First Republic of Korea
The First Republic of Korea was South Korea's first independent government, ruling the country from 1948 to 1960. It succeeded USAMGIK, the United States military government, which ruled the area from 1945 to 1948; the Philippines recognized South Korea on 15 August 1948. The First Republic was established on August 1948, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. Like subsequent governments, it claimed sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula, although it only had power over the area south of the 38th parallel; the investiture of the Rhee government followed the general election of May 10, 1948. The country's first constitution had been promulgated by the first National Assembly on July 17, it established a system with a strong president, elected indirectly by the National Assembly. The April Revolution in 1960 led to the resignation of Syngman Rhee and the transition to the Second Republic of South Korea. Rhee was supported in the elections by the Korea Democratic Party, but didn't include any of its members in his cabinet.
In retaliation, the members of the party formed a united opposition Democratic Nationalist Party, began to advocate a cabinet system which would remove power from the president. This led to a regrouping of the Rhee faction into the Nationalist Party, which became the Liberal Party, remained Rhee's base throughout his administration; the country's second parliamentary elections were held on May 30, 1950, gave the majority of seats to independents. The South Korean government continued many of the practices of the U. S. military government. This included the brutal repression of leftist activity; the Rhee government continued the harsh military action against the Jeju Uprising. It crushed military uprisings in Suncheon and Yeosu, which were provoked by orders to sail to Jeju and participate in the crackdown; this government oversaw several massacres, the most notable being the Bodo League massacre where between 100,000 and 1,140,000 were executed on suspicion of supporting communism. On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea.
Led by the United States, a 16-member coalition undertook the first collective action under the umbrella of the U. N. Command. Oscillating battle lines inflicted a high number of civilian casualties and wrought immense destruction. With the People's Republic of China's entry on behalf of North Korea in 1951, the fighting came to a stalemate close to the original line of demarcation. Armistice negotiations, initiated in July 1951 concluded on July 27, 1953 at Panmunjom, now in the Demilitarized Zone; the resulting Armistice Agreement was signed by the North Korean army, Chinese People's Volunteers and the U. S.-led and South Korean-supported United Nations Command. A peace treaty has not been signed up to now. Following the armistice, the South Korean government returned to Seoul on the symbolic date of August 15, 1953. After the armistice, South Korea experienced political turmoil under years of autocratic leadership of Syngman Rhee, ended by student revolt in 1960. Throughout his rule, Rhee sought to take additional steps to cement his control of government.
These began in 1952. In May of that year, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly-elected position. In order to do this, he declared martial law and jailed the members of parliament whom he expected to vote against it. Rhee was subsequently elected by a wide margin, he regained control of parliament in the 1954 elections, thereupon pushed through an amendment to exempt himself from the eight-year term limit. Rhee's prospects for reelection during the presidential campaign of 1956 seemed dim. Public disillusionment regarding his attempt to seek a third term was growing, the main opposition candidate Shin Ik-hee drew immense crowds during his campaign. Shin's sudden death while on the campaign trail, allowed Rhee to win the presidency with ease; the runner-up of that election, Cho Bong-am of the Progressive Party, was charged with espionage and executed in 1959. The events of 1960, known as the April Revolution, were touched off by the violent repression of a student demonstration in Masan on the day of the presidential election, March 15.
These protests were quelled by local police, but they broke out again after the body of a student was found floating in the harbor. Subsequently, nonviolent protests spread to Seoul and throughout the country, Rhee resigned on April 26; this period saw explosive growth in education at all levels during the turmoil of the Korean War. The First Republic saw the full implementation of an educational system, sketched out by the Council for Korean Education under USAMGIK; this education was shaped by the ideal of Hongik Ingan, the person, a benefit to all, sought to prepare students for participation in a democratic society. Some contend that this democratic education contributed to the student protests which brought down the authoritarian Rhee government in 1960; the first Education Law came into force on December 31, 1949. The most important aspect of this was the introduction of universal compulsory education at the primary level; this requirement led to widespread school construction. In addition, the dual ladder system used by the Japanese occupation government was replaced by a single-ladder system, with 6 years of primary education, 3 of middle-school education, 3 of high-school education, 4 of college education.
