Rob Davies (politician)
Rob Haydn Davies is minister of trade and industry of South Africa. Due to his anti-apartheid activities Davies left South Africa and lived in Britain, during this time he was attached to the Centre for African Studies at the Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique. On his return from exile he conducted research for the African National Congress. In 1990 he became co-director of the Centre for Southern African Studies at the University of the Western Cape and he was deputy Minister of Trade and Industry from June 2005 until May 2009 and Chairman of the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Finance. Davies has been a member of Parliament since 1994 and is a member of the central committee and he was appointed Minister of Trade and Industry by President Jacob Zuma in May 2009 and re-appointed to the position on May 25,2014
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization. It sets down minimum standards for the regulation by governments of many forms of intellectual property as applied to nationals of other WTO member nations. TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs, in 2001, developing countries, concerned that developed countries were insisting on an overly narrow reading of TRIPS, initiated a round of talks that resulted in the Doha Declaration. The Doha declaration is a WTO statement that clarifies the scope of TRIPS, stating for example that TRIPS can, TRIPS specifies enforcement procedures and dispute resolution procedures. TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and its inclusion was the culmination of a program of intense lobbying by the United States, supported by the European Union and other developed nations.
After the Uruguay round, the GATT became the basis for the establishment of the World Trade Organization, for this reason, TRIPS is the most important multilateral instrument for the globalization of intellectual property laws. States like Russia and China that were unlikely to join the Berne Convention have found the prospect of WTO membership a powerful enticement. Furthermore, unlike other agreements on intellectual property, TRIPS has an enforcement mechanism. States can be disciplined through the WTOs dispute settlement mechanism, TRIPS requires member states to provide strong protection for intellectual property rights. For example, under TRIPS, Copyright terms must extend at least 50 years, Copyright must be granted automatically, and not based upon any formality, such as registrations, as specified in the Berne Convention. Computer programs must be regarded as literary works under copyright law, exceptions to exclusive rights must be limited, provided that a normal exploitation of the work and normal exploitation of the patent is not in conflict.
No unreasonable prejudice to the interests of the right holders of computer programs. Legitimate interests of third parties have to be taken account by patent rights. In each state, intellectual property laws may not offer any benefits to citizens which are not available to citizens of other TRIPS signatories under the principle of national treatment. TRIPS has a most favored nation clause and it is the case of the protection of software and database. Article 10 of the treaty stipulates,1, computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention. Such protection, which shall not extend to the data or material itself, the most visible conflict has been over AIDS drugs in Africa. Despite the role that patents have played in maintaining higher drug costs for health programs across Africa
Least Developed Countries
The concept of LDCs originated in the late 1960s and the first group of LDCs was listed by the UN in its resolution 2768 of 18 November 1971. A country is classified among the Least Developed Countries if it meets three criteria, Poverty – adjustable criterion based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. As of 2015 a country must have GNI per capita less than US $1,035 to be included on the list, human resource weakness and Economic vulnerability LDC criteria are reviewed every three years by the Committee for Development Policy of the UN Economic and Social Council. Countries may graduate out of the LDC classification when indicators exceed these criteria, the classification applies to 48 countries. Since the LDC category was initiated, only four countries have graduated to developing country status, the first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in 1994. The second country was Cape Verde in 2007, maldives graduated to developing country status on 1 January 2011, while Samoa graduated in 2014.
It is anticipated that Equatorial Guinea and Vanuatu will be the countries to be promoted from LDC status. At the UNs fourth conference on LDCs held in May 2011, Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries, less developed countries, lesser developed countries, or other terms for countries in the so-called Third World. Although many contemporary scholars argue that Third World is outdated, irrelevant or inaccurate, the term less economically developed country is used today. Countries with populations over 75 million are excluded, there have been four United Nations conferences on LDCs, held every ten years. The first two were in Paris, in 1981 and 1991, the third was in Brussels in 2001, the Fourth UN Conference on Least Developed Countries was held in Istanbul, Turkey, 9–13 May 2011. It was attended by Ban Ki-Moon, the head of the UN, the conference endorsed the goal of raising half the existing Least developed countries out of the LDC category by 2022. The importance of society and its contributions has been recognised in the UNGA Resolution 63/227.
