An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον, meaning "place for viewing". Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, stadia. Natural formations of similar shape are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan, with perimeter seating tiers, they were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire.
Their typical shape and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape. The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BCE, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period onwards. Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and statuary. After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair, their materials were recycled. Some were razed, others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places. A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. An amphitheatre can be occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose if no theatre has been constructed there.
Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Australia, the Red Rocks and Gorge amphitheatres in the western United States. Arena Stadium Thingplatz List of Roman amphitheatres List of contemporary amphitheatres List of indoor arenas List of ancient Greek theatres Roman theatre Bomgardner, David Lee; the Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16593-8
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Multifamily residential is a classification of housing where multiple separate housing units for residential inhabitants are contained within one building or several buildings within one complex. Units can be next to each other, or stacked on top of each other. A common form is an apartment building. Sometimes units in a multifamily residential building are condominiums, where the units are owned individually rather than leased from a single apartment building owner. Many intentional communities incorporate multifamily residences, such as in cohousing projects. Apartment building or block of flats - a building with multiple apartments. There can be multiple apartments on each floor and there are multiple floors. Apartment buildings can range in many sizes, some with only a few apartments, other with hundreds of apartments on many floors, or any size in between. There are inside hallways and inside entrances to each apartment, but outside entrances to each apartment are possible. An apartment building can be owned by one party and each of the apartments rented to tenants or each of the apartments can be owned as a condominium by separate parties.
Mixed use building - a building with space for both commercial, business, or office use, space for residential use. Possible arrangements include the commercial/business use on the first or first couple floors and one or more apartments or residential spaces on the upper floors. Another possibility is to have the commercial/business area up front and the residential area in the back; some or maybe all of the space may be used by the owner or some or all the business and residential units may be leased by the owner. Condominium ownership is possible. Apartment community - a collection of apartment buildings on adjoining pieces of land owned by one entity; the buildings share common grounds and amenities, such as pools, parking areas, a community clubhouse, used as leasing offices for the community. Brownstone: a New York City term for a rowhouse: see rowhouse. Bedsit: a British expression for a single-roomed dwelling in a sub-divided larger house; the standard type contains a kitchenette or basic cooking facilities in a combined bedroom/living area, with a separate bathroom and lavatory shared between a number of rooms.
Once common in older Victorian properties in British cities, they are less found since the 1980s as a result of tenancy reforms, property prices and renovation grants that favour the refurbishment of such properties into self-contained flats for leasehold sale. Close: Term used in Glasgow for high density slum housing built 1800-1870. Tenements 3 or 4 stories, back-to-back, around a short cul-de-sac. Cluster house: an older form of the Q-type house Condominium: a form of ownership with individual apartments for everyone, co-ownership of all of the common areas, such as corridors, stairways, recreation rooms, porches and any outdoor areas of the grounds of the buildings. Townhouses and apartments which are owned in the condominium form of ownership are referred to as "condominiums" or "condos." Court: high density slum housing built in the UK, 1800-1870. Two or more stories, back-to-back, around a short alley at right angles to the main street. Once common in cities like Liverpool and Leeds. Deck access: a block of "flats" which are accessed from a walkway, open to the elements.
Dingbat Duplex, Two-flat - a building built on an edgeyard lot, consisting either of two residences, one to a storey, or a pair of semi-detached dwellings of one or several stories each. Common spaces shared by both residences may include a basement, stairwell, or porch. Flat: In Great Britain and Ireland, this means the same as an "apartment". In and around San Francisco, CA, this term means an apartment that takes up an entire floor of a large house one, converted from an older Victorian house. 2-Flat, 3-Flat, 4-Flat houses: houses or buildings with 2, 3, or 4 flats especially when each of the flats takes up one entire floor of the house. There is a common stairway in the front and in the back providing access to all the flats. 2-Flats and sometimes 3-flats are common in certain older neighborhoods. Four Plus One: an apartment building consisting of four stories above a parking lot; the four floors containing the apartment units are of masonry construction. It was popular in Chicago during the 1960s and 1970s on the city's north side.
Garage-apartment: an apartment over a garage. Garalow: a portmanteau word "garage" + "bungalow". Garden apartment: a building style characterized by two story, semi-detached buildings, each floor being a separate apartment. Garden flat: a flat, at garden level in a multilevel house or apartment building in the case of Georgian and Victorian terraced housing, sub-divided into separate dwellings. Housing cooperative: a form of ownership in which a non-profit corporation owns the entire apartment building or development and residents own shares in the corporation that correspond to their apartment and a percentage of common areas. In Australia this corresponds with a "company title" apartment. Loft or warehouse conversion can be an apartment building wherein part of the unit consisting of the bedroom and/or a second bed
Crenshaw, Los Angeles
Crenshaw, or the Crenshaw District, is a neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The name derives from one of the city's major thoroughfares; the Crenshaw commercial business corridor along this street has had many different cultural backgrounds throughout the years but still has a positive African American commerce with many other ethnic groups in recent years. According to Google Maps, the Crenshaw neighborhood is centered on Crenshaw Boulevard and Buckingham Road; the neighborhood of Baldwin Hills is to the south, Baldwin Village is to the west, Leimert Park is to the east. In the post-World War II era, a Japanese-American community was established in Crenshaw. There was an area Japanese school called Dai-Ichi Gakuen. Due to a shared sense of being discriminated against, many of the Japanese-Americans had close relationships with the African-American community. At its peak, it was one of the largest Japanese-American settlements in California, with about 8,000 residents around 1970, Dai-Ichi Gakuen had a peak of 700 students.
Beginning in the 1970s the Japanese American community began decreasing in size and Japanese-American businesses began leaving. Scott Shibya Brown stated that "some say" the effect was a "belated response" to the 1965 Watts riots and that "several residents say a wave of anti-Japanese-American sentiment began cropping up in the area, prompting further departures." Eighty-two-year-old Jimmy Jike was quoted in the Los Angeles Times in 1993, stating that it was because the residents' children, after attending universities, moved away. By 1980, there were half of the previous size. By 1990 there were 2,500 Japanese-Americans older residents. By 1993, the community was diminishing in size, with older Japanese Americans staying but with younger ones moving away; that year, Dai-Ichi Gakuen had 15 students. There has been a shift in a new generation of Japanese Americans moving back into the neighborhood; the Los Angeles Police Department is responsible for law enforcement in the area. The Southwest Community police station is at 1546 W. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.
The Los Angeles Fire Department operates one main fire station, Station 94 - in the area. The United States Postal Service operates the Crenshaw Post Office, the Julian Dixon Post Office and the North Torrance Post Office. Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District. Crenshaw High School, south of Martin Luther King Boulevard and east of Crenshaw Boulevard, is the local public high school; the district's charter schools in the area include the KIPP network. KIPP Academy of Opportunity Celerity Nascent Charter School the New Design Charter School View Park Preparatory High School, View Park Preparatory Middle School. Crenshaw is a residential neighborhood of single-story houses and low-rise condominiums and apartments. There are commercial buildings with an industrial corridor along Jefferson Boulevard. There are several other commercial districts throughout the neighborhood. After courts ruled segregation covenants to be unconstitutional, the area opened up to other races.
A large Japanese American settlement ensued, which can still be found along Coliseum Street and west of Crenshaw Boulevard. African Americans started migrating to the district in the mid 1960s, by the early 1970s were the majority. In the 1970s, Leimert Park and neighboring areas together had formed one of the largest African-American communities in the western United States. Crenshaw had suffered significant damage from both the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the 1994 Northridge earthquake but was able to rebound in the late 2000s with the help of redevelopment and gentrification. In 2006, the population of Crenshaw was around 27,600. There is a huge demographic shift increased in where many middle and lower-class blacks and Latinos are migrating to cities in the Inland Empire as well as cities in the Antelope Valley sections of Southern California as a form of gentrification; the Metro Crenshaw LAX Line is an 8.5-mile light rail line that will "add eight new stations serving the Crenshaw neighborhood, Leimert Park, Inglewood and surrounding areas".
The line will run between the Expo/Crenshaw station and Aviation/96 Street station, transiting north-south along Crenshaw Boulevard. Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza shopping mall is a landmark, it was home to a tri-level Wal-Mart and Macy's. Additional retail stores were purchased by the mall such as Victoria's Secret, Forever 21, Ashley Stewart, as well as office supply stores such as Staples. Marlton Square, was a shopping center; the center was a failed redevelopment project. Local city business developers and Kaiser Permanente purchased the land and demolished the old retail stores in 2011. A new Kaiser Permanente medical office building was built on the site; the Crenshaw Square Shopping Centre and sign, a local landmark, had been in some disrepair throughout the years. In 2007, the sign was replaced by a modern illuminated red-and-green sign; the Crenshaw Square outdoor shopping center was sold in 2015 and underwent a significant renovation in 2016. The West Angeles Church of God in Christ, a Pentecostal church near the intersection of Crenshaw and Exposition boulevards, is home to Bishop Charles E. Blake.
Village Green is a neighborhood near Baldwin Hills. It is Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #174; the Holiday Bowl was a bowling alley and café known for being a center of ethnic diversity during the 1960s and 1970s. It featured a sushi bar known as the Sakiba Lounge with li
La Cienega Boulevard
La Cienega Boulevard is a major north–south arterial road that runs between El Segundo Boulevard in Hawthorne, California on the south and the Sunset Strip/Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood to the north. It was named for Rancho Las Cienegas "The Ranch Of The Swamps," an area of marshland south of Rancho La Brea. From south of Fairview and from north of Rodeo Road, La Cienega Boulevard is a regular surface street and one of Hollywood's major thoroughfares. Offices for A&E Network, The History Channel and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences are located on La Cienega as are the studios of Citadel Broadcasting flagships KABC and KLOS, two of Los Angeles' biggest radio stations. A portion of La Cienega in and adjacent to Beverly Hills is known as "Restaurant Row" for its large number of upscale restaurants. South of Olympic, La Cienega runs through the Pico-Robertson and Crestview neighborhoods in West Los Angeles into Culver City and is known for its large number of automotive-related business including several used car dealerships and many body shops and auto mechanics.
It continues south passing Interstate 10, the Metro Expo Line. It is unusual among Southern California roadways to be built to freeway standards. South of Interstate 10, La Cienega was built to freeway standards in the late 1940s as part of the proposed Laurel Canyon Freeway, part of State Route 170; the SR 170 freeway was never completed south of U. S. Route 101, the stretch of La Cienega from just north of Fairview Blvd in Inglewood, through Baldwin Hills and along the Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area to Rodeo Road in Los Angeles is a divided, limited access highway with few traffic signals; as such, emergency call boxes like those found along the area's freeways were installed along that stretch in the early 1970s. South of Fairview Blvd, La Cienega runs parallel to the 405 freeway and terminates at El Segundo Boulevard in Del Aire along the west side of the freeway. A non-contiguous segment named La Cienega Blvd runs along the East side of the 405 freeway between El Segundo Blvd and Rosecrans Avenue in Wiseburn, another unincorporated area adjacent to Del Aire.
The area of La Cienega Boulevard, from Beverly Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard, its satellite streets is known as the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Art dealer Felix Landau operated his trend-setting gallery there in the 1960s. La Cienega in Beverly Hills, north of Wilshire Boulevard, is known as Restaurant Row because it features many upscale restaurants. From Wilshire in Beverly Hills traveling north the best known establishments include Benihana, The Stinking Rose, the original Lawry's the Prime Rib, Tokyo Table - Tokyo City Cuisine, Fogo de Chão, Gyu-Kaku, Woo Lae Oak, The Bazaar by José Andrés, Morton's. La Cienega Boulevard is named after Rancho Las Cienegas Mexican land grant in the region now called "West Los Angeles." The Spanish phrase la ciénaga translates into English as "the swamp" and the area named "Las Ciénegas" was a continual marshland due to the course of the Los Angeles River through that area prior to a massive southerly shift in 1825 to its present course.
The difference in spelling in Los Angeles between the Castilian Spanish word ciénaga and the name of the thoroughfare, common in other Iberian languages like Extremaduran, originated with the name of the rancho. Metro Local lines 105 and 217, Metro Rapid line 705 run on La Cienega Boulevard. An elevated light rail station for the Metro Expo Line is located at Jefferson Boulevard. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023; the entire route is in Los Angeles County. Southern California Unsigned Freeways – La Cienega Boulevard La Cienega Design Quarter
Don Carlos is a five-act grand opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi to a French-language libretto by Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle, based on the dramatic play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien by Friedrich Schiller. In addition, it has been noted by David Kimball that the Fontainebleau scene and auto da fé "were the most substantial of several incidents borrowed from a contemporary play on Philip II by Eugène Cormon"; the opera is most performed in Italian translation under the title Don Carlo. The opera's story is based on conflicts in the life of Prince of Asturias. Though he was betrothed to Elisabeth of Valois, part of the peace treaty ending the Italian War of 1551–59 between the Houses of Habsburg and Valois demanded that she be married instead to his father Philip II of Spain, it was commissioned and produced by the Théâtre Impérial de l'Opéra and given its premiere at the Salle Le Peletier on 11 March 1867. The first Italian version given in Italy was in Bologna in March 1867. Revised again by Verdi, it was given in Naples in November/December 1872.
Two other versions were prepared: the first was seen in Milan in January 1884. That is now known as the "Milan version", while the second—also sanctioned by the composer—became the "Modena version" and was presented in that city in December 1886, it restored the "Fontainebleau" first act to the Milan four-act version. Over the following twenty years and additions were made to the opera, resulting in a number of versions being available to directors and conductors. No other Verdi opera exists in so many versions. At its full length, it is Verdi's longest opera. Pre-première cuts and first published edition Verdi made a number of cuts in 1866, after finishing the opera but before composing the ballet because the work was becoming too long; these were a duet for Elisabeth and Eboli in Act 4, Scene 1. After the ballet had been composed, it emerged during the 1867 rehearsal period that, without further cuts, the opera would not finish before midnight. Verdi authorised some further cuts, which were, the introduction to Act 1.
The opera, as first published at the time of the première, consisted of Verdi's original conception, without all of the above-named cuts, but including the ballet. After the première and before leaving Paris, Verdi authorised the Opéra authorities to end Act 4, Scene 2 with the death of Posa if they thought fit. After his departure, further cuts were made during the remaining performances. Despite a grandiose production designed by scenic artists Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Édouard Desplechin and Jean-Baptiste Lavastre, Auguste Alfred Rubé and Philippe Chaperon, it appears to have been a "problem opera" for the Opéra—it disappeared from its repertoire after 1869, it was common practice at the time for most theatres to perform operas in Italian, an Italian translation of Don Carlos was prepared in the autumn of 1866 by Achille de Lauzières. On 18 November 1866 Verdi wrote to Giovanni Ricordi, offering the Milan publisher the Italian rights, but insisting that the opera: must be performed in its entirety as it will be performed for the first time at the Paris Opéra.
Don Carlos is an opera in five acts with ballet: if the management of Italian theatres would like to pair it with a different ballet, this must be placed either before or after the uncut opera, never in the middle, following the barbarous custom of our day. However, the Italian translation was first performed not in Italy but in London at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden on 4 June 1867, where it was produced and conducted by Michael Costa. However, it was not as Verdi desired. Additionally, the duet between Philip and the Inquisitor was shortened by four lines, Elisabeth's aria in Act 5 consisted only of part of the middle section and the reprise; the production was considered a success, Verdi sent a congratulatory note to Costa. When he learned of the alterations, Verdi was irritated, but Costa's version anticipated revisions Verdi himself would make a few years in 1882–83; the Italian premiere on 27 October 1867 at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna, conducted by Verdi's close friend Angelo Mariani, was an "instant success", this version, although produced in Verdi's absence, was more complete and included the ballet.
For the Rome premiere on 9 February 1868 at the Teatro Apollo unsurprisingly, the Papal censor changed the Inquisitor into a Gran Cancelliere and the Monk/Emperor into a Solitario. This version of the opera was first performed in Milan at La Scala on 25 March 1868, prestige productions in most other Ital