This period saw the adoption of South Korea's fi
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U. S. military service members who have distinguished themselves by acts of valor. The medal is awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress; because the medal is presented "in the name of Congress", it is referred to informally as the "Congressional Medal of Honor". However, the official name of the current award is "Medal of Honor." Within the United States Code the medal is referred to as the "Medal of Honor", less as "Congressional Medal of Honor". U. S. awards, including the Medal of Honor, do not have post-nominal titles, while there is no official abbreviation, the most common abbreviations are "MOH" and "MH". There are three versions of the medal, one each for the Army and Air Force. Personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version; the Medal of Honor was introduced for the Navy in 1861, soon followed by an Army version in 1862.
The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces. The President presents the Medal of Honor in Washington, D. C. at a formal ceremony, intended to represent the gratitude of the U. S. people, with posthumous presentations made to the primary next of kin. According to the Medal of Honor Historical Society of the United States, there have been 3522 Medals of Honor awarded to the nation's soldiers, airmen and Coast Guardsmen since the decoration's creation, with just less than half of them awarded for actions during the four years of the American Civil War. In 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as "National Medal of Honor Day". Due to its prestige and status, the Medal of Honor is afforded special protection under U. S. law against any unauthorized adornment, sale, or manufacture, which includes any associated ribbon or badge. The modern-day Medal of Honor had a number of precursors; the first medal for military service in the United States was issued in 1780, after its creation in the same year by the Continental Congress.
Known as the Fidelity Medallion, it was a small medal worn on a chain around the neck, similar to a religious medal, awarded only to three militiamen from New York state. They received it for the capture of John André, a British officer and spy connected directly to General Benedict Arnold during the American Revolutionary War; the capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army. The first formal system for rewarding acts of individual gallantry by U. S. soldiers was established by George Washington when he issued a field order on August 7, 1782, for a Badge of Military Merit to recognize those members of the Continental Army who performed "any singular meritorious action". This decoration is America's first combat decoration and was preceded only by the Fidelity Medallion, the Congressional medal for Henry Lee awarded in September 1779 in recognition of his attack on the British at Paulus Hook, the Congressional medal for General Horatio Gates awarded in November 1777 in recognition of his victory over the British at Saratoga, the Congressional medal for George Washington awarded in March 1776.
Although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S. Armed Forces had been established. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War a Certificate of Merit was established by Act of Congress on March 3, 1847, "to any private soldier who had distinguished himself by gallantry performed in the presence of the enemy". 539 Certificates were approved for this period. The certificate was discontinued after the war and reintroduced in 1876 effective from June 22, 1874, to February 10, 1892, when it was awarded for extraordinary gallantry by private soldiers in the presence of the enemy. From February 11, 1892, through July 9, 1918, it could be awarded to members of the Army for distinguished service in combat or noncombat; this medal was replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal, established on January 2, 1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5, 1934.
During the first year of the Civil War, a proposal for a battlefield decoration for valor was submitted to Winfield Scott, the general-in-chief of the army, by Lt. Colonel Edward D. Townsend, an assistant adjutant at the War Department and Scott's chief of staff. Scott, was against medals being awarded, the European tradition. After Scott retired in October 1861, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. On December 9, 1861, U. S. Senator James W. Grimes, Chairman on the Committee on Naval Affairs, submitted Bill S. 82 during the Second Session of the 37th Congress, "An Act to further promote the Efficiency of the Navy". The bill included a provision for 200 "medals of honor", "to be bestowed upon such petty officers, seamen and marines as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action and other seaman-like qualities during the present war..." On December 21, the bill was passed and signed into law by P
Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. The program was created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act. According to Title 10, Section 2031 of the United States Code, the purpose of the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps is "to instill in students in secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment." Additional objectives are established by the service departments of the Department of Defense. Under 542.4 of Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Department of the Army has declared those objectives for each cadet to be: Developing citizenship and patriotism Developing self-reliance and responsiveness to all authority Improving the ability to communicate well both orally and in writing Developing an appreciation of the importance of physical fitness Increasing a respect for the role of the U.
S. Armed Forces in support of national objectives Developing a knowledge of team building skills and basic military skills Taking 1-3 years of the course grants cadets the ability to rank higher if they pursue a military career. Section 524.5 of the CFR National Defense title states in part that JROTC should "provide meaningful leadership instruction of benefit to the student and of value to the Armed Forces.... Students will acquire: An understanding of the fundamental concept of leadership, military art and science, An introduction to related professional knowledge, An appreciation of requirements for national security; the dual roles of citizen/soldier and soldier/citizen are studied.... These programs will enable cadets to better serve their country as leaders, as citizens, in military service should they enter it.... The JROTC and NDCC are not, of themselves, officer-producing programs but should create favorable attitudes and impressions toward the Services and toward careers in the Armed Forces."
The military has stated that JROTC will inform young Americans about the opportunities available in the military and "may help motivate young Americans toward military service." A 1999 Army policy memorandum stated that "While not designed to be a specific recruiting tool, there is nothing in existing law that precludes... facilitating the recruitment of young men and women into the U. S. Army," directing instructors to "actively assist cadets who want to enlist in the military emphasize service in the U. S. Army. In a February 2000 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, the armed service chiefs of staff testified that 30%–50% of graduating JROTC cadets go on to join the military: General James L. Jones Commandant of the Marine Corps, testified that the value of the Marine JROTC program "is beyond contest. One-third of our young men and women who join a Junior ROTC program wind up wearing the uniform of a Marine." General Eric K. Shinseki Chief of Staff of the United States Army, testified that "Our indications are about 30 percent of those youngsters—we don't recruit them, as you know.
We are not permitted to do that. But by virtue of the things that they like about that experience, about 30 percent of them end up joining the Army, either enlisting or going on to ROTC and joining the officer population." General Michael E. Ryan Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, testified that "almost 50 percent of the folks that go out of the Air Force Junior ROTC go into one of the Services by enlisting or going to ROTC or going to one of the academies." Admiral Jay L. Johnson Chief of Naval Operations, testified that "Even if the number is only 30 percent, a good number, but think about what we get out of the other 70 percent. They have exposure to us, they have exposure to the military. And the challenge of the education mandate that we all share in principals and school counselors and school districts that won't let us in, a powerful tool I think to educate whether or not they end up in the service. So it is a long way around saying it is well worth the investment for lots of different reasons."General Colin Powell said in his 1995 autobiography that "the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of Junior ROTC," but added that "Inner-city kids, many from broken homes, found stability and role models in Junior ROTC."
U. S. Congress found in the Recruiting and Reservist Promotion Act of 2000 that JROTC and similar programs "provide significant benefits for the Armed Forces, including significant public relations benefits." Former United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to JROTC as "one of the best recruitment programs we could have." Five of the seven branches of the Uniformed services of the United States maintain a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, organized into units. As of June 2006, there are a total of 3,275 units: 1,600 Army AJROTC units 794 Air Force AFJROTC units 619 Navy NJROTC units 260 Marine Corps MCJROTC units 2 Coast Guard CGJROTC unitPrior to 1967 the number of units was limited to 1,200; the cap was increased to 1,600 units in 1967 and again to 3,500 units in 1992. Their goal is to reach 3,500 units by Feb. 2011 by encouraging program expansion into educationally and economically deprived areas. Units are set up according to the layout of their parent service
World War II Victory Medal (United States)
The World War II Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military, established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The corresponding medal from World War I is the World War I Victory Medal; the World War II Victory Medal was first issued as a service ribbon referred to as the “Victory Ribbon.” The World War II Victory Medal was established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The medal was designed by Mr. Thomas H. Jones and approved by the Secretary of War on 5 February 1946, it did not transition from a ribbon to a full medal until after World War II had ended. The Congressional authorization for the medal specified that it was to be awarded to any member of the United States military, including members of the armed forces of the Government of the Philippine Islands, who served on active duty, or as a reservist, between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946.
On 8 August 1946, the separate Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal was established for members of the United States Merchant Marine who served during World War II. The medal is awarded for service between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946, both dates inclusive; the National Personnel Records Center has reported some cases of service members receiving the award for a few days of service. As the Second World War ended on 2 September 1945, there may be cases of service members who had enlisted, entered officer candidate school, or had been a cadet or midshipman at the U. S. Military Academy, the U. S. Naval Academy or the U. S. Coast Guard Academy between 3 September 1945 and any date in 1946, receiving the medal without having been a veteran of World War II; the reason for this late date is that President Harry S. Truman did not declare an official end of hostilities until the last day of 1946; as every member of the United States Armed Forces who served from December 7, 1941 to December 31, 1946 was eligible for the medal, there were over 12 million eligible recipients, making the World War II Victory Medal one of the most awarded decorations of the United States military.
The bronze medal is 1 4⁄8 inches in width. The obverse is a figure of Liberation standing full length with head turned to dexter looking to the dawn of a new day, right foot resting on a war god’s helmet with the hilt of a broken sword in the right hand and the broken blade in the left hand, the inscription WORLD WAR II placed below the center. On the reverse are inscriptions for the Four Freedoms: FREEDOM FROM FEAR AND WANT and FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION separated by a palm branch, all within a circle composed of the words UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1941 1945; the suspension and service ribbon of the medal is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3⁄8 inch double rainbow in juxtaposition. The rainbow on each side of the ribbon is a miniature of the pattern used in the World War I Victory Medal. Although the World War I Victory Medal included clasps, the World War II Victory Medal did not; this was. Awards and decorations of the United States military Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 59. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 1946. P. 461. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 2008. 32CFR578.47. Retrieved 4 June 2009. NavPers 15,790: Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy. 1960. P. 161. OCLC 45726498. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-3943/237A: Detail Specification Sheet — Medal, World War II Victory. 15 August 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-11589/149E: Detail Specification Sheet — Ribbon, World War II Victory Medal. 15 September 1995. Retrieved 4 June 2009. "World War II Victory Medal". Fort Belvoir, Virginia: The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army. Archived from the original on September 9, 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009
Incheon the Incheon Metropolitan City, is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third most-populous city after Seoul and Busan; the city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fifth largest metropolitan area by population. Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first free economic zone. Since large local companies and global enterprises have invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port; the city is home to the Green Climate Fund, an international organization addressing environmental issues. The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill; the area underwent several name changes with successive dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Inju; the current name was turned to Incheon in 1413. Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture. Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon and northern part of Siheung City; the city centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the local academy were located.
The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium. Another historical name of the city, was not used until the opening of the port in 1883. After the opening of the Incheon port, the city centre moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon", it was renamed as Jinsen during Japanese rule in Korean peninsula. In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County. Through 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon. Incheon was part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed City status on July 1, 1981. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000. The city was the site of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay, where the first shots of the Russo-Japanese War were fired. During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon, when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward; the result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle. Incheon has hosted a series of major international events; the Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days, it was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants. Various musicians and artists performed during the event; the city hosted a meeting of the G20 Finance Ministers in February 2010.
Incheon was the site of the third Global Model United Nations Conference, held from 10th to the 14th of August 2011. It first hosted the Incheon Women Artists' Biennale in 2004 which expanded into welcoming international artists in its subsequent 2007, 2009 and 2011. Incheon hosted the Asian Games in 2014. On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program; the goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Hong Singapore. This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia; the official slogan of the program is "Smile with English." Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities: George Mason University Korea Campus Ghent University Global Campus Gyeongin National University of Education Incheon campus Inha University Gachon University Medical·Ganghwa campus Gyeongin Women's College Inha Technical College Incheon Catholic University Incheon City College I
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are underground, in contrast to blockhouses which are above ground, they were used extensively in World War I, World War II, the Cold War for weapons facilities and control centers, storage facilities. Bunkers can be used as protection from tornadoes. Trench bunkers are small concrete structures dug into the ground. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuries to people sheltering in the bunker. Nuclear bunkers must cope with the underpressure that lasts for several seconds after the shock wave passes, block radiation.
A bunker's door must be at least as strong as the walls. In bunkers inhabited for prolonged periods, large amounts of ventilation or air conditioning must be provided. Bunkers can be destroyed with bunker-busting warheads; the word bunker originates as a Scots word for "bench, seat" recorded 1758, alongside shortened bunk "sleeping berth". The word has a Scandinavian origin: Old Swedish bunke means "boards used to protect the cargo of a ship". In the 19th century the word came to describe a coal store below decks in a ship, it was used for a sand-filled depression installed on a golf course as a hazard. In the First World War as the belligerents built underground shelters called dugouts in English, while the Germans used the term bunker: By the Second World War the term came to be used by the Germans to describe permanent structures both large; the military sense of the word was imported into English during World War II, at first in reference to German dug-outs. All the early references to its usage in the Oxford English Dictionary are to German fortifications.
However in the Far East the term was applied to the earth and log positions built by the Japanese, the term appearing in a 1943 instruction manual issued by the British Indian Army and gaining wide currency. By 1947 the word was familiar enough in English that Hugh Trevor-Roper in The Last Days of Hitler was describing Hitler's underground complex near the Reich Chancellery as "Hitler's own bunker" without quotes around the word bunker; this type of bunker is a small concrete structure dug into the ground, a part of a trench system. Such bunkers give the defending soldiers better protection than the open trench and include top protection against aerial attack, they provide shelter against the weather. Some bunkers may have open tops to allow weapons to be discharged with the muzzle pointing upwards. Many artillery installations for coastal artillery, have been protected by extensive bunker systems; these housed the crews serving the weapons, protected the ammunition against counter-battery fire, in numerous examples protected the guns themselves, though this was a trade-off reducing their fields of fire.
Artillery bunkers are some of the largest individual pre-Cold War bunkers. The walls of the'Batterie Todt' gun installation in northern France were up to 3.5 metres thick, an underground bunker was constructed for the V-3 cannon. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, sometimes living quarters, they were built by nations like Germany during World War II to protect important industries from aerial bombardment. Industrial bunkers are built for control rooms of dangerous activities, such as tests of rocket engines or explosive experiments, they are built in order to perform dangerous experiments in them or to store radioactive or explosive goods. Such bunkers exist on non-military facilities; when a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with large cabinets. One common design approach uses fibre-reinforced plastic shells. Compressive protection may be provided by inexpensive earth arching.
The overburden is designed to shield from radiation. To prevent the shelter from floating to the surface in high groundwater, some designs have a skirt held-down with the overburden, it may serve the purpose of a safe room. Munitions storage bunkers are designed to securely store explosive ordnance, contain any internal explosions; the most common configuration for high explosives storage is the igloo shaped bunker. They are built into a hillside in order to provide additional containment mass. A specialized version of the munitions bunker called a Gravel Gertie is designed to contain radioactive debris from an explosive accident while assembling or disassembling nuclear warheads, they are installed at all facilities in the United States and United Kingdom which do warhead assembly and disassembly, the largest being the Pantex plant in Amarillo, which has 12 Gravel Gerties. Bunkers deflect the blast wave from nearby explosions to prevent ear and internal injuri