Post LDC III, civil society actors have been engaged and involved in the UN Decision making processes concerning LDCs. They have involved in the implementation and follow-up, monitoring and review of the progress made by LDCs. For LDC IV, the UN-OHRLLS has entrusted LDC Watch, a network of LDC Civil Society Organizations. LDC Watch has organised civil society consultations at various levels, UN-OHRLLS has mandated LDC Watch as the lead Civil Society Organization to coordinate the Civil Society track towards the LDC-IV conference. The Forum will open two days before the conference begins and will continue till the end of the conference
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009.
Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed more landmark legislation than any Democratic president since LBJs Great Society. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.
He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Scottish and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a year
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Fred Bergsten in 1981, and is led by Adam S. Posen. According to the 2015 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, Peterson is number 20 in the Top Think Tanks Worldwide, the Institute was founded by C. Fred Bergsten in 1981, in response to a proposal from the German Marshall Fund and it moved to its current building on Massachusetts Avenue in 2001. In 2006, a campaign led to the creation of a sizeable endowment. Adam S. Posen succeeded Bergsten as President on January 1,2013, the Institutes annual budget is about $11–12 million and it is financially supported by foundations, private corporations, and individuals, as well as earnings from its publications and capital fund. Notable resident scholars at the Peterson Institute include, as of July 2015, Adam S. Posen, fred Bergsten, Senior Fellow and Director Emeritus Olivier Blanchard, Senior Fellow William R. Lawrence, Avinash Persaud, Edwin M. Truman, and Justin Wolfers. Kristin Forbes and Arvind Subramanian are on leave from the Institute, former scholars include Michael Mussa, Carmen Reinhart, Dani Rodrik, and John Williamson.
The latter coined the term Washington Consensus while working at the Institute, the institute chairman is Peter G. Peterson, former chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, former United States Secretary of Commerce, and one of the founders of the Blackstone Group. Vice chairman is United Technologies Corporation Chairman, George David and Development – Corruption and Governance, Debt Relief, Foreign Aid/Technical Assistance and Developing Countries, Transition Economies, World Bank and Regional Development Banks. Globalization – Politics of Globalization and Labor, Globalization and Environment, Issues, US Economic Policy – Economic Sanctions, Foreign Aid/Technical Assistance, Trade Disputes, Trade Promotion Authority, US Monetary/Fiscal Policy, US Trade Policy. In the New York Times, Steven Rattner called the new building of the Peterson Institute the locker room of the Team Globalization. Ross Perot was right, he said, that the North American Free Trade Agreement would transfer American jobs to Mexico, from 2009 to 2013, employment in the American auto manufacturing sector rose by 23%, from 560,000 to 690,000.
But employment in the Mexican auto sector rose from 368,000 to 589,000, without open borders, many of those jobs would have been American. Wages in American auto manufacturing are down by 12. 7%, American auto manufacturing compensation was $35.67 an hour, in Mexico, it was $6.36 an hour. Adam Posen, the Peterson Institutes director, responded that “fetishization” of any industry was “immoral. ”In 2001 the Peterson Institute moved into a building it commissioned and built at 1750 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D. C. The building was designed by James von Klemperer from the architectural firm Kohn Pedersen Fox and its state-of-the-art conference center is named in honor of the Institutes founder, C. The sculpture garden is named in honor of Institute benefactor Anthony M. Solomon, the building houses several pieces of art donated by Stephan Schmidheiny, a former director of the Institute, including a sculpture by Joan Miró and a painting by Elizabeth Murray. It houses collections of Chinese and African art donated by William M.
Keck, Ambassador John M. Yates, the building was granted the Best Architecture for 2001 award by the Washington Business Journal and won a Best Design award from the American Institute of Architects in 2003
Information Technology Agreement
Since 1997 a formal Committee under the WTO watches over the following of the Declaration and its Implementations. The aim of the treaty is to all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products, council for Trade in Goods – Implementation of the Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products. World Trade G/L/160 doc#97-1356, G/L/160/Add.1 doc#97-1935, G/L/160/Add.2 doc#97-3676,2 April 1997,5 May 1997,17 September 1997
Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician who is the 14th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since May 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, Modi, a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is a Hindu nationalist and member of the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child and he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. He left home after graduating school, partly because of an arranged marriage which he rejected. Modi traveled around India for two years, and visited a number of religious centres and he returned to Gujarat and moved to Ahmedabad in 1969 or 1970. In 1971 he became a worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, the RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary. Modi was appointed minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patels failing health.
