Redondo Peak is a conspicuous summit in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico, in the southwestern United States. It is located within the Valles Caldera National Preserve, it is the second highest summit in the Jemez after Chicoma Mountain. It is the most visually prominent peak in the range when viewed from the south, for example, from Albuquerque. From many other directions it is less prominent or not visible, due to its location in the center of the Valles Caldera, well away from the Caldera's rim. Redondo Peak is an example of the volcanic feature known as a resurgent dome, it was formed some time after the main caldera-forming eruptions of about 1.4 million and 1.1 million years ago, but it is not itself an eruptive feature. The summit of the mountain is composed of tuff ejected by the more recent caldera-forming eruption, rather than of subsequent volcanic ejecta, it is forested all the way to its summit. Controversy concerning logging practices on the mountain contributed pressure to create the Valles Caldera National Preserve, within which logging is restricted.
Redondo Peak is sacred to various Pueblo peoples of New Mexico and, as a result and other recreational activities on the mountain are restricted as of 2008. The summit area is occupied by a shrine, studied and excavated by anthropologist William Boone Douglass in the early 20th century and remained in use well into the 20th century; the shrine and its immediate surroundings are closed to visitors. "Valles Caldera National Preserve". Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-21. "Redondo Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-12-21
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title
The Chuska Mountains are an elongate range on the southeast Colorado Plateau and within the Navajo Nation whose highest elevations approach 10,000 feet. The range is about 80 by 15 km, it is crossed by the state line between Arizona and New Mexico. The highlands are a dissected plateau, with an average elevation of about 2,740 m, subdued topography; the highest point is Roof Butte at 2,994 m, near the northern end of the range in Arizona. Other high points include the satellite Beautiful Mountain at 2,861 m and Lukachukai Mountains at 2,885 m, both near the northern end, Matthews Peak at 2,911 m; the San Juan Basin borders the Chuskas on the east, typical elevations in nearby parts of that basin are near 1,800 m. The eastern escarpment of the mountains is marked by slumps and landslides that extend out onto the western margin of the San Juan Basin. To the north, the Chuskas are separated from the Carrizo Mountains by Red Rock Valley, today referred to as Red Valley. Major peaks of the Chuskas include: Much of the range is Navajo Nation Forest.
Trees there were cut and transported more than 75 km to the east to construct pueblos in Chaco Culture National Historical Park in the San Juan Basin as early as 974 A. D. Following a period of contentious debate, logging in the Chuskas was suspended in 1994. There has been discussion among the tribal government about resuming logging at some future time; the forests of the Chuska Mountains and of the Defiance Uplift receive higher rainfall than the surrounding lowlands, these highlands receive regular winter snowfall. Runoff from snowmelt and seasonal thunderstorms along the crest of the Chuskas generates more than half the surface water of the Navajo Nation. Canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument were cut by streams with headwaters in the Chuskas; the Chuska Mountains are sparsely populated. Nearby settlements are small, including Crystal, New Mexico, Lukachukai and Toadlena, New Mexico. Trading posts at Crystal and at Two Grey Hills, are associated with distinctive patterns used in Navajo rugs.
A paved road, New Mexico Highway 134, crosses the range through Narbona Pass. Narbona Pass was called Beesh Lichii'l Bigiizh, or Copper Pass, was the location where Navajo warriors led by Narbona decisively defeated a Mexican slaving expedition under Captain Blas de Hinojos, it was renamed Washington Pass, after Colonel John M. Washington, who commanded a military expedition against the Navajo. Narbona was a Navajo headman killed in an encounter with Washington's troops in 1849; the Chuska Mountains and the Defiance Uplift to the southwest form one of the prominent uplifted highlands of the Colorado Plateau. The uplifted region is separated from the San Juan Basin to the east by the Defiance and associated monoclines. Relative uplift, basin subsidence, monocline formation began in the early stages of the Laramide orogeny about 75 to 80 million years ago. Although the Chuska Mountains can be considered part of the Defiance Uplift, they stand higher, they are capped by an erosional remnant of Chuska Sandstone, a unit locally more than 500 meters thick.
The flat-lying Chuska Sandstone rests unconformably on Mesozoic rocks deformed in the Defiance monocline. Biotite in layers of altered volcanic ash within the Chuska Sandstone has yielded radiometric ages of 35 and 33 million years by argon-argon dating; the Chuska Sandstone is formed of sand dune deposits, it appears to be a remnant of a huge Oligocene sand sea, the Chuska erg. The erg hypothesis is consistent with major exhumation of the central Colorado Plateau in the late Oligocene and early Miocene. If so major uplift of the central Colorado Plateau may postdate the Laramide orogeny. Minette of the Navajo Volcanic Field was extruded through the Chuska Sandstone. Minette makes up Roof Butte and Matthews Peak. A maar complex, containing pyroclastic and extrusive minette, is exposed along New Mexico Highway 134 in Narbona Pass. Argon-argon dating of four minette samples at Narbona Pass yielded consistent ages of 25 million years. Little oil has been produced in Arizona, much of that production has come from a minette sill, the reservoir rock of the Dineh-bi-Keyah field in the northwestern Chuska Mountains near Roof Butte.
