Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Beccar is a town located 17 km north of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is part of the partido of San Isidro in Gran Buenos Aires, it is situated close to the historic town of San Isidro and it is characterized by tree lined streets and plazas, red tiled roofed style chalets, high-rise apartment buildings that line the Avenida Centenario zone and by being close to the coast of Rio de la Plata river and yacht clubs. Nearby there is a large shanty town. Beccar is served by a 10-minute walk to scenic Tren de la Costa light rail line at Punta Chica station and the commuter railway at Beccar station with easy access to Buenos Aires city centre and the weekend retreat of the Village of Tigre. In the town of Beccar, in the mid-1930s, a young German immigrant entrepreneur, Dr. Erich Zeyen, who together with an associate friend, Dr. Germán Wernicke, created a building firm, F. I. N. C. A. Sociedad Anónima Argentina de Ahorro. Soon the small company began to acquire importance and built their first planned community, F.
I. N. C. A. Béccar within the town. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, architect and 1980 Nobel Peace Prize recipient Victoria Ocampo and writer, former owner of the Villa Ocampo residence Josef Mengele Adolf Eichmann Martina Stoessel Ciudad Jardín Lomas del Palomar History of de Béccar Information about Béccar ~ San Isidro News site for San Isidro Partido
Bahía Blanca is a city in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, is the seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido. It had 301,572 inhabitants according to the 2010 census, it is the principal city in the Greater Bahía Blanca urban agglomeration. The city has an important sea port with a depth of 45 feet, kept constant upstream all along the length of the bay, where the Napostá Stream drains. Bahía Blanca means "White Bay"; the name is due to the typical colour of the salt covering the soil surrounding the shores. The bay was seen by Ferdinand Magellan during his first circumnavigation of the world on the orders of Charles I of Spain, in 1520, looking for a canal connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of South America; the city was founded as a fortress on 11 April 1828 by Colonel Ramón Estomba under the orders of Brigadier-General and subsequent Governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, being named Fortaleza Protectora Argentina, intended to protect inhabitants from cattle rustlers, to protect the coast from the Brazilian navy, which had landed in the area the previous year.
It was visited by Charles Darwin during his travels through South America in September 1833. The fortress was attacked by malones several times, most notably in 1859 by 3,000 Calfucurá warriors, it became commercially important after the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway linked the town to the city of Buenos Aires in 1885, facilitating the transport of grain from the Pampas. The rapid growth of the local economy, the policy encouraging immigration from Europe and the country's abundant natural resources attracted many immigrants from Spain and Italy, a remarkable number from France, who settled in Pigüé, about 125 km to the north of the city. Another important foreign settlement close to the city was of Dutch settlers, in Tres Arroyos, located about 250 km north east. Major groups of immigrants from Germany and Jews from Eastern Europe arrived in the city and in the region at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as during World War II and the post-war period. European immigrants brought their customs and culture.
There were at least five opera houses in Bahía Blanca at the beginning of the 20th century and six cinemas by 1920. Puerto Belgrano, located 29 km to the southeast, is Argentina's largest naval base, its construction started with a secret decree signed by Argentine President José Evaristo Uriburu. It was designed and built at the turn of the 20th century by an Italian engineer Luigi Luiggi, carried out by a Dutch company named Dirks, Dates & Van Hattem; the municipal government of Bahia Blanca Partido encompasses the mayor, in charge of the executive branch, the city council, in charge of local legislation and audit of the municipal budget, a local Judiciary System, in charge of administering justice on behalf of the City regarding all the aspects of municipal legislation. The mayor and the members of the council are elected by direct vote while the municipal judges are appointed; the mayor appoints the members of his cabinet of Secretaries who can be summoned by the council to whom they are accountable.
