Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A fire chief is a top executive rank or commanding officer in a fire department. Various official English-language titles for a fire chief include fire chief, chief fire officer and fire commissioner; the latter can refer to an overseer who works for the local government. Chief Fire Officer is the usual title in the United Kingdom. Traditionally, a fire chief in Scotland was known as a fire master, but this was changed in 2006; the definition of the term fire officer varies by country, but refers to all firefighting personnel who have some command duties. This is comparable to the usage of "officer" in the military, rather than the term police officer. In fire departments of the United States, fire officers who are part of an engine company are company officers and those ranked higher are chief officers. A fire chief is appointed by the authority who oversees the running of the fire department, such as the mayor for a municipal fire department, it varies among countries as to whether it is the norm or not for fire chiefs to be former frontline firefighters.
This is the case in the United States. It is the norm in the United Kingdom, though in recent years there have been exceptions. By contrast, in France, fire officers and frontline firefighters are recruited separately in a similar way to the military. A fire chief's role varies depending on the size of the department; some countries have a single national fire service, such as New Zealand. Conversely, some countries like the United States and Germany have autonomous fire departments in small towns. Others organize their fire services based on subdivisions such as regions, provinces or sub-national states; the larger the fire department, the more ranks will exist in between the chief and regular firefighters, such as assistant or deputy chiefs. The chief of a small volunteer fire department is to be the main incident commander for the majority of their call-outs and is nearly always a volunteer as well. On the other hand, the chief of a large fire department is employed in a administrative role, will only be called out to the largest incidents.
The fire chief is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day tasks of running a firefighting organization. Such tasks include supervising other officers and firefighters at an emergency scene and recruiting and equipping them for their respective duties. Depending upon local needs and organization, the Chief may be involved in fire prevention, fire inspection, disaster preparedness, emergency medical services, related disciplines, as well as administrative duties such as budgets and personnel issues, research into safety and regulations, liaison with other agencies; the chief is answerable to the national government that oversees the fire service. During an emergency incident, the first fire officer on the scene must "establish command", which can be transferred to more senior officers such as the chief; the chief may delegate some statutory powers to qualified officers, such as the ability to enter or use private property as reasonably necessary to stop a fire, or to order people or property seized as may be essential to preserving safety or investigating the cause of an incident.
A fire chief's vehicle is not only a means of transport, but can act as an Incident Command Post and a contact point for media reporters. Incident commander Chief of police Chief Fire Officer National Fire Protection Association International Association of Fire Chiefs Fire Chief - Magazine for Fire protection officials
Chief of police
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department in North America. A chief of police may be known as a police chief or sometimes just a chief, while some countries favour other titles such as commissioner or chief constable. A police chief is appointed by and answerable to a national or local government, with the main exception being elected sheriffs in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the chief police officer for 43 of the 45 territorial police forces and the 3 special police forces holds the rank of Chief Constable; the exceptions are the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police, where the chief police officer instead holds the rank of Commissioner. The umbrella term for the chief constables and commissioners is chief police officer; the term "chief officer", by contrast, includes the chief police officers and their deputies and assistants. The National Police Chiefs Council is the association for chief officers.
The rank of Commissioner should not be confused with the Crime Commissioners. They are elected officials who oversee a police force and how its funds are spent, rather than being police officers; the precise role a chief of police has sometimes within a country. The larger a police force or department, the more that some duties will be delegated to mid-ranked officers; the following list is a general sense of the actions and responsibilities held by any chief of police. Oversight of a department's operations and budgeting. Oversight of officers. Limited disciplinary actions to be addressed on infractions of policy, regulations, laws or ordinances. Full dismissal or heavy sanctioning of officer duty. Promotion and rank placement of officers. Production and development of department policies and regulations. Liaison with the governments that oversee and fund the department. In small police departments and updating of department equipment such as police vehicles, communications equipment and uniforms.