The sill is intruded into lower Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. The producing rock is both porous and fractured, it is characterized by large poikilitic sanidine grains with inclusions of diopsidic augite and biotite: potassium-argon dating of the biotite yielded 25.7 million years. This pulse of magmatism at about 25 million years may have been accompanied by uplift of the Defiance-Chuska high in addition to the uplift during the Laramide orogeny. Helium-rich gas has been extracted from Devonian strata in the Dineh-bi-Keyah field. Additional economic resources have included uranium, mined from some of the Mesozoic strata from the Morrison Formation in the Lukachukai Mountains at the northwest end of the Chuska Mountains. Lucas, Spencer G. Semken, Steven C. Berglof, William R. and Dana S. Ulmer-Scholle, Geology of the Zuni Plateau, New Mexico Geological Society Fifty-fourth Annual Field Conference, 424 p. 2003. Brand, B. D. Clarke, A. B. and Semken, S. 2008, Eruptive conditions and depositional processes of Narbona Pass Maar volcano, Navajo volcanic field, Navajo Nation, New Mexico.
Bulletin Volcanol. DOI 10.1007/s00445-008-0209-y Steven M. Cather, Lisa Peters, Nelia W. Dunbar
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Big Hatchet Mountains
The Big Hatchet Mountains are an 18 mi long, mountain range in southeast Hidalgo County, New Mexico, adjacent the northern border of Chihuahua state, Mexico. The range lies just south of a westerly excursion of the Continental Divide of the Americas; the mountain range lies in the extreme northwest of the Chihuahuan Desert. The range is only about 8 mi wide, it trends northwest by southeast as does the Alamo Hueco Mountains to the south. Geologically this range is part of the Basin and Range Province which spans much of the southwestern U. S. and parts of northern Mexico. It is a fault-block range made up of Paleozoic limestone and Cretaceous shale and sandstones. Ecologically, the Big Hatchet Mountains lie near the Chihuahuan Desert and the Sonoran Desert, but their large relief provides many ecological niches more in keeping with the mountains to the north. Notable inhabitants include bats, bighorn sheep, javelina; the Big Hatchet Mountains are far from population centers, have no paved road access or developed recreation sites.
However, the standard route on the peak, along the South Ridge from Thompson Canyon, is straightforward. The highest peak in the range, Big Hatchet Peak, 8,366 feet, is at the northwest terminus of the range. Another peak anchors the southeast terminus of New Well Peak, at 6,284 feet; the Continental Divide lies north of the Big Hatchet Mountains and traverses the northern Playas Valley on its water divide. The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail is routed through the Big Hatchet's on two alternative trails, one at the center and the other in the north; the main traverse of the CDT exits from the southwest quarter of the range, to meet the northwest end of the Alamo Hueco Mountains. Big Hatchet Peak at summitpost.org Big Hatchet Peak, elevation: 8356 ft Big Hatchet Mountains, mountainzone Greater Big Hatchet Complex on nmwild.org
Philmont Scout Ranch
Philmont Scout Ranch is a ranch located near the town of Cimarron, New Mexico. Donated by oil baron Waite Phillips, the ranch is operated by the Boy Scouts of America, it is a National High Adventure Base where crews of Scouts and Venturers take part in backpacking treks and other outdoor activities. By land area, it is one of the largest youth camps in the world. During the season, between June 8 and August 22, an estimated 22,000 Scouts and adult leaders backpack through the Ranch's extensive backcountry. More than 1,130 seasonal staff are responsible for the Ranch's summer operations. Philmont is home to the Philmont Training Center and the Seton Museum; the Training Center is the primary location for BSA's national volunteer training programs. Philmont is a working ranch, maintaining small herds of cattle, horses and bison; the only documented Tyrannosaurus rex track in the world was discovered within the camp's boundaries in 1993 in North Ponil Canyon by the Anasazi Trail Camp. It was formally identified in 1994.
Philmont is located in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of New Mexico. The closest village is New Mexico; the address of the ranch is given as 17 Deer Run Rd. Cimarron, New Mexico, 87714, it is about 20 miles west-northwest of Springer, New Mexico, 35 miles southwest of Raton, New Mexico. Philmont is about 12 miles across at its widest point, about 30 miles long. There are no mountains to the south or east of Philmont; the interior of the ranch is mountainous but a small part of the eastern area is prairie. Philmont's lowest point is the southeast corner at 6,500 feet and the highest point is the peak of Baldy Mountain, located on the ranch's northwest boundary, at 12,441 feet. Aside from Baldy, the ranch contains a number of prominent peaks; the South Country is home to a series of six difficult peaks, namely Mount Phillips, Comanche Peak, Big Red, Bear Mountain, Black Mountain, Schaefers Peak, as well as Trail Peak, popular for its nearness to Beaubien, the wreckage of the crash of a B-24 bomber in 1942 near its summit.