A local political crisis in March 2006 resulted in the mayor's request for leave, granted by the city council on 27 March 2006. The mayor was indicted and the case continues in the local judiciary; the president of the city council took over as interim mayor. However, on 24 August 2006 the city council decided, for the first time in the history of the city, to unseat the elected mayor. With the approval of the supreme court of the Buenos Aires Province, the interim mayor and former president of the city council was appointed to complete his predecessor's term. Bahía Blanca is an important trans-shipping and commercial center, handling the large export trade of grains and wool from the southern area of Buenos Aires Province, oil from Neuquén Province, fruit from the Río Negro Valley, its group of sea ports is one of the most important in the country as the only ones that are 33 feet deep, although the depth of the main channel is kept at 40 feet by regular maintenance. Along the northeastern shore of the bay, these ports are Puerto Ingeniero White for grains and containers, Puerto Galván, a smaller one specialising in sunflower and soy oil, chemicals such as urea.
One of the largest urea industrial producers in the world, Profertil, is located there. Between these two main ports, several industrial and chemical plants operate their own piers; the petrochemical pole of the region made the port a convenient one. Competence between Puerto de Bahía Blanca and those located in the shores of Patagonia made it stronger and well organized having received investments from the private sector like Cargill that upgraded facilities in the 1980s; the combination of a railroad network for grains linking Rosario, by the shore of Paraná River to Bahía Blanca, its trade potential, linking Bahía Blanca to Zapala close to the border to Chile and to the Pacific Ocean shores avoiding days of navigation through Ferrocarril Transandino del Sur, the availability of energy and human resources make the area quite an interesting one from the industrial and commercial perspectives. There are several local societies representing economic activities taking place in the region such as Sociedad Rural, Corporación del Comercio y de la Industri
National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina
National Statistics and Censuses Institute is the Argentine government agency responsible for the collection and processing of statistical data. The institute analyses economic and social indicators such as inflation rate, consumer price index and unemployment, among others; the INDEC is supervised by different federal agencies, is under the direct oversight of the Secretaría de Programación Económica y Regional of the Ministerio de Economía y Producción. The INDEC coordinates the Sistema Estadístico Nacional through which the national and local statistical services work together; each provincial government has a statistics bureau called Dirección de Estadística, that collects and processes information. The Argentine Constitution does not provide for a national census; these were conducted only generationally until 1947, every decade since then. National censuses were taken in 1869, 1895, 1914, 1947, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010. Demographic and economic information is permanently updated with off-year censuses, such as the Economic and Agricultural Censuses, the sampled surveys published in Encuesta Permanente de Hogares.
Monthly releases include figures on inflation, trade balances, industrial production, retail sales, GDP. The first national statistics' centre was the Dirección General de Estadística, established in 1894 as a division of the Ministry of Public Finances. Fifty years in 1944, the Consejo Nacional de Estadística y Censos was created, with dependencies on both the Ministry of the Interior and the National Presidential Office. Other agencies were formed in 1950, 1952, 1956 before the final creation of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos in 1968 by Law 17622 and Decrees 3110/70 and 1831/93; the bureau's headquarters are located in a downtown, rationalist building designed by Arturo Dubourg, commissioned by President Juan Perón for use as the Ministry of Labour, completed in 1956. Although nominally independent, INDEC is subject to strong political pressure from the government, its statistics are no longer considered trustworthy; because INDEC's statistics have been reported as being manipulated by the Kirchner government, it is considered "discredited".
Controversy arose when the government of President Néstor Kirchner replaced Graciela Bevacqua, the Consumer Prices Indicator director. Bevacqua is reported to have arrived at a consumer price increase figure of 2.0% for January 2007 from internal data but the rate reported to the public was 1.1%. The head of INDEC resigned in March, a new board of directors led by Ana María Edwin was installed by the Ministry of Economy. A group of employees protested publicly at what they saw as a violation of INDEC's autonomy, an attempt by the Economy Ministry under Felisa Miceli to illegally keep inflation indicators under one percent a month. Prosecutors gathered evidence that high government officials had inquired of statistical staff how to get lower inflation numbers, that in early 2007 managers of the price indexes had excluded products whose prices had risen more than 15% in the survey and changed price data after it came in from the field workers. Prices and the official record have continued to part ways since former Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno's decision to intervene in the statistics institute in 2007.
