regarded Caxias positively, several ranking him as the greatest of Brazil's military officers. Luís Alves de Lima e Silva was born on 25 August 1803 on a farm called São Paulo located in Rio de Janeiro a captaincy of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, he was the first son and second of ten children of Francisco de Lima e Silva and Mariana Cândido de Oliveira Belo. His godparents were his paternal grandfather, José Joaquim de Lima da Silva, his maternal grandmother, Ana Quitéria Joaquina. Luís Alves' early years were spent on the São Paulo farm owned by his maternal grandfather and namesake, Luís Alves de Freitas; the young boy may have been schooled at home, as was common then. He may have been taught to write by his grandmother, Ana Quitéria. Luís Alves' grandfather, José Joaquim, was a Portuguese military officer who had emigrated in 1767 to Brazil, he settled in the city of Rio de Janeiro, capital of both the Rio de Janeiro captaincy and of Brazil.
He had neither noble rank nor noble ancestry and lacked patrons in an environment in which advancement depended upon exchanges of favors and family connections. Having fought against the Spaniards on Brazil's southern frontiers, he secured a place for himself in Rio de Janeiro's upper class when he married a member of a local and influential family; the arrival of the Portuguese Royal Family in Rio de Janeiro in 1808 changed the lives of the Lima family. King Dom João VI embarked upon a series of wars of conquest which resulted in the expansion of Brazil's territory with the annexation of Cisplatina to the south and of French Guiana to the north. By 1818, Luís Alves' relatives, who were military officers and had served in the wars, had been ennobled, his grandfather, José Joaquim, became a member of the Order of Christ and Fidalgo Cavaleiro da Casa Real. His father, Francisco de Lima, uncles were granted honors. Within two generations, the Lima family had risen from mere commoners to the ranks of Portugal's untitled nobility.
On 22 May 1808, Luís Alves was enlisted at the age of five as a cadet in the 1st Regiment of Infantry of Rio de Janeiro. Historian Adriana Barreto de Souza explained that this did "not mean that he began to serve as a child, the connection to the regiment was honorific", his perquisite as the son of a military officer; this infantry regiment was informally known as the "Lima Regiment" because so many members of the family served in it, including his father and grandfather. In 1811, Luís Alves moved with his parents from his grandparents' farm to Rio de Janeiro and was enrolled at the Seminário São Joaquim, which became Pedro II School in 1837. On 4 May 1818, he was admitted into the Royal Military Academy; the entire course was mandatory for artillerymen and engineers but infantrymen were only required to take first- and fifth-year classes. Luís Alves took the first - and fifth-year classes in 1819, respectively. Though he could have skipped the other years, he chose to take second-year classes in 1820 and third-year classes in 1821.
The subjects he studied in the Royal Military Academy ranged from arithmetic and geometry to tactics, camping, fortificat
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda was a politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. His long political career expanded through the reigns of João VI, Pedro I and Pedro II, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Conservative Party. He served as Regent of the Empire of Brazil from 1837 until 1840, during the minority of Emperor Pedro II. During the personal reign of Pedro II, Olinda on four different periods served as President of the Council of Ministers. Pedro de Araújo Lima was born on 22 December 1793, his birthplace was Antas farm, near the village of Sirinhaém in Pernambuco. Through his father, Manuel de Araújo Lima, he was a descendant of settlers who had come from Portugal in the early 16th century with Duarte Coelho, the first captain general of Pernambuco. Through his mother, Ana Teixeira Cavalcante, his ancestry traced back to Filippo Cavalcanti, a nobleman from Florence. Filippo Cavalcanti married a daughter of the Portuguese settler Jerônimo de Albuquerque and his Amerindian spouse.
His family was both wealthy. The family owned several engenhos. One of these properties was Antas farm; the sugarcane planters were the northeastern equivalent in power and wealth to coffee farmers in Brazil's southeast. As there was little access to primary schools, which were only to be found in larger towns, Pedro de Araújo Lima learned to read and write at home. In 1805 at the age of 12, he went to live with a paternal uncle in capital of Pernambuco, he enrolled five years in the colégio Madre de Deus. In 1813, he crossed the Atlantic to study Law at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, his fellow Brazilians in Coimbra at that time included Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos, Manuel Alves Branco, Cândido José de Araújo Viana, Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almeida and João Bráulio Muniz. Araújo Lima proved to be a good student, he graduated on 15 March 1817. Continuing in advanced studies, he received a doctorate decree in Canon law on 27 August 1819, he returned to Brazil that year, disembarking in Pernambuco in December.
In mid-1820, he was first offered the office of ouvidor and a position as Provedor da fazenda, dos defuntos, capelas e resíduos in Paracatu, captaincy of Minas Gerais, but he declined both. On 1820 the military garrisons in Portugal mutinied, leading to what became known as the Liberal Revolution of 1820; the military formed a provisional government and summoned the Cortes—the centuries-old Portuguese parliament, this time democratically elected with the aim of creating a national Constitution. Araújo Lima was 1.70 meters tall, had brown hair. Cascudo, Luís da Câmara. O Marquês de Olinda e seu tempo. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional. Lira, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II: Ascenção. 1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia. Leão Filho, Joaquim de Sousa. "O Marquês de Olinda". Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional. 291. Needell, Jeffrey D.. The Party of Order: the Conservatives, the State, Slavery in the Brazilian Monarchy, 1831–1871. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8047-5369-2. Porto, Costa. O Marquês de Olinda e o seu tempo. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia. Media related to Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda at Wikimedia Commons
Imperial Brazilian Army
The Imperial Brazilian Army was the name given to the land force of the Empire of Brazil. The Brazilian Army was formed after the independence of the country from Portugal in 1822 and reformed in 1889, after the republican coup d'ètat that created the First Brazilian Republic, a dictatorship headed by the army; the Imperial Army was created in the independence of Brazil in September 1822. Its origin dates back to the Portuguese-Brazilian troops who remained in Brazil under the command of Prince Pedro, Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil; when the Prince proclaimed independence and became the first Emperor of Brazil, troops loyal to his leadership formed the Imperial Army of the newly independent Empire. The Army was composed of Brazilians and foreign mercenaries. Most of its commanders were Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro. Supporters of Brazilian Independence enlarged the Brazilian Army by forced enlistment of citizens, foreign immigrants and Brazilian slaves. Under Articles 102 and 148 of the Constitution, the Brazilian Armed Forces were subordinate to the Emperor as Commander-in-Chief.
He was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in matters concerning the Army and the Navy—although the Prime Minister exercised oversight of both branches in practice. The ministers of War and Navy were, with few exceptions, civilians; the model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces observed unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while maintaining distance from political decisions and decisions referring to borders' security". During the 67 years of the monarchy's existence there were 76 ministers of the army; the National Army, or Imperial Army during the monarchy, was divided into two branches: the 1st Line, the Army itself. The military was organized along similar lines to the British and American armed forces of the time, in which a small standing army could augment its strength during emergencies from a reserve militia force. By 1824 the Army of the 1st Line included 24,000 men, who were disciplined and equipped just as well as European equivalents.
At the end of the war of Independence, the Brazilian Armed Forces were well organized and equipped. This occurred because the Emperor supported the Army. Army officers' training was completed in the Imperial Military Academy, although it was not obligatory for personnel to study there to advance in the profession. Personnel from the infantry and cavalry branches only needed to study the disciplines of the 1st year and 5th year. Engineers and artillerymen were obliged to study the complete course, which resulted in their branches being considered the most prestigious. However, if they preferred and cavalrymen were allowed to study the disciplines of the 2nd year. In 1845 the Military College was divided into two-halves: one half retained the name "Military College" and the other half became the Central College. A new reform on 6 September 1850 improved the quality of the officers of the Imperial Army. From on, progression in a soldier's military career would occur through antiquity and academic resume, beyond a clear preference for the personnel who completed the Military College over the ones who did not.
On 20 September 1851, the conservative cabinet created a branch of the Military College in Porto Alegre. The Porto Alegre college location provided courses in infantry and cavalry, including disciplines taken from the 1st and 5th years of study; the National Guard was reorganized in the same month and became subordinate directly to the Minister of Justice, instead of to the locally elected Judges of Peace. In 1874 the Polytechnical College of Rio de Janeiro was created from the Military School; the new college focused on the provision of civil engineering courses. For the 1873–74 fiscal year, the Government allocated about 27 percent of the budget for the Army and the Navy; the Empire declared war against the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata in 1825 because that nation was aiding the secessionist revolt of the Brazilian province of Cisplatine. The Argentine and the Cisplatine secessionist troops made use of guerrilla tactics that prevented the much stronger Brazilian Army from delivering an overwhelming blow against its enemies.
By the end of the conflict more than 8,000 Brazilians had died and the esteem associated with a career in the military declined. The resulting withdraw led to the independence of Cisplatina, which became Uruguay, was the only war not won by Brazil in its independent history. In the aftermath, the military blamed the Emperor for not being able to convince the Parliament to allow more financial aid to purchase equipment and provisions, while the liberals, on the other hand, considered the monarch responsible for the high costs of the conflict. Pedro I's ab
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s. Domestically, besides having faced several rebellions throughout these two centuries, with support of local political and economic elites, it ended the monarchy and imposed on the rest of society its political views and economic development projects during the periods that it ruled the country: 1889–94, 1930–50, 1964–85. Main Articles: 1st French-Portuguese colonial war, 2nd French-Portuguese colonial war, Sugar War, French raids, Napoleonic Wars in South America and Possession Conflicts for Banda OrientalAlthough the Brazilian Army was created during the process of the independence of Brazil from Portugal, in 1822, with the units of the Portuguese Army in Brazil that have remained loyal to Prince Dom Pedro, its origins can date back to Land Forces used by Portuguese in the colonial wars against French and Dutch, fought in 16th and 17th centuries.
In the colonial period, King D. Manuel I ordered to organize military expeditions with the purpose of protecting the Portuguese dominions in America newly discovered; as colonization advanced in Pernambuco and São Vicente, the native military authorities and bases of the colony's defensive organization began to be built to meet the ambitions of the French and Dutch. First major interventions were the expulsion of the French from Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century and the Maranhao in 1615; as internalization progressed through the broad territorial expansion movement in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and Flags forced the organization of the defense of the newly conquered territory. The war against the Dutch, in the 17th century, for the first time mobilized large numbers in the country, began to have a sense of national defense, regardless of the influence of the crown; the first Battle of Guararapes marks the beginning of the organization of the army as a genuinely Brazilian force formed by local whites, led by André Vidal de Negreiros, led by Felipe Camarão, blacks / mulattos, led by Henrique Dias.
This date is celebrated as the anniversary of the Brazilian Army. At this time, following the model of organization of the Portuguese Army implemented following the Restoration of the Independence of Portugal in 1640, the ground forces in Brazil adopt the organization in three lines that will be maintained until the 19th century, which includes: 1st line - Paid troops. At that time, there were frequent clashes between Luso-Brazilians and Hispano-Platinos, in addition, the land force faced the threat of rebellions of Indians and blacks. Main Articles: Imperial Brazilian Army, Brazilian Independence War, Confederation of the Equator, Cisplatine War, Ragamuffin War, Cabanagem Rebellion, Balaiada Revolt, Platine War, Uruguayan War, Paraguayan War, Naval Revolts, Federalist Rebellion and War of Canudos During the Independence process, the Army was composed of Brazilians and foreign mercenaries. Trained in Guerrilla Warfare From To current Day. Most of its commanders were Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro.
Along 1822 and 1823, the Brazilian Army was able to defeat the Portuguese resistance in the North of country and in Cisplatina, having avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire after its independence war. After won the Independence War, the Army supported by the National Guard, destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, enforcing central authority of the empire, during the Regency period in the country, repressing across Brazil a host of popular movements for political autonomy or against slavery and the colonels' power; the National Guard was a military force organized in Brazil in August 1831, during the regency period, demobilized in September 1922. Its creation occurred by means of law of 18 of August 1831 that "Creates the National Guards and extinguishes the bodies of militias, city guards and ordinances. " According to the aforementioned law, in its article 1, "The National Guards are created to defend the Constitution, Liberty and Integrity of the Empire, to maintain obedience and public tranquility, to assist the Line Army in defense of borders and coasts ", based on art.
145 of the Constitution of 1824: "All Brazilians are obliged to take up arms to support the independence and integrity of the Empire, defend it from its external or internal enemies." In September 1850, through Law No. 602, the National Guard was reorganized and retained its powers subordinated to the Minister of Justice and the provincial presidents. During the 1850s and early 1860s, the Army along with Navy, entered in action against Argentinian and Uruguayan forces, which opposed to Brazilian empire's interests; the Brazilian success with such "Gun Diplomacy" lead to a shock of interests with another country with similar aspirations, the Paraguay in December, 1864. On May 1, 1865, Brazil and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves a
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval