Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An independent and autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; the region of Pokuttya was part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine; the original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River. Dragoș was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; the dog's name would have been extended to the country. The old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine" the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt", referring to the river. A Slavic etymology, marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns.
A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych. In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia. Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Boğdan. See names in other languages; the name of the region in other languages include French: Moldavie, German: Moldau, Hungarian: Moldva, Russian: Молдавия, Turkish: Boğdan Prensliği, Greek: Μολδαβία. The inhabitants of Moldova were Christians. Archaeological works revealed the remains of a Christian necropolis at Mihălășeni, Botoșani county, from the 5th century; the place of worship, the tombs had Christian characteristics. The place of worship had a rectangular form with sides of seven meters. Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in IașiThe Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century; the chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev.
Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Their ethnic identity is uncertain. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs in the area of what will become Moldavia. In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain.
Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In the 14th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1353, Dragoș, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureș, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces of Mongols on the Siret River; this expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia. Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control.
His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by t
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc 1,500 km long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the third-longest mountain range in Europe after the Ural Mountains with 2,500 km and Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km. They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species; the Carpathians and their foothills have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares, most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area; the Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest through Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine Serbia and Romania in the southeast.
The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m. The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m; the divisions of the Carpathians are in three major sections: Western Carpathians—Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary Eastern Carpathians—southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia and Romania Southern Carpathians—Serbia and RomaniaThe term Outer Carpathians is used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca and Braşov in Romania, Uzhhorod in Ukraine. In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech and Slovak and Карпати in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, Kárpátok in Hungarian. Although the toponym was recorded by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages.
For instance, Havasok was its medieval Hungarian name. Sources, such as Dimitrie Cantemir and the Italian chronicler Giovanandrea Gromo, referred to the range as "Transylvania's Mountains", while the 17th-century historian Constantin Cantacuzino translated the name of the mountains in an Italian-Romanian glossary to "Rumanian Mountains"; the name "Carpates" is associated with the old Dacian tribes called "Carpes" or "Carpi" who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova. The name Carpates may be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word karpë, the Slavic word skála via a Dacian cognate which meant mountain, rock, or rugged; the archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots, or trunks". The more common word skarpa means other vertical terrain; the name may instead come from Indo-European *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek καρπός karpós "wrist" referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape.
In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name, first recorded in Ptolemy's Geographia. In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum. "Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia" by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia in 1211. Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal, or less Montes Nivium; the northwestern Carpathians begin in southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania; the total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km. The highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur; the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the southern Tatra Mountains group – the highest range, in which Gerlachovský štít in Slovakia is the highest peak at 2,655 m above sea level.
The Carpathians cover an area of 190,000 km2, after the Alps, form the next-most extensive mountain system in Europe. Although referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps; the Carpathians, which attain an altitude over 2,500 m in only a few places, lack the bold peaks, extensive snowfields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. It was believed that no area of the Carpathian range was covered in snow all yea
Count of the Székelys
The Count of the Székelys was the leader of the Hungarian-speaking Székelys in Transylvania, in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. First mentioned in royal charters of the 13th century, the counts were the highest-ranking royal officials in Székely Land. From around 1320 to the second half of the 15th century, the counts' jurisdiction included four Transylvanian Saxon districts, in addition to the seven Székely seats; the counts held important castles outside the territories under their administration, including their seat at Görgény. They were the supreme commanders of the Székely troops; the counts presided over the general assemblies of both the individual Székely seats and the entire Székely community. They heard appeals of the decisions of the supreme court of Székely Land. Beginning in the late 14th century, Hungarian monarchs appointed two or three noblemen to jointly hold the office. From the 1440s, at least one of these joint holders was regularly made Voivode of Transylvania, because frequent Ottoman raids against Transylvania required the centralization of the military command of the province.
The offices of the count and the voivode were in practice united after 1467. From the late 16th century, the princes of Transylvania styled themselves as counts of the Székelys. After the integration of the principality with the Habsburg Empire, in the early 18th century, the title was in abeyance until Maria Theresa revived it at the Székelys' request, she and her successors on the Hungarian throne used the title until 1918. The origin of the office is obscure; the Hungarian-speaking Székelys were a "well organized community of warriors" in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. They lived in scattered groups along the frontiers of the kingdom. In Transylvania, they first settled along the rivers Kézd, Orbó, Sebes, but started to migrate to the easternmost region of the province when the ancestors of the Transylvanian Saxons began to arrive around 1150. Bishop Otto of Freising mentioned that "two counts" commanded the archers in the vanguard of the Hungarian army in the Battle of the Fischa, in 1146.
The Hungarian chronicles recorded that Székelys and Pechenegs formed the vanguard of the Hungarian army in that battle, thus the bishop's report may contain the first reference to a count of the Székelys, according to Attila Zsoldos, Gyula Kristó, other historians. On the other hand, as historian Zoltán Kordé emphasizes, 13th-century royal charters mentioned other royal officials who ruled Székely groups, suggesting that the office had not been established in the previous century. For instance, a royal charter tells of an army of Saxon, Vlach, Székely, Pecheneg troops fighting in Bulgaria under the command of Joachim, Count of Hermannstadt, in the early 1210s; the earliest royal charter mentioning a "count and commander of the Székelys" was issued in 1235. It refers to a military campaign launched against Bulgaria in 1228. Thus, the office must have existed in that year at the latest, but the count was not the sole ruler of all Székelys for decades after. For instance, a diploma of Béla IV of Hungary refers to the count of the Székelys of Nagyváty in Baranya County.
Lack Hermán, who held the office from 1328 to 1343, was styled as "count of the three clans of the Székelys". The Székelys were organized into special administrative units in Transylvania; these units were known as "seats" beginning in the second half of the 14th century. Székely Land was divided into seven seats. Udvarhelyszék, Marosszék, Csíkszék, Kézdiszék, Orbaiszék, Sepsiszék formed a contiguous territory in south-eastern Transylvania; the jurisdiction of the counts was not limited to Székely Land. The Saxon district of Mediasch was subject to them until Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, exempted the inhabitants from the counts' authority in 1402; the counts were continuously the rulers of the Saxons of Bistritz from 1320. This district was granted to John Hunyadi by Ladislaus V of Hungary in 1453; the Saxons of Kronstadt and Burzenland were under the jurisdiction of the counts from 1344 until the mid-15th century. The counts held one of the most important honors in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The system of honors allowed a great officer of the realm to enjoy all royal revenues connected to his office. The fines imposed in the Székely seats were to be paid to the counts; each seat was required to give a horse to the new count at his installation. The counts received the royal revenues from the Saxon territories under their jurisdiction. However, most of their revenues came from the estates attached to the royal castles that they held outside Székely Land; the counts kept the right of possession of these royal castles after most high officers of the realm had lost such rights around 1402. The counts most held court in the castle of Görgény, in Torda County; the castle was first mentioned as being in the counts' possession in 1358. It was granted to Hunyadi in 1453; the castle of Höltövény in Alsó-Fehér County was first mentioned as the counts' honor in 1335. The counts seized the castles of Törcsvár and Királykő in Felső-Fehér County, the latter being listed
Szatmár County was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in north-western north-eastern Hungary, south of the river Tisza; the capital of the county was Nagykároly, today called Carei. After 1876 Szatmár county shared borders with the former Hungarian counties Szabolcs, Ugocsa, Máramaros, Szolnok-Doboka, Szilágy and Bihar, it was situated south of the river Tisza. The river Szamos flowed through the county, its area was 6257 km² around 1910. In 1920 the Treaty of Trianon assigned most of the territory of the county to Romania, while Velika Palad village was passed to Czechoslovakia in 1921 after border adjustment agreement with Romania. According to the agreement Akli and Fertősalmás villages were passed to Czechoslovakia; the northwest of the county remained in Hungary, formed the new county Szatmár-Ugocsa-Bereg with parts of the former Bereg and Ugocsa counties. The capital of this county was Mátészalka, in Szatmár county. According to First Vienna Award Velika Palad was returned to Hungary but passed to USSR in 1945.
Romanian part of it was returned to Hungary by the Second Vienna Award in 1940 until the end of World War II when it became again part of Romania. After World War II, the county Szatmár-Ugocsa-Bereg was merged with Szabolcs county to form Szabolcs-Szatmár county; this county was renamed Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg in the 1990s. The Romanian part of the county is now part of the Romanian county Satu Mare, except the easternmost part, in Maramureş county. In 1900, the county had a population of 367,570 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities: Hungarian: 235,015 Romanian: 118,770 German: 11,763 Slovak: 449 Ruthenian: 279 Croatian: 246 Serbian: 20 Other or unknown: 1,028 According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities: Greek Catholic: 156,063 Calvinist: 118,866 Roman Catholic: 62,803 Jewish: 26,405 Eastern Orthodox: 2,260 Lutheran: 1,049 Unitarian: 40 Other or unknown: 84 In 1910, county had a population of 396,632 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Hungarian: 268,385 Romanian: 119,760 German: 6,670 Slovak: 425 Ruthenian: 114 Croatian: 66 Serbian: 27 Other or unknown: 1,185 According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities: Greek Catholic: 168,870 Calvinist: 126,826 Roman Catholic: 67,924 Jewish: 29,468 Eastern Orthodox: 2,202 Lutheran: 1,237 Unitarianist: 46 Other or unknown: 59 In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Szatmár county were: Csenger, Fehérgyarmat and Mátészalka are now in Hungary.
House of Dragoș
The House of Dragoș known as the House of Drăgoșești was founded by Dragoș, traditionally been considered the first ruler or prince of Moldavia and, Voivode in Maramureş. Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia Sas of Moldavia Giula of Giulești Balc of Moldavia Bartolomeu Dragfi Drág, Count of the Székelys Bertalan Drágffy, Count of the Székelys John Drágfi Gáspár Drágffy, főispán of Közép-Szolnok. Anna Drágffy, spouse of Kristóf Frangepán / Frankopan, ban of Croatie. Julianna Drágffy, spouse of András Báthori de Ecsed, Master of the cavalry, főispán of Szabolcs et Szatmár; the family descendants live in Romania in Poland, Ukraine. Voivode Dragoş I de Bedeu voivode of Máramaros Prince of Moldavia and his successor son Sas de Beltiug Prince of Moldavia, bore the blue escutcheon with the gold crescent, gold stars and gold arrow on their coat of arms. Other notable scions of Dragoş I were Bartolomeu Drágfi of Beltiug, Comes Perpetuus of Middle Szolnok, Voivode of Transylvania and Comes of the Székely people, who had distinguished himself earlier as a royal knight of the Hungarian Royal Court defeating the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Breadfield together with Pál Kinizsi, István Báthory, Vuk Branković and Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân.
At the time of King Matthias Corvinus' death, Bartholomew Drágfi of Beltiug was among the wealthiest landowners of the country, three castles, two manor houses, eight market towns and about 200 villages were in his property. His estates in Middle Szolnok and Satu Mare included the castles of Chioar and Ardud together with the large lordships surrounding them, further, the castles of Șoimi and the castellum of Ceheiu. Another important family member, among others, was Ioan Drágfi of Beltiug Comes of Temes County in 1525, who died 1526 in the Battle of Mohács. List of titled noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary C. Tóth, Norbert. "Szász vajda utódainak felemelkedése és bukása. A család vázlatos története 1365–1424 között ". In Hegyi, Géza. A Szilágyság és. Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület. Pp. 135–166. ISBN 978-606-8178-64-6. Horváth, Richárd. "A bélteki Drágfiak és a királyi udvar kapcsolata a Hunyadiak korában ". In Hegyi, Géza. A Szilágyság és. Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület. Pp. 167–212. ISBN 978-606-8178-64-6. Neumann, Tibor.
"Drágfi Bertalan politikai szerepe II. Ulászló király idején ". In Hegyi, Géza. A Szilágyság és. Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület. Pp. 213–235. ISBN 978-606-8178-64-6
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world. Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania; the House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen; the monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic.
The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920–46, ending under the Soviet occupation in 1946. The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia, Vojvodina and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary. Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state; the Latin forms Ungarie. The German name Königreich Ungarn was used from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s; the Hungarian name was used in the 1840s, again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was Magyarország, still the colloquial, the official name of Hungary; the names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei, Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Slovene: Kraljevina Ogrska, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, Italian, Regno d'Ungheria.
In Austria-Hungary, the unofficial name Transleithania was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. The term Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was in use prior to that time; the Hungarians led by Árpád settled the Carpathian Basin in 895, established Principality of Hungary. The Hungarians led several successful incursions to Western Europe, until they were stopped by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in Battle of Lechfeld; the principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000. The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty, he fought with Bavarian help, defeated him near Veszprém. The Catholic Church received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe. Stephen I of Hungary was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1083 and an Orthodox saint in 2000.
After his death, a period of revolts and conflict for supremacy ensued between the royalty and the nobles. In 1051 armies of the Holy Roman Empire tried to conquer Hungary, but they were defeated at Vértes Mountain; the armies of the Holy Roman Empire continued to suffer defeats. Before 1052 Peter Orseolo, a supporter of the Holy Roman Empire, was overthrown by king Samuel Aba of Hungary; this period of revolts ended during the reign of Béla I. Hungarian chroniclers praised Béla I for introducing new currency, such as the silver denarius, for his benevolence to the former followers of his nephew, Solomon; the second greatest Hungarian king from the Árpád dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary, who stabilized and strengthened the kingdom. He was canonized as a saint. Under his rule Hungarians fought against the Cumans and acquired parts of Croatia in 1091. Due to a dynastic crisis in Croatia, with the help of the local nobility who supported his claim, he managed to swiftly seize power in northern parts of the Croatian kingdom, as he was a claimant to the throne due to the fact that his sister was married to the late Croatian king Zvonimir who died childless.
However, kingship over all of Croatia would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman. With the coronation of King Coloman as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd in 1102, the two kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary were united under one crown. Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a kind of personal union between the two kingdoms; the nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary from 1102 as a form of a personal union, i.e. that
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who