The Kansas River is a river in northeastern Kansas in the United States. It is the southwestern-most part of the Missouri River drainage, which is in turn the northwestern-most portion of the extensive Mississippi River drainage and its name come from the Kanza people who once inhabited the area. The state of Kansas was named for the river, dropping 322 feet on its journey seaward, the water in the Kansas River falls less than 2 feet per mile. The Kansas River valley is only 115 miles long, the length of the river is due to meandering across the floodplain. The rivers course roughly follows the maximum extent of a Pre-Illinoian glaciation, and the river likely began as a path of glacial meltwater drainage. The Kansas drains 34,423 square miles of land in Kansas, along with 16,916 square miles in Nebraska and 8,775 square miles in Colorado, making a total of just over 60,000 square miles. When including the Republican River and its tributaries, the Kansas River system has a length of 743 miles.
Its highest headwaters are at about 6,000 feet and extend nearly to Limon, much of the drainage of the river lies within the Great Plains, but the river itself exists entirely within the Mid Continent Region. The majority of the rest of the state is drained by the Arkansas, a portion of central-eastern Kansas is drained by the Marais des Cygnes River, which flows into Missouri to meet the Missouri River. A small area in the extreme northeast part of the state directly into the Missouri. In the Kansas City metro area, some streams drain east into the Blue River tributary of the Missouri, the Kansas River flows through what is known as the Stable Interior region. Since this region is near the center of the North American Plate, it has not experienced any extensive geologic faulting, the river flows through limestone and shale strata that, except for diagenesis, remain largely undisturbed since deposition beneath the Western Interior Seaway. The age of the rock exposed by the river becomes progressively older as the river downstream for two main reasons.
All of the rocks in the area are sedimentary, ranging from Late Pennsylvanian to recent, the first is sand and gravel brought down from the Rocky Mountains which have settled in the western extents of the Kansas River basin. The third is loess, a fine silt that may have originally been deposited by the water of the receding glaciers. The thickest loess deposits can be found in the northwest and north-central part of the Kansas River basin from southern Nebraska into northwest Kansas, as well as near the rivers mouth. The first map showing the Kansas River is French cartographer Guillaume de LIsles Carte de la Louisiane, on it the Petite Riv des Cansez flows into the Missouri River at about the 40th parallel. This map, with no changes except for the translation of French into English, was subsequently published by John Senex
Battle of Black Jack
The Battle of Black Jack took place on June 2,1856, when anti-slavery forces, led by the noted abolitionist John Brown, attacked the encampment of Henry C. Pate near Baldwin City, Kansas. The battle is cited as one incident of Bleeding Kansas and a factor leading up to the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865. In 1854, the U. S. Congress had passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act which stipulated that the residents of territories would decide whether they wished to enter the Union as a slave or free state. This doctrine became known as popular sovereignty, as a result, pro- and anti-slavery groups had frequent clashes culminating in the Battle of Black Jack. They looted throughout the village, the next day, Congressman Preston Brooks from South Carolina physically attacked Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts in the Senate chambers with a cane. He continued hitting after the senator was bleeding and unconscious, after that, a band of men, led by John Brown and comrade Captain Shore, executed five proslavery men with broadswords at Pottawatomie Creek.
Browns men let Jerome Glanville and James Harris return home to the cabin of Harris and this incident became known as the Pottawatomie massacre. Following the massacre, three men were taken prisoner, including two of John Browns sons. On June 2,1856 Brown and 29 others met Henry Pate and this started after Browns two sons were captured and held prisoner by Pate. The five-hour battle went in Browns favor and Pate and 22 of his followers were captured, Brown agreed to release them as long as they released Browns sons. The town of Black Jack was established in 1855 as a town on the Santa Fe Trail. The town became incorporated in 1857 and the threat of warfare was still a problem in Black Jack. The event that is cited as the beginning of the war is the attack on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, the site of the battle is located near U. S. Signs are placed throughout the site pointed out where the battle started and ended. Efforts are underway to both the Pearson Memorial Park and the Ivan Boyd Prairie Preserve across the road.
The Ballad Of Black Jack played as part of the citys Maple Leaf Festival from 1970–83 and it played in nearby Lawrence in 1986 and in 2006 and 2007 as a part of Lawrences Civil War On The Western Frontier program. In 2012 the National Park Service decided to designate the battlefield a National Historic Landmark, list of battles fought in Kansas The Black Jack Battlefield and Nature Trust Santa Fe Trail Site View From USGS Aerial Photographs
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2,1890. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time, the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, the total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing. The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the right answer was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in America, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. The 1890 census announced that the region of the United States no longer existed. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement, by 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis, the original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available.
Almost all the schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke, the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21,1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations. Mayo-Smith, The Eleventh Census of the United States
John Brown (abolitionist)
John Brown was an American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. Brown first gained attention when he led groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. Dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement, he said, during the Kansas campaign, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. He and his supporters killed five pro-slavery supporters in the Pottawatomie massacre of May 1856 in response to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, in 1859, Brown led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, to start a liberation movement among the slaves there. During the raid, he seized the armory, seven people were killed and he intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but the attack failed. Within 36 hours, Browns men had fled or been killed or captured by local farmers, militiamen. Marines led by Robert E. Lee and he was tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia, the murder of five men and inciting a slave insurrection.
He was found guilty on all counts and was hanged, Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid escalated tensions that, a year later, led to the Souths secession and Civil War. David Potter has said the effect of Browns raid was greater than the philosophical effect of the Lincoln–Douglas debates. Some writers, including Bruce Olds, describe him as a zealot, others. Oates, regard him as one of the most perceptive human beings of his generation, David S. John Browns Body was a popular Union marching song during the Civil War and made him a martyr. Browns actions prior to the Civil War as an abolitionist, and he is sometimes memorialized as a heroic martyr and a visionary, and sometimes vilified as a madman and a terrorist. John Brown was born May 9,1800, in Torrington and he was the fourth of the eight children of Owen Brown and Ruth Mills and grandson of Capt. Brown could trace his ancestry back to 17th-century English Puritans, in 1805, the family moved to Hudson, where Owen Brown opened a tannery.
Browns personal religion is well documented in the papers of the Rev Clarence Gee. Browns father had as an apprentice Jesse R. Grant, father of Ulysses S. Grant, at 16, Brown left his family and went to Plainfield, where he enrolled in a preparatory program. Shortly afterward, he transferred to the Morris Academy in Litchfield and he hoped to become a Congregationalist minister, but money ran out and he suffered from eye inflammations, which forced him to give up the academy and return to Ohio. In Hudson, he worked briefly at his fathers tannery before opening a successful tannery of his own outside of town with his adopted brother, in 1820, Brown married Dianthe Lusk
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
John Baldwin (educator)
John Baldwin was an American educator, and the founder of Baldwin Institute in Berea, which would eventually merge into Baldwin–Wallace College, now Baldwin-Wallace University. Born in Connecticut, Baldwin originally was a teacher in Maryland and he became part of the lyceum movement, and situated himself in Berea, Ohio. He opened up Baldwin Institute in 1846 upon seeing the dissolution of the Norwalk Seminary, nine years later, the Institute became Baldwin University. He moved to Kansas around 1857, laying the foundation for Baldwin City, in his life, he purchased a Louisiana plantation, and made contributions to education in India late in his life. John Baldwin was born in Branford, Connecticut on 13 October 1799 to Joseph Baldwin and his mother was a well-educated woman, as well as intensely religious. She attempted to become a student at Yale University, but was not allowed because she was a woman, due to this, John resolved to make no distinction between races or sexes should he ever found a school.
His father enlisted in the Continental Army during the American Revolution as a private, when John turned eighteen, he joined the Methodist Church. As a student at a school, he paid his way by chopping firewood, ringing the bell. Afterwards, he became a teacher in Fishkill, New York, Maryland, as a teacher in Maryland, his stance on slavery, as well as black people as a whole, was revealed. A mulatto boy was sent to his school daily as a servant for his masters son, Baldwin began to teach them in common. When the students found out about this, he demanded Baldwin not teach him any more, to which he replied, I do not charge anything for teaching him. After marrying Mary Chappel on January 31,1828, they moved to Middleburg Township in Cuyahoga County and it was there that Baldwin joined forces with James Gilbrith, a disciple of Josiah Holbrook who wanted to found a lyceum village. In the village, which was founded in 1837 and situated just north of his farm, Baldwin ran the Lyceum Village School for five years until June 1842, when it went bankrupt.
However, one day while walking home, he had an impulse to take a new route across the river on his farm and he noticed a grouping of exposed rocks, which would make superior grindstones. This was the beginning of the Berea grindstone industry, Baldwin shipped his grindstones to Cleveland by ox carts. After the Big Four Railroad was built from Cleveland to Cincinnati and it was that Baldwin and the others of the Lyceum Village tried to think of a name for their new town. After Gilbrith proposed Tabor, John Baldwin suggested Berea, citing Acts 17, after a coin flip, Berea was chosen. In 1843, Baldwin noticed that the Norwalk Seminary, located in Norwalk and he approached Thomas Thompson, who was the elder of the Norwalk District, and asked him to visit Berea
Midland Railway (Kansas)
The Midland Railway is a heritage railroad headquartered in Baldwin City, Kansas. It was chartered in 1982 to find a railroad line to operate. Midland purchased the line from Baldwin City to Ottawa, Kansas from the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in 1987, total length of the line is 11 miles. Midlands base of operations is the built in 1906 by the Atchison, Topeka. This building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, Midland has received two matching federal grants to rebuild track. Private grants have and are being used to rebuild railroad equipment, starting in 2004, excursion trains are run all the way from Baldwin City to Ottawa. The regular operating season runs from Memorial Day to October 31, special events and fairs are held at various times through the year. Weekend Boy Scout camps are held in the spring and fall, midlands Scout program is one of the few in the country to offer a railroading merit badge. Baldwin City, Kansas Norwood, Kansas Ottawa, Kansas List of heritage railroads in the United States List of Kansas railroads Official website
Scouting in Kansas
Scouting in Kansas has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. The Brewer Scout Cabin in Solomon is on the National Register of Historic Places, mrs. Fern E. Sears was the organizer of the first Kansas City, Kansas council of Girl Scouts and author of a book on Christian symbols, Let Me Speak. She trained Girl Scout leaders and established troops in Kansas City, Kansas in 1948 when the area qualified for a council, mrs. Sears was named first president, and was an honorary life president at the time of her death in August 24,1959. In 1958 the National Order of the Arrow Conference was held at the University of Kansas, There are seven Boy Scouts of America local councils in Kansas. Coronado Area Council serves north central and northwest Kansas, across 32 counties, heart of America Council serves Scouts in Missouri and Kansas. In 1928 the Topeka Council took over 39 counties across northern Kansas, oregon Trail District Shawnee District Sojadi District Ozark Trails Council serves Scouts in Missouri and Kansas.
The Pony Express Council is based in Saint Joseph, Quivira Council serves youth in south central Kansas, with headquarters in Wichita. Kansa Lodge #198, Order of the Arrow serves local Arrowmen, High Plains District Kanza District Osage Nation District Pawnee District South Winds District White Buffalo District The Quivira Council website http, //www. quivira. org/ has links to each district. Santa Fe Trail Council includes nineteen counties in southwestern Kansas, with headquarters in Garden City, the Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch is located near Walsenburg and borders the Spanish Peaks Wilderness. It is a council camp of the Santa Fe Trail Council. The camp gives program geared toward outdoor education such as backpacking, climbing. Spanish Peaks Staff Association is an organization dedicated to connecting current, former. The organization was formed by like-minded staff alumni committed to the support of SPSR. Although the Spanish Peaks Staff Association is not an association the members have all worked with this Scout camp and are dedicated toward outdoor education for youth.
The Spanish Peaks Staff Association, although still in their infant stages, has adapted the purposes of, Demonstrating support for Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch, providing vision and leadership for Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch. Raising volunteer and financial support for Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch improvement endeavors, establishing an endowment that will guarantee the future stability of the SPSR independently of Santa Fe Trail Council operations. Establishing an endowment that insures continued funding of a ranger at Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch. Providing a forum for past and future staffers to gather, share ideas, the Spanish Peaks Staff Association is independent of the Santa Fe Trail Council and Spanish Peaks Scout Ranch
Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribes name is said to mean people of the wind or people of the south wind. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous, tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided. The abolitionists eventually prevailed, and on January 29,1861, after the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th largest state by area and is the 34th most populous of the 50 United States with a population of 2,911,641, residents of Kansas are called Kansans, officially.
Mount Sunflower is Kansass highest point at 4,041 feet, for a millennia, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, in 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain, from 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state, the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30,1854, establishing the U. S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border.
These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery, the secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas, Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29,1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature and his application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record
Central Time Zone
The North American Central Time Zone is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Central Standard Time is six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, during summer most of the zone uses daylight saving time, and changes to Central Daylight Time which is five hours behind UTC. The province of Manitoba is the province or territory in Canada that observes Central Time in all areas. Also, most of the province of Saskatchewan is on Central Standard Time year-round, major exceptions include Lloydminster, a city situated on the boundary between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city charter stipulates that it shall observe Mountain Time and DST, putting the community on the time as all of Alberta, including the major cities of Calgary. As a result, during the summer, clocks in the province match those in Alberta. The Central Time Zone is the second most populous in the US after the Eastern Time Zone and Valley observe Eastern Time historically because they were textile mill towns and the original home office of their mills was in West Point, Georgia.
Some eastern counties observe Central Time because they are close to the border of the Middle Tennessee counties surrounding the Nashville metropolitan area. Louisiana Michigan, All of Michigan observes Eastern Time except the four Upper Peninsula counties that border Wisconsin, other westernmost counties from this area such as Ontonagon observe Eastern Time. South Dakota, Eastern half as divided by the Missouri river adjacent to the state capital, the metropolitan area of Pierre is Central, including Fort Pierre. Wisconsin Most of Mexico—roughly the eastern three-fourths—lies in the Central Time Zone, except for six northwestern states, the federal entities of Mexico that observe Central Time, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua all use Central Standard Time year-round. The Galápagos Islands in Ecuador uses Central Standard Time all year-round, Daylight saving time is in effect in much of the Central time zone between mid-March and early November. The modified time is called Central Daylight Time and is UTC−5, in Canada, Saskatchewan does not observe a time change.
One reason that Saskatchewan does not take part in a change is that, geographically. The province elected to move onto permanent daylight saving by being part of the Central Time Zone, Mexico decided not to go along with this change and observes their horario de verano from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October. In December 2009, the Mexican Congress allowed ten border cities, eight of which are in states that observe Central Time, to adopt the U. S. daylight time schedule effective in 2010
By 1863, Kansas had long been the center of strife and warfare over the admission of slave versus free states. In the summer of 1856, the first sacking of Lawrence sparked a war in Kansas that lasted for months. John Brown might be the best known participant in the violence of the late 1850s participating on the abolitionist or Jayhawker side, the town and surrounding area were extremely vigilant and reacted strongly to any rumors that enemy forces might be advancing on the town. However, by the summer of 1863, none of the threats had materialized, so citizen fears had declined, Quantrill himself said that his motivation for the attack was to plunder, and destroy the town in retaliation for Osceola. That was a reference to the Unions attack on Osceola, Missouri in September 1861, Osceola was plundered and nine men were given a drumhead court-martial trial and executed. Several other Missouri towns and large swaths of the Missouri countryside had been plundered and burned by Unionist forces from Kansas.
Castel concludes that revenge was the motive, followed by a desire to plunder. The retaliatory nature of the attack on Lawrence was confirmed by the survivors, the purported objective of this group was to eliminate civilian support for the Confederate guerillas, but their tactics were employed rather indiscriminately. As one observer noted, “I believe the Red Legs will kill any man in this country for a good horse, Charles Robinson, first Governor of Kansas and eyewitness to the raid, characterized the raid as an act of vengeance. In a bid to put down the Missouri guerrilla raiders operating in Kansas, General Thomas Ewing,10, which ordered the arrest of anyone giving aid or comfort to Confederate guerrillas. This meant chiefly women or girls who were relatives of the guerrillas, Ewing confined those arrested in a series of makeshift prisons in Kansas City. The women were housed in two buildings which were considered either too small or too unsanitary, before being moved to an empty property at 1425 Grand.
This structure was part of the estate of the deceased Robert S. Thomas, in 1861 Bingham and his family were living in the structure, but in early 1862 after being appointed treasurer of the state of Missouri, he and his family relocated to Jefferson City. Bingham had added a story to the existing structure to use as a studio. A few days later, Nannie Harris died from her wounds, survivors of the collapse included, Jenny Anderson, Susan Anne Mundy Womacks, Martha Mattie Mundy, Lucinda Lou Mundy Gray, Elizabeth Harris, and Mollie Grindstaff. Andersons 13-year-old sister, who was shackled to a ball-and-chain inside the jail, rumors circulated that the structure was undermined by the guards to cause its collapse. However, a 1995 study of the events and affidavits surrounding the collapse concludes this is the least plausible of the theories, testimony indicated that alterations to the first floor of the adjoining Cockrell structure for use as a barracks caused the common wall to buckle. The weight of the story on the former Bingham residence contributed to the resultant collapse
Ottawa is a city in, and the county seat of, Franklin County, United States. It is located on banks of the Marais des Cygnes River near the center of Franklin County. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,649, the name derives from the Ottawa tribe of Indians, on whose reservation the city was laid out. The word Ottawa itself means “to trade”, in 1867, the Ottawa tribe sold their remaining land in Kansas and moved to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. On the last day of March,1864, J. C. Richmond built the first non-Indian settlement in the new town, at the corner of Walnut, Ottawa has a history of flooding because of its location straddling the Marais Des Cygnes river. The areas first recorded flood was the Great Flood of 1844, in 1928, a flood crested at 38.65 feet and killed six people. However, it is the Great Flood of 1951 which is the most famous and it was about five inches higher than the 1928 flood. The flood of 1951 affected much of Missouri and Kansas and 41 people died, one-third of Ottawa was covered because of this flood.
The levees built along the river are inspected on a basis to insure their quality. In 1943, German and Italian prisoners of World War II were brought to Kansas, large internment camps were established in Kansas, Camp Concordia, Camp Funston, Camp Phillips. Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including Ottawa, Ottawa is located at 38°36′43″N 95°15′59″W. It straddles the Marais des Cygnes River and is located 58 miles southwest of Kansas City at the junction of U. S. Route 59, U. S. Route 50 and Interstate 35 bypass Ottawa to the south and east, while business US-50 passes through the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 9.42 square miles. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from a low of about 20 °F in January to an average high over 90 °F in July. The maximum temperature reaches 90 °F an average of 52 days per year, the minimum temperature falls below the freezing point an average of 105 days per year. Typically the first fall freeze occurs between the beginning of October and early November, and the last spring freeze occurs between the end of March and late April.
The area receives nearly 40 inches of precipitation during a year with the largest share being received in May. During a typical year the amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 28 to 51 inches