In the smallest police departments, the chief may carry out the same duties as regular officers. Police chiefs are sworn police officers, therefore wear police uniform and have the power of arrest, though there are exceptions. In practice, their work is administrative in all but the smallest police departments; the rare occasions when police chiefs make arrests have drawn media coverage. In 2014, Bernard Hogan-Howe made an arrest. A taxi driver had approached Hogan-Howe for help, unaware that he was the city's police commissioner. In 2017, Los Angeles Police Department Chief Charlie Beck arrested a police officer on suspicion of a sexual offence. "Chief of police" is the most common title for the highest-ranked officer in a Canadian police service. The exceptions are: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ontario Provincial Police, South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service, Vancouver Police Department, West Vancouver Police Department, the Sûreté du Québec. In the province of Ontario, Canada, a chief of police must be a sworn police officer and therefore have completed training at the Ontario Police College or have served a probationary period with another recognized police force.
This requirement is legislated in the Police Services Act of Ontario. The legislation states in Section 2. Section 44.2 of the PSA defines the training requirements. There was a case in the police department of Guelph, where a human resource manager was promoted to the position of deputy chief but was required to complete training at the OPC; the candidate is selected by a police services board. In Indonesia, the Chief of the National Police of Indonesia is colloquially dubbed: "Kapolri", an acronym of "Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia" meaning "Head of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia", he is a four-star ranking officer in the National Police. Candidates who are chosen by the parliament originate from the best chosen three-star ranking officers of the Indonesian National Police, with the president, using his prerogative right, picks one to be the chief; because Indonesia adopts the system of a unified "national police", the chief of the Indonesian national police holds strong responsibility in policing authorities nationally across Indonesia.
The police chief conducts strong relations and work together with the Panglima/Commander of the Indonesian Military. In line with the general features of unified structure of local governments, all chiefs of the Indonesian police, in district level, municipal level, provincial level in Indonesia, are subordinates of Kapolri, the Indonesian National Police Chief. Chief of police is the most common title for the head of a local police department. Alternate titles for a chief of police include police commissioner, police superintendent, police president or police director. In large urban areas, some departments are led by a civilian overseer referred to as a commissioner; the New York City Police Department is one such case, where the police chief is the most senior sworn officer. A sheriff is the chief of a county law enforcement agency. Although sheriffs are not counted as police chiefs, their agencies have the powers and role of a police department; some sheriffs' agencie
A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
Dallas County, Texas
Dallas County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,368,139, it is the ninth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Dallas, Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States; the county was founded in 1846 and was named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U. S. President James K. Polk. Dallas County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles, of which 873 square miles is land and 36 square miles is water. Collin County Rockwall County Kaufman County Ellis County Tarrant County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 2,541,528: non-Hispanic whites, 713,835; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile.
There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White, 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; this court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. The Commissioners Court is the policy-making body for the county; the Commissioners Court sets the county tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner supervises a Road and Bridge District.
The Commissioners Court approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services. The Parkland Health & Hospital System operates the Parkland Memorial Hospital and various health centers; the Commissioners Court meets the first and third Tuesday at the Commissioners Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St. corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory. Acts of the commissioners court are known as'court orders'; these orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, managing county resources and departments.
Most the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital; the commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections and Human Services, Facilities Management and Open Space Program, I. T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer; the commissioners set the budget for each of the District and Justice courts. Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator, responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court.
The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin, hired by the commissioners in 2008. Dallas Count
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Mesquite is a suburban city located east of the city of Dallas. Most of the city is located in Dallas County; as of 2017 census estimates the population was 143,949, making it twenty-first most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas. Mesquite is positioned in the crossroads of four major highways, making locations such as downtown Dallas, Lake Ray Hubbard, Dallas Love Field, DFW International Airport, accessible. According to legislative action, the city is the "Rodeo Capital of Texas". In 2016, Mesquite received a Playful City USA designation, for the fourth year in a row; the city has been named a Tree City USA for over 25 years. The city of Mesquite holds the 10th longest reign in all of Texas. Unique to suburbs of Dallas and Fort Worth, the city of Mesquite is served by its own local airport, Mesquite Metro Airport. Companies and institutions with a major presence in the city are the United Parcel Service, Sears, AT&T, Eastfield College, the Texas A&M University–Commerce Mesquite Metroplex Center, Ashley Furniture, FedEx.