Private-sector economists and statistical offices of provincial governments show inflation two to three times higher than INDEC's number. Unions, including those from the public sector, use these independent estimates when negotiating pay rises. Surveys by Torcuato di Tella University show inflation expectations running at 25-30%. Since INDEC's headline inflation statistics have been lower than estimates from analysts in the private sector and lower than INDEC's implicit private consumption price index, incorporated in the measurement of real GDP. Taken from the first quarter of 2007, each index has read as follows: The discrepancy has led to exchanged accusations of politically motivated statistical legerdemain between the ruling party and most of the political opposition, on both left and right. Officials facing election have an incentive to understate the headline CPI figure. Opposition figures relied on estimates made by figures such as Orlando Ferreres; the practice yielded the ruling party no political benefit, helped contribute to their loss in the October 2009 mid-term elections.
An alternative explanation for the policy could rest on government finances: the national government has issued around US$100 billion in government bonds. Payments on US$50 billion of this are indexed to inflation. Other government bonds are tied in value to GDP growth. A 7-point underestimate in inflation could save the Central Bank of Argentina US$3 billion in inflation-indexed interest payments, while higher economic growth would cost added interest on bonds tied to GDP. Since 2007, when Guillermo Moreno, the secretary of internal trade
Claypole, Buenos Aires
Claypole is an Argentine city located in the southern part of the Almirante Brown Partido, Buenos Aires Province with a population of 41,176. The lands were purchased by the Franciscan Congregation to establish a farm and provide produce to their convent in Buenos Aires, after a few years it was purchased by the Obligado family. Julia Obligado, by married to Pedro Claypole, donated the land for the local train station in 1876 upon the announcement of plans for a Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway line in the area; the station was thus named for Pedro Claypole, the arrival of the first train on April 15, 1884, became the establishment date of the town itself. The town's first school, Ejército de los Andes, was opened in 1906 at the home of a Mrs. Hebbel operated at the home of the Baile family; the Pequeño Cottolengo Argentino de Don Orione school opened in 1935, transforming the previous school into a Christian center for the needy. Furst-Zapiola, a prominent local realty donated lots for local institutions such as School Nº 10, the Police Station, the Local Development Society, the Post Office, City Delegation Hall.
The Centro Tradicionalista Viejo Gaucho, a society for the promotion of gaucho traditions, was established in 1991 in Claypole by Antonio Marcatario. The city is the site of Club Atlético Claypole which plays at the fifth level league Primera D of Argentine football. Sergio Martínez, world middleweight champion Municipal website
Florencio Varela, Buenos Aires
Florencio Varela is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is the administrative centre for Florencio Varela Partido, it forms part of the urban agglomeration of Greater Buenos Aires. The settlement was founded on 30 January 1891 by Juan de la Cruz Contreras, it is named after journalist Florencio Varela. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina
Bernal is a city located in the northeast of Quilmes in the province of Buenos Aires 10 miles south of the city of Buenos Aires. It is the second largest and most populated city in the Partido of Quilmes. Bernal borders Avellaneda Partido and Lanús Partido to the north-west, the city of Quilmes to the south-east, Almirante Brown Partido and Lomas de Zamora Partido to the south-west the Río de la Plata to the north-east. Bernal consists of the neighborhoods of Barrio Parque, Villa Cramer, Villa Alcira, Bernal Centre, among others; the Railway General Roca divides the city in two. The Bernals were an old family from the days of colonial Buenos Aires. In the mid-19th century, a descendant of the family, Don Pedro Bernal, established a farm in the Partido of Quilmes, built a house on that site. In 1850, he divided the land up into smaller farms which were settled by other prominent families, such as the Molina Salas, Ayersa and Bagley. 1850 is deemed as the official foundation year of the City of Bernal.
In 2001, Bernal had with 109,790 inhabitants the second largest population in the Partido of Quilmes 25% of the total partido population: 76,499 in West Bernal, 33,415 in East Bernal. These numbers imply a population growth of 15% compared with the figures of the 1991 INDEC Census which had shown a population of 111,361 inhabitants. National University of Quilmes Historical photographs gallery bernal.com.ar, information of Bernal's history and pictures barrioparquebernal.com.ar, Barrio Parque Bernal Comprehensive study on the history of the town