Of the ranch's various peaks with trail access, Black Mountain is considered the most difficult, followed by Baldy and Big Red. The most recognizable landmark is the Tooth of Time at 9,003 feet, a granite monolith protruding 500 feet vertically from an east-west ridge. Tooth of Time Ridge, the latitude line on which it sits, marks the boundary between the central and southern sections of Philmont; the boundary between the central and northern sections is around U. S. Route 64, which runs just south of the narrowest part of the'I'-shape, only a few miles across. Other prominent landmarks on the ranch include Grizzly Tooth, Window Rock, Deer Lake Mesa, Wilson's Mesa and Urraca Mesa. Native Americans of the Jicarilla Apache tribe and Ute tribe once inhabited Philmont. A few Native American archaeological sites exist in the northern section nearby the'Indian Writings' camp, various camps seek to preserve Philmont's Native American heritage. On April 22, 1942, a B-24 Liberator crashed into the side of Trail Peak.
Waite Philips led a rescue crew up. Among the casualties was Eagle Scout Roland L. Jeffries and Star Scout Charles O. Reynard, Jr; some of the wreckage still remains, including a wing and propeller, because of its location, it is the world's most visited airplane crash site. The Santa Fe Trail crossed the plains just southwest of Philmont in the mid-1800s; the Tooth of Time owes its name to this trail. Philmont's strategic location along the trail spurred some interest in it. In 1841, Carlos Beaubien and Guadalupe Miranda obtained a large land grant from the Mexican government, including the present ranch. Soon the grant fell into the hands of Beaubien's son-in-law Lucien Maxwell, who played an important role in developing and settling it. Maxwell sold the ranch to the Maxwell Land Grant and Railroad Company, which gave up and handed it on to a Dutch development company, which decided to parcel it out to ranchers. One of the most prominent ranchers was Jesus Gil Abreu, who ran the Abreu Rayado Ranch from the 1870s to his death in 1901.
Operating from the Rayado Settlement, he raised cattle and sheep and grew crops. The family owned this property until 1911. One of the sons remained on the ranch near the site of Abreu, a present staffed camp, his homestead was preserved for years; the building was made of adobe, was abandoned and collapsed. The foundation of this building now serves as the foundation for the Abreu cantina; the house was reconstructed in 1998 about 100 feet uphill. The history of mining at Philmont dates back to the years after the Civil War. U. S. soldiers were stationed in the West after the war, as the U. S. Army was driving out the American Indians; the story is. The shiny material in the rock was found to be copper. According to the story, the soldier and two of his friends went up to investigate, found gold, they could not stay to mine the gold and the area was overrun by miners by the time they returned the next year. Scores of gold mines were excavated in Philmont, operated into the early 20th century. A large vein of gold is said to lie under Mount Baldy to this day, but extracting it has not been feasible.
It is a common joke at Philmont that some day the mines under Bald
The Mogollon Mountains or Mogollon Range are a mountain range in Grant County and Catron County of southwestern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. They are protected within the Gila National Forest; the Mogollon Mountains are located west of the Gila River and east of the San Francisco River, between the communities of Reserve and Silver City. They extend north-south for about 30 mi, form part of the divide between the San Francisco and Gila Rivers; the crest of the range lies about 15 mi east of U. S. Route 180; the Sierra Aguilada, a lower altitude smaller range, borders to the west of Route 180. Most of the Mogollon Mountains range is protected within the Gila Wilderness, in the Gila National Forest; the highest point in the range is Whitewater Baldy which, at 10,895 ft, is the highest point in southwestern New Mexico. The range contains five other peaks over 10,000 feet, most notably Mogollon Baldy 10,778 ft; the Mogollon Mountains were formed between forty and twenty-five million years ago as part of the Datil-Mogollon Volcanic Plateau.
Hot springs existing in the area are a remnant of that volcanic activity. The Mogollon Mountains are named for Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, governor of Spanish colonial Nuevo Leon from 1712 to 1715, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Early inhabitants of the range include the Mimbres Culture, from 300 BCE to 1300 CE. Peoples included the Chiricahua and Mimbres bands of the Apache. Geronimo is said to have been born in the area around 1829. Mining occurred in the area continuing for some decades; the Mogollon Mountains should not be confused with the Mogollon Rim, a large escarpment in Arizona, about 100 miles to the northwest