Centuries before American settlers moved into the area, Mesquite was an open prairie land and a key trading ground for indigenous peoples. The Ionies were the western tribe located close to present day Fort Worth; the Tawakonies were in present-day Dallas. The Caddo were the native farmers of the Mesquite land. From 1680 to 1790, after harvest was over, these three tribes held an annual tournament and trading fair; the city of Mesquite was founded on March 14, 1878, on land along the Texas & Pacific Railway, which ran from Dallas to Shreveport, Louisiana. The locals named the town after Mesquite Creek; the city was incorporated on December 3, 1887, after electing Mayor J. E. Russell. In the city's earliest years it was known for many outlaws residing in the area. A prominent outlaw was Sam Bass known for his train robberies in Texas. In 1878 he robbed a train in downtown Mesquite, escaping with $30,000; the Mesquiter, established in 1882 by R. S. Kimbrough, was Dallas County's longest running newspaper.
Mesquite prospered through the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a farming community growing cotton, hay and sugar and using the railroad to ship raw goods. The town remained predominantly agrarian until after World War II when the suburban boom took root in Mesquite. In 1946, the Mesquite Rodeo was founded by Charlie Columbus McNally, was one of the only rodeos that had a permanent location. By the mid 1980s, the events were being broadcast by ESPN. In 1959, Big Town Mall opened as the first air conditioned shopping mall in the United States; the mall was demolished in the summer of 2006 and FedEx opened a logistics center on the property in 2017. By 1970, LBJ Freeway was constructed, connecting Mesquite to its neighbors, Garland to the north and Balch Springs to the south. In 1971, Town East Mall was constructed; the mall was used by director Ron Howard to film portions of the movie Cotton Candy in 1978. The mall's associated traffic and shops would continue to grow the town. In 1986, the Mesquite Arena opened its doors as the new home for the Mesquite ProRodeo.
By 1998, the facility was expanded to include a Convention Center, Exhibition Hall and a Hampton Inn & Suites. By the 1990 census, the city had grown to from 1,696 residents in 1950 to 101,484 people, nearly twice the population twenty years earlier. 2011 saw Mesquite pass a law that allows wine sales in the city. The measure had been considered several times for many years, but was always blocked by strong protest against the proposed sales, it was one of the few cities without beer and wine sales in eastern Dallas County before the law came into effect. In June 2015, the Mesquite Arts Center added on a Freedom Park exhibit, in memorial of September 11; the park displays a 15-foot beam, recovered from the remains of Ground Zero. Mesquite Fire Department received the beam in 2011. Mesquite is located at 32°46′58″N 96°36′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.2 square miles, of which 46.0 square miles is land and 0.52 square kilometres, or 0.33%, is water.
Mesquite is a principal city of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live. Like most cities in the DFW area, Mesquite has a humid subtropical climate characteristic of the Southern Plains of the United States, it is continental, characterized by a wide annual temperature range. Located at the lower end of Tornado Alley and the rest of Dallas-Fort Worth are prone to extreme weather. On average, the warmest month is July; the highest recorded temperature in Mesquite was 112 °F in 1980. The average coolest month is January; the lowest recorded temperature was 1 °F in 1989. May is the average wettest month; as of the 2010 United States Census, Mesquite had a population of 139,824. In July 2017, the population was estimated at an increase of 4,125 people. Per the American Community Survey in 2017, the median age was 32.8. According to the 2010 census, 64.9% of Mesquite was White, 25.0% was Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 38.9% of Hispanic or Latino origin, 3.2% from two or more races.
At the American Community Survey estimates of 2017, 0.1% of the American Indian population was Cherokee. 1.1% of the city's Asian community was Indian, 0.1% Chinese, 0.6% Filipino, 0.0% Japanese, 0.0% Korean, 0.6% Vietnamese, 0.3% of other Asian origin. 56 residents were estimated to be Chamorro. The m