Its name derives from its Catholic and Western European nature. The empire, whose name was Imperium Romaniae, claimed the direct heritage of the Eastern Roman Empire. This claim however was disputed by the Byzantine Greek successor states, the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond, out of these three, the Nicaeans succeeded in displacing the Latin emperors in 1261 and restored the Byzantine Empire. Baldwin II, in exile from Constantinople Philip I, his son Catherine I, his daughter, her husband Catherine II, their daughter, with. List of Roman emperors List of Byzantine emperors
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Baldwin I, Latin Emperor
He lost his final battle to Kaloyan, the emperor of Bulgaria, and spent his last days as his prisoner. Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut and Margaret I, when the childless Philip of Alsace left on the last of his personal crusades in 1177, he designated his brother-in-law Baldwin V his heir. One year later, Philip of Alsace had his protégé married to his niece, Isabelle of Hainaut, offering the County of Artois and other Flemish territories as dowry, much to the dismay of Baldwin V. Count Philips wife Elisabeth died in 1183, and Philip Augustus seized the province of Vermandois on behalf of Elisabeths sister, Philip remarried, to Matilda of Portugal. Philip gave Matilda a dower of a number of major Flemish towns, when Countess Margaret I died in 1194, Flanders descended to her eldest son Baldwin, who ruled as Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders. In 1186, the younger Baldwin had married Marie of Champagne, daughter of Count Henry I of Champagne, the chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed.
Immediately after this arrangement, the count of Hainauts son Baldwin, thirteen years old, received as wife Marie and this Marie began sufficiently young to devote herself to divine obedience in prayers, vigils and alms. The solemn rejoicing of the wedding was celebrated at Valenciennes with an abundance of knights and ladies, through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land, her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s. Maries uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade, Baldwins own family had been involved in the defence of Jerusalem, his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwins maternal grandmother was great-aunt of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders and his father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabelles son, the eight years of Baldwins rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land.
After Philip II of France took Baldwins brother, Philippe of Namur, the Treaty of Péronne was signed in January 1200 on the condition that Baldwin receive the territories he had won during the war. Baldwin was made the vassal of Philip II, and the king returned portions of Artois to Baldwin. In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on Ash Wednesday 1200 in the town of Bruges, Baldwin took the cross and he spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on 14 April 1202. As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, one detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down rules for inheritance
County of Namur
Namur was a county of the Carolingian and Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries. Its territories largely correspond with the present-day Belgian arrondissement Namur plus the northwestern part of the arrondissement Dinant, the city of Namur most likely arose around the Champeau, a rocky hill between the Sambre and the Meuse. Numerous prehistoric flint weapons have been found in the area, during Roman times the region around Namur was first mentioned in Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico in the second half of the 1st century BC. In Caesars wars the Roman legions conquered numerous Belgic cities and settlements, after this defeat the Belgae and their territory were incorporated into the Roman Empire. The county of Namur was first listed as part of the Lommegau in the year 832 in a document by Louis the Pious, in 992, Emperor Otto III titles Albert I count of Namur for the first time. The first count of note was Albert III, who acquired wardship over the prince-abbacy of Stavelot-Malmédy, until the start of the 12th century, Namur was threatened by its powerful neighbours Brabant, Hainaut and Liège.
Important parts of the county were annexed, the city of Dinant, for example, from the 12th century on, the counts of Namur managed to more or less compensate for the losses they had suffered. Count Godfrey, for example, acquired the county of Longwy, the last important figure from the first house that ruled Namur was Henry I. Henry I inherited the counties of Durbuy, La Roche-en-Ardenne and Luxembourg, after Henrys death, a fierce succession war broke out between Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Henrys daughter Ermesinde. Baldwin V eventually received the county of Namur while Ermesine received Luxembourg, the situation remained more or less stable until 1263. In this year, the count of Namur, Baldwin II of Courtenay, sold his county to the count of Flanders, the house of Dampierre would rule until 1421, when the county of Namur was sold to the Burgundian duke Philip the Good. After the county of Namur was bought by Philip the Good, he integrated it into a territorial and political union. From the 15th century on, the Southern Netherlands were ruled by the Habsburgs, under their new rule, the military importance of the city of Namur steadily grew.