Modi was elected to the assembly soon after. His administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it and his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise, and several industrial projects were begun during his tenure. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health, poverty. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Lok Sabha, Modi himself was elected to parliament from Varanasi. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy, and centralised power through the abolition of the planning commission and he has begun a high-profile sanitation campaign, and weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district and he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Modi and Hiraben Modi. Modis family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government, as a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, and ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus.
Modi completed his secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student. Modi had a gift for rhetoric in debates, and this was noted by his teachers. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image, when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and began attending its local shakhas
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round. The WTO is attempting to complete negotiations on the Doha Development Round, as of June 2012, the future of the Doha Round remained uncertain, the work programme lists 21 subjects in which the original deadline of 1 January 2005 was missed, and the round is still incomplete. This impasse has made it impossible to launch new WTO negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round, as a result, there have been an increasing number of bilateral free trade agreements between governments. As of July 2012, there were various groups in the WTO system for the current agricultural trade negotiation which is in the condition of stalemate.
The WTOs current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo, who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, a trade facilitation agreement, part of the Bali Package of decisions, was agreed by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organizations history. Seven rounds of negotiations occurred under GATT, the first real GATT trade rounds concentrated on further reducing tariffs. Then, the Kennedy Round in the mid-sixties brought about a GATT anti-dumping Agreement, because these plurilateral agreements were not accepted by the full GATT membership, they were often informally called codes. Several of these codes were amended in the Uruguay Round, only four remained plurilateral, but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the bovine meat and dairy agreements, leaving only two. Well before GATTs 40th anniversary, its members concluded that the GATT system was straining to adapt to a new globalizing world economy. In response to the problems identified in the 1982 Ministerial Declaration, the GATT still exists as the WTOs umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations.
GATT1994 is not however the only legally binding agreement included via the Final Act at Marrakesh, the highest decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which usually meets every two years. It brings together all members of the WTO, all of which are countries or customs unions, the Ministerial Conference can take decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements. When agricultural export subsidies were agreed to be phased out and adoption of the European Unions Everything, the WTO launched the current round of negotiations, the Doha Development Round, at the fourth ministerial conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. This was to be an effort to make globalization more inclusive and help the worlds poor, particularly by slashing barriers. The initial agenda comprised both further trade liberalization and new rule-making, underpinned by commitments to strengthen substantial assistance to developing countries. Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important and it provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes.
Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training
Member states of the World Trade Organization
The original member states of the World Trade Organization are the parties to the GATT after ratifying the Uruguay Round Agreements, and the European Communities. They obtained this status at the entry into force on 1 January 1995 or upon their date of ratification, all other members have joined the organization as a result of negotiation, and membership consists of a balance of rights and obligations. As is typical of WTO procedures, an offer of accession is only given once consensus is reached among interested parties. The process takes five years, on average, but it can take some countries almost a decade if the country is less than fully committed to the process. The shortest accession negotiation was that of Kyrgyzstan, lasting 2 years and 10 months, the longest were that of Russia, lasting 19 years and 2 months, lasting 17 years and 1 month, and China, lasting 15 years and 5 months. As of 2007, WTO member states represented 96. 4% of global trade and 96. 7% of global GDP, followed by Algeria, are the economies with the largest GDP and trade outside the WTO, using 2005 data.
The process of accession can be broken down into four major stages, the government applying for membership has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements. The application is submitted to the WTO in a memorandum which is examined by a working party open to all interested WTO Members, for large countries such as Russia, numerous countries participate in this process. For smaller countries, the Quadrilateral group of countries – consisting of the EU, the United States and Japan – and an applicants neighboring countries are typically most involved. The WP determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation and these talks cover tariff rates and specