Palembang is the capital of South Sumatra province in Indonesia. The city proper covers 369.22 square kilometres of land on both banks of the lower Musi River on the eastern lowland of southern Sumatra, with an estimated population of 1,708,413 in 2014, making it the second most populous city on Sumatra, after Medan, the ninth most populous city in Indonesia and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia. The metropolitan area of Greater Palembang comprises part of regencies around the city such as Banyuasin, Ogan Ilir, Ogan Komering Ilir, with a total estimated population of more than 3.5 million in 2015. Palembang is the one of the oldest cities in the Indonesia Southeast Asia. Palembang was once the capital city of Srivijaya, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that ruled many parts of the western archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes in the Strait of Malacca; the earliest evidence of the city's existence dates from the 7th century. The first inscription in which Srivijaya was mentioned, Kedukan Bukit Inscription, found in the city dates from the 7th century.
Palembang was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies in 1825 after the abolishment of the Palembang Sultanate. It was chartered as a city on 1 April 1906. Among many historical landmarks together with its rich culture and culinary, Palembang is known by many Indonesians for its main landmark, Ampera Bridge, its authentic food, pempek; the city is the host city of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta. The first light rail system in Indonesia will be operated in Palembang in July 2018. Despite these, Palembang is still not among the most favorite tourist destinations in Indonesia; the city is not well known in the world and has poor number of foreign tourists as it attracted only 9,850 foreign tourists of the 2,011,417 tourists who visited Palembang in 2017. Traffic jams, slums and peatland fire are the most well known problems in Palembang; the etymology of the city's name is still under dispute. Some believe. By adding the prefix pe- which indicates a place or situation, the city's name means "a place to pan gold and diamond ores".
It is said that during antiquity, the ruler ordered gold and diamond miners to pan their ores in the city for security and surveillance reasons. Others claim. By adding the same prefix, the city's name means "a place where the water leaks", it means "a place, inundated by water". It refers to the geographical features of Palembang, a wetland; some say that the name was given by four brothers who survived a shipwreck near Musi River during the Majapahit reign. It is said that on their way to a new colony in eastern Sumatra, when their ship was wrecked, all belongings in the ship sunk into the sea except a broken wooden box which the survivor used as rafts; the rafts were wobbled by the waves until they drifted ashore to a land, named Palimbang by them. Palembang has a special Chinese character rendition like several cities in Indonesia. In Chinese, Palembang is written as 巨港, it refers to the city in the past, once a bustling major port in Southeast Asia. The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 682 AD, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang.
The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called "Matajap," and founding the polity of Srivijaya. The "Matajap" of the inscription is believed to be a district of Palembang. According to George Coedes, "in the second half of the 9th century Java and Sumatra were united under the rule of a Sailendra reigning in Java...its centre at Palembang."As the capital of the Srivijaya kingdom, this second oldest city in Southeast Asia has been an important trading centre in maritime Southeast Asia for more than a millennium. The kingdom flourished by controlling the international trade through the Strait of Malacca from the seventh to thirteenth century, establishing hegemony over polities in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Sanskrit inscriptions and Chinese travelogues report that the kingdom prospered as an intermediary in the international trade between China and India; because of the Monsoon, or biannual seasonal wind, after getting to Srivijaya, traders from China or India had to stay there for several months waiting the direction of the wind changes, or had to go back to China or India.
Thus, Srivijaya grew to be the biggest international trade centre, not only the market, but infrastructures for traders such as lodging and entertainment developed. It functioned as a cultural centre as well. Yijing, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who stayed in today’s Palembang and Jambi in 671, recorded that there were more than a thousand Buddhist monks and learned scholars, sponsored by the kingdom to study religion in Palembang, he recorded that there were many "states" under the kingdom called Srivijaya. In 990, an army from the Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Cudamani Warmadewa, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was repelled. In retaliation, Srivijaya king sent his troops to assist King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed. In 1068, King Virarajendra Chola of the Chola
Samaratungga was the head of the Sailendra dynasty who ruled Central Java and Srivijaya in the 8th and the 9th century. He was the successor of King Indra, his name was mentioned in Karangtengah inscription dated 824 CE as the constructor of a sacred Buddhist building called Venuvana to place the cremated ashes of his predecessor King Indra of Sailendra. During his administration, he initiated the construction of a massive Buddhist monument Borobudur. Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, the princess of Srivijayan ruler Dharmasetu, which created close political alliance between the Sailendras and Srivijaya. Samaratungga had one son by the name of one daughter Pramodhawardhani. After Samaratungga died, Pramodhawardhani married the Shivaite Rakai Pikatan from Sanjaya dynasty. Rakai Pikatan managed to usurp Balaputra's authority over Central Java and forced the Saleidras to flee Java for Srivijaya. Under the reign of Samaratungga too, Jayavarman II was appointed as the governor of Indrapura in the Mekong delta.
Jayavarman revoked his allegiance to the Sailedras and Srivijaya to form the Khmer Empire
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
The Shailendra dynasty was the name of a notable Indianised dynasty that emerged in 8th-century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region. The Shailendras were active promoters of Mahayana Buddhism, covered the Kedu Plain of Central Java with Buddhist monuments, one of, the colossal stupa of Borobudur, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Shailendras are considered to have been a thalassocracy and ruled vast swathes of maritime Southeast Asia, however they relied on agricultural pursuits, by way of intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java, for some period, the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra; the inscriptions created by Shailendras use three languages. The use of Old Malay has sparked speculation of a Sumatran origin, or Srivijayan connection of this family. On the other hand, the use of Old Javanese suggests their firm political establishment on Java; the use of Sanskrit indicates the official nature, and/or religious significance, of the event described in any given inscription.
The Sojomerto inscription discovered in Batang Regency, Central Java, mentioned the name Dapunta Selendra and Selendranamah. The name'Selendra' was another spelling of Shailendra, suggested that Dapunta Selendra was the progenitor of Shailendra family in Central Java; the inscription is Shaivist in nature, which suggests that the family was initially Hindu Shaivist before converting to Mahayana Buddhism. The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which mentioned the dynastic name of Śailēndra as Śailēndravamśatilaka appears is the Kalasan inscription of central Java, which mention its ruler Mahārāja dyāḥ Pañcapaṇa kariyāna Paṇaṃkaraṇa and commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine, Candi Kalasan, dedicated for the goddess Tara; the name appears in several other inscriptions like the Kelurak inscription and the Karangtengah inscription. Outside Indonesia, the name Shailendra is to be found in the Ligor inscription on the Malay peninsula and Nalanda inscription in India, it is possible that it was Paṇaṃkaraṇa that create the Chaiya, or Ligor inscription, took control over Srivijayan realm in the Southern Thailand Malay Peninsula.
Although the rise of the Shailendras occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion. Apart from Java itself; the latest studies favour a native origin of the dynasty. Despite their connections with Srivijaya in Sumatra and Thai-Malay Peninsula, the Shailendras were more of Javanese origin. According to Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, an Indian scholar, the Shailendra dynasty that established itself in the Indonesian archipelago originated from Kalinga in Eastern India; this opinion is shared by Nilakanta Sastri and J. L. Moens. Moens further describes that the Shailendras originated in India and established themselves in Palembang before the arrival of Srivijaya's Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. In 683, the Shailendras moved to Java because of the pressure exerted by Dapunta Hyang and his troops. Other scholars hold that the expansion of Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java. Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage.
The fact that some of Shailendra's inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections. The name'Selendra' was first mentioned in Sojomerto inscription as "Dapunta Selendra". Dapunta Selendra is suggested as the ancestor of Shailendras; the title Dapunta is similar to those of Srivijayan King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, the inscription — although discovered in Central Java north coast — was written in old Malay, which suggested the Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection to this family. Another theory suggests that Shailendra was a native Javanese dynasty and the Sanjaya dynasty was a branch of the Shailendras since Sri Sanjaya and his offspring belong to the Shailendra family that were the Shaivist rulers of the Medang Kingdom; the association of Shailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion of Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory is based on the Carita Parahyangan, which tells of the ailing King Sanjaya ordering his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to Buddhism because their faith in Shiva was feared by the people in favor of the pacifist Buddhist faith.
The conversion of Panangkaran to Buddhism corresponds to the Raja Sankhara inscription, which tells of a king named Sankhara converting to Buddhism because his Shaiva faith was feared by the people. The Raja Sankhara inscription is now missing. In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar-sounding'mountainlord' titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this, they hold. The Shailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya in Sumatra. For instance, Samaragrawira married a daughter of Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu; the mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Shailendra had access to the international market. Karan
The Shivagrha inscription is an inscription from the Medang Kingdom of Central Java, dated in chandrasengkala ”Wwalung gunung sang wiku”, that is, the year 856 CE. The inscription was inscribed by order of Dyah Lokapala right after the end of Rakai Pikatan's reign, gave a detailed description of a grand temple compound dedicated to Shiva called Shivagrha, corresponding to the Prambanan temple compound. A public water project to change the course of a river near Shivagrha Temple is mentioned in this inscription; the river, identified as the Opak River, now runs north to south on the western side of the Prambanan temple compound. Historians suggest that the river was curved further to east and was deemed too near to the main temple; the project was done by cutting the river along a north to south axis along the outer wall of the Shivagrha Temple compound. The former river course was filled in and made level to create a wider space for the temple expansion, the space for rows of pervara temples.
Mentioned is that the King was a Shivaist, in contrast to his queen consort Pramodhawardhani, a Buddhist. The inscription mentions a battle for royal succession against Jatiningrat, the rebel having made a fortress of hundreds of stones for refuge; this fortress is connected to the site of Ratu Boko. Traditionally Balaputradewa was thought as the person; however this theory was revisited as it was more that it was Rakai Walaing pu Kumbayoni that challaged Pikatan authority as the new monarch of Medang Mataram kingdom. Rakai Walaing was a powerful landlord that claimed to be the descendants of king that once ruled Java. Today the inscription is displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia, under the inventory number No. D.28. // Swasti ……………………… nyalaka ………………………….. // saçri ………………………. Nang jetrakula ……………… nyāpita // …………………….. The young prince ………, in possession of royal majesty, protected the country of Java and with …. Majestic in battles and in feasts, full of fervour and perfect, victorious but free from passion, a Great King of excellent devotion.
He was Çaiwa in contrast to the spouse of the hero. Stones heaped up by the hundreds for his refuge, a killer as fast as the wind ….. Bālaputra. A king, perfect in world, ……….. A protection for his comrades, indeed a hero who knew the duties of his rank. After these, the king Jatiningrat resigned. A royal order went out to the Patih. All his actions during the time were inspired by a divine majesty; when he could at last dispose of power and riches, etc. it was only natural that sanctuaries were built by him, the Able One. In addition, he possessed the knowledge, difficult to acquire, of Dharma and Adharma, but he was unable to conceal the lies of ….. The wicked ones ceased to act against him, ….. )?). …. He, with all simple people, low-born men positions. Made them beautiful. ……, the heart with its own wall and bricks to construct the dam, for thus it was desired. Fierce doorkeepers ….. So that thieves would become afraid to …… being caught in taking away. A beautiful dwelling of god ….. Of the tree Ki Muhūr, the stem was only one year old.
Out of worship gave. In a moment, the temples with the gateways and innumerable, immovable women, were completed by the surveyors working by the hundreds. What would be comparable to this divine; the worshippers came by the hundreds, without saying a word. Who would not be the first to go and see? It was charming ……....... Pilgrimage …….
Srivijaya, was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Indonesian archipelago; the rise of the Srivijayan Empire is seen to run parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods based economy; the earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for six months; the earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, dated 16 June 682. Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia.
It was involved in close interactions rivalries, with the neighbouring Java and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East; the kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires. After Srivijaya fell, it was forgotten, it was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence. Srivijaya is a Sanskrit-derived name: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, it was known in many names, including Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese: ᮞᮢᮤᮝᮤᮏᮚ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ Srey Vichey, Burmese: သီရိပစ္စယာ Thiripyisaya, Chinese: 三佛齊 Sanfoqi. In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".
Thus the combined word Srivijaya means "shining victory", "splendid triumph", "prosperous victor", "radiance of excellence" or "glorious". Historians of early 20th-century that studied the inscriptions of Sumatra and the neighboring islands, thought that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a person's name — a king to be exact; the Sundanese manuscript of Carita Parahyangan composed around the late 16th-century in West Java, mentioned vaguely about a princely hero that rose to be a king named Sanjaya that after secured his rule in Java — involved in battle with the Malayu and Keling, against their king named "Sang Sri Wijaya". The term Malayu is Javanese-Sundanese term to refer Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refer to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago. Fascinatingly, the name Srivijaya still being found in this local manuscript, although was mistakenly refer to a king. Subsequently, after studying both local stone inscriptions and Chinese historical accounts, historians concluded that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a polity or a kingdom.
Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains. There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya in Indonesia and Malaysia. Contemporary Indonesians those from the area of Palembang, had not heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s when the French scholar, George Cœdès, published his discoveries and interpretations in the Dutch- and Indonesian-language newspapers. Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi" read as "Sribhoja", the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire; the Srivijayan historiography was acquired and established from two main sources: the Chinese historical accounts and the Southeast Asian stone inscriptions that have been discovered and deciphered in the region. The Buddhist pilgrim Yijing's account is important on describing Srivijaya, when he visited the kingdom in 671 for six months; the 7th-century siddhayatra inscriptions discovered in Palembang and Bangka island are vital primary historical sources. Regional accounts that some might be tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer King provides a glimpse of the kingdom.
Besides, some Indian and Arabic accounts describes vaguely about the riches and fabulous fortune of the king of Zabag. The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions. Srivijaya had become a symbol of early Sumatran importance as a great empire to balance Java's Majapahit in the east. In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies. Srivijaya, by extension Sumatra, had been known by different names to different peoples; the Chinese called it Sanfoqi or Che-li-fo-che, there was an older kingdom of Kantoli, which could be considered the predecessor of Srivijaya. Sanskrit and Pali texts referred to it as Javadeh, respectively; the Arabs called the Khmers called it Melayu.
While the Javanese called them Suvarnabhumi, Suvarnadvipa or Malayu. This is another reason. While some of these names are reminiscent of the name o
The Medang Empire or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries. It was based in Central Java, in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty. During most of its history the kingdom seems have relied on agriculture extensive rice farming, also benefited from maritime trade. According to foreign sources and archaeological findings, the kingdom seems to have been well populated and quite prosperous; the kingdom developed a complex society, had a well developed culture, achieved a degree of sophistication and refined civilization. In the period between the late 8th century and the mid-9th century, the kingdom saw the blossoming of classical Javanese art and architecture reflected in the rapid growth of temple construction. Temples dotted the landscape of its heartland in Mataram; the most notable of the temples constructed in Medang Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu and Prambanan, all quite close to present-day city of Yogyakarta.
At its peak, the kingdom had become a dominant empire—not only in Java, but in Sumatra, southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of the Philippines, the Khmer in Cambodia. The dynasty divided into two kingdoms identified by religious patronage—the Buddhist and Shivaist dynasties. Civil war followed; the outcome was. Hostility between them did not end until 1006 when the Sailendra clan based in Srivijaya incited a rebellion by Wurawari, a vassal of the Medang kingdom, sacked the capital of Watugaluh in East Java. Srivijaya rose to become the undisputed hegemonic empire in the region; the Shivaist dynasty survived, reclaimed east Java in 1019, established the Kahuripan kingdom led by Airlangga, son of Udayana of Bali. In the early 19th century, the discovery of numerous ruins of great monuments—such as Borobudur and Prambanan— which dominated the landscape of the Kedu and Kewu plains in Yogyakarta and Central Java, caught the attention of some historians and scholars in the colonial Dutch East Indies.
This spurred archaeological studies to uncover the history of this ancient civilisation. The history of the Mataram area as the capital of the Central Javanese Medang kingdom is part of the historical Yawadvipa or Bhumijava, the classical Javanese civilisation; the Indians collectively called them as Yawadvipa, the Khmer refer to them as Chvea, the Chinese called them as Shepo, Chopo or Chao-wa, the Arabs called them as Jawi or Jawah, Srivijayan refer to them as Bhumijava. The native Javanese most refer to their lands and country as Jawi, while the name of their nagara is based on their capital; the only foreign source mentioning Mdaη was found from the Philippines inscription, dated 822 saka. There are no comprehensive written records that have survived in Java except numbers of prasasti written on stones or copper plates; these inscriptions most recorded the political and religious deeds of the rulers. The most common theme mentioned in inscriptions is the establishment of Sima, sometimes some portion or the whole of tax collected from this Sima land is appointed to fund the construction and maintenance of religious building.
Some local legends and historical records, written on lontar—most dated from period—might provides data and source to reconstruct the historical event. Native Javanese mythology and beliefs composed in the Mataram Sultanate era, but originating from an earlier period, mentioned a semi-mythological kingdom named Medang Kamulan, which in Javanese translates to "Medang the origin" kingdom; the kingdom is mentioned in the myth of Dewi Sri and Aji Saka. This is the remnant of vague native Javanese collective memory of the existence of an ancient kingdom called "Medang". Current knowledge of historical Javanese civilisation is thus derived from: Archaeological excavations and investigation of ancient structures candi, the discovery of ancient relics, such as the Wonoboyo hoard. Stone inscriptions, most common are those which mention the foundation and funding of temples which report on the political and religious deeds of the kings, or stating their lineage. Bas reliefs in a series of temple walls with depictions of life in the palace, temple, ship and the everyday lives of the population.
The most notable are the bas reliefs found on Prambanan temple. Native manuscripts mentioning stories of kings, their deeds and exploits, that somehow link across to accounts mentioned in stone inscriptions; the notable example is the Carita Parahyangan. Reports and chronicles of foreign diplomats and travellers from Chinese and Arab sources; the kingdom was identified only through its location Yawadvipa as mentioned in Canggal inscription. The inscription mentioned Rakai Mataram Sang Ratu Sanjaya; the earlier historians such as Soekmono, identify this kingdom as Mataram, a historic geographical name to identify the plain south of Mount Merapi in central Java corresponds to modern Muntilan, Yogyakarta and Bantul Regency. This is based on the locations where large numbers of can