The Burgundians and Habsburgs strengthened the city and built new walls around it, during the 16th and 17th centuries the city became an important military stronghold, and was repeatedly besieged for this reason. During the Spanish period, Namur received a bishoprics seat, the Spanish king Philip II wanted to turn Namur into a catholic bastion as a bulwark against the rise of Calvinism. Thus Philip II required several religious orders to establish themselves in Namur, in consequence the city gained a specific catholic character. Philip II managed to make considerable reïnforcements to the Citadel of Namur, in 1577, Philip II sent Don Juan of Austria to the Netherlands as the new governor. In Namur, Don Juan received Margaret of Valois, and organised a magnificent celebration in her honor, Namur has had a crucial military role throughout history
Kingdom of Thessalonica
The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade over conquered Byzantine lands in Macedonia and Thessaly. After the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders in 1204, Boniface of Montferrat, the Venetians felt that Boniface was too closely tied to the Byzantine Empire, as his brother Conrad had married into the Byzantine royal family. The Venetians wanted an emperor whom they could more easily. Boniface reluctantly accepted this, and set out to conquer Thessalonica, at first he had to compete with Emperor Baldwin, who wanted the city. He went on to capture the city in 1204 and set up a kingdom there, subordinate to Baldwin, in 1204–05, Boniface was able to extend his rule south into Greece, advancing through Thessaly, Boeotia and Attica. Bonifaces rule lasted less than two years before he was ambushed by Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria and killed on September 4,1207, the kingdom passed to Bonifaces son Demetrius, who was still a baby, so actual power was held by various minor nobles of Lombard origin.
These nobles, under the regent Oberto, began plotting to place William VI of Montferrat, Bonifaces elder son, on the throne, Henry marched against them in 1209 and forced their submission. As a result, Henrys brother Eustace became regent for Demetrius, taking advantage of this situation, Michael I of Epirus, a former ally of Boniface, attacked the kingdom in 1210, as did the Bulgarians. Henry of Flanders eventually defeated both, but after Michaels death in 1214, his brother and successor Theodore began anew the assault on the kingdom. In 1224, just as Demetrius had become old enough to power for himself, Theodore finally captured Thessalonica. I Monferrato e i Savoia nei secoli XII–XV, Torino Runciman, Steven, A history of the Crusades, Cambridge University Press Van Tricht, the Latin Renovatio of Byzantium, The Empire of Constantinople
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
Henry of Flanders
Henry was the second emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. He was a son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut. Having joined the Fourth Crusade in about 1201, he distinguished himself at the sieges of Constantinople and he soon became prominent among the princes of the new Latin Empire. He was crowned 20 August 1206, upon Henrys ascension as Latin Emperor, the Lombard nobles of the Kingdom of Thessalonica refused to give him allegiance. A two-year war ensued and after defeating the Templar-supported Lombards, Henry confiscated the Templar castles of Ravennika and Zetouni (Lamia. Henry was a ruler, whose reign was largely passed in successful struggles with Kaloyan, Tsar of Bulgaria. He fought against Boril of Bulgaria and managed to defeat him in the Battle of Philippopolis, Henry campaigned against the Nicean Empire, expanding a small holding in Asia Minor with campaigns in 1207 and in 1211–1212, where he captured important Nicean possessions at Nymphaion. Domestically, Henry appears to have a different character than many of the other Crusader nobles as seen in his even-handed and pragmatic treatment of the Greeks.
Henry appears to have been brave but not cruel, and tolerant but not weak, possessing the superior courage to oppose, in a superstitious age, the pride and avarice of the clergy. The emperor died, poisoned, it is said, by Oberto II of Biandrate, ex-regent of Thessaloniki, gardner suggests this happened at the instigation of his wife, Maria of Bulgaria. On his death his brother-in-law Peter Courtenay was crowned emperor in Rome, in the years 1217 to 1219, the Latin Empire was effectively ruled by Yolanda, Henrys sister and Peters wife, in regency. The last two Latin emperors were Peter and Yolandas sons and Baldwin, Henry first married Agnes of Montferrat, daughter of Boniface of Montferrat, the Crusade leader, but she had died before her fathers death in 1207. Henry had a daughter with an unnamed mistress and this daughter, whose name is not recorded, married Alexii Slav who established his own state in the Rodophe mountains. He was given the title of despot, the Latin and Greek Churches in former Byzantine Lands under Latin Rule.
The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, the Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile. Translated by Shaw, M. R. B, the Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Sturdza, M. D. Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, dAlbanie et de Constantinople
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died, while a widower is a man in that situation. The state of having lost ones spouse to death is termed widowhood and these terms are not applied to a person after he or she becomes divorced from their former spouse. The term widowhood can be used for sex, at least according to some dictionaries. Occasionally, the word viduity is used, the adjective form for either sex is widowed. When the death of a spouse occurs, it is said that an effect is to arise. This is a phenomenon that refers to the mortality rate after the death of a spouse. It is “strongest during the first three months after a death, when they had a 66-percent increased chance of dying”. Most widows and widowers suffer from this effect during the first 3 months of their spouses death, in societies where the husband is the sole provider, his death can leave his family destitute. The tendency for women generally to outlive men can compound this, in some patriarchal societies, widows may maintain economic independence.
A woman would carry on her spouses business and be accorded certain rights, more recently, widows of political figures have been among the first women elected to high office in many countries, such as Corazón Aquino or Isabel Martínez de Perón. In 19th-century Britain, widows had greater opportunity for social mobility than in other societies. Along with the ability to ascend socio-economically, widows—who were presumably celibate—were much more able to challenge conventional sexual behaviour than married women in their society. Many immigrants from these cultures to the United States as recently as the 1970s have loosened this strict standard of dress to only two years of black garments. However, Orthodox Christian immigrants may wear black in the United States to signify their widowhood. In other cultures, widowhood is much stricter and unarguably more demeaning to womens rights, women are required to remarry within the family of their late husband after a period of mourning. As of 2004, women in United States who were widowed at younger ages are at greatest risk for economic hardship, married women who are in a financially unstable household are more likely to become widows because of the strong relationship between mortality and wealth.
In underdeveloped and developing areas of the world, conditions for widows continue to be more severe. A variable that is deemed important and relative to the effects of widowhood is the gender of the widow
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Henry IV, Count of Luxembourg
Henry IV, called the Blind, was count of Luxembourg from 1136 until his death and count of Namur from 1139 until his abdication in 1189. He was the son of Godfrey I, Count of Namur and Ermesinde and he inherited the counties of La Roche and Durbuy from his cousins Henry II of Durbuy and Henry of Laroche. When another cousin, Conrad II of Luxembourg, died he was granted that county by the Emperor Lothair II, at the same time he inherited the advocacies of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin at Trier and Saint-Willibrord at Echternach. This was the cause of conflicts with Albero of Montreuil. Three years later, he inherited Namur from his father, in 1141, he helped Alberon II, Bishop of Liège take Bouillon with Renaut I of Bar. In 1147, he gave up Saint-Maximin, but he regained it on the death of Archbishop Albero de Montreuil in 1152, the new archbishop, Hillin of Falmagne, exchanged the rights over the abbeys with the town of Grevenmacher in 1155. In 1157, he married Laurette, daughter of Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders, left without child, he designated his brother-in-law Baldwin IV of Hainault, husband of his sister Alice of Namur, as his heir.
When Baldwin died in 1171, he designated Baldwin V. Baldwin V, in 1171, Henry married a second time, this time to Agnes, daughter of Henry I, Count of Guelders and Agnes of Arnstein. Heirless still, he repudiated her in 1184, but fell seriously ill, in September 1186, a girl, was born to them. This birth called into question the plan of succession, as Henry considered his promise to Baldwin null, Henry, 76 years old, pledged his daughter in marriage to Henry II of Champagne. It was decided that Baldwin would inherit Namur, Ermesinde would inherit Durbuy and La Roche, the fiefs were dispensed in 1189 and after the planned marriage between Ermesinde and the count of Champagne was cancelled Henry bethrothed her instead to Theobald I of Bar. He entered into a war with Henry of Limburg and was defeated on 1 August 1194 at Noville-sur-Mehaigne and he died two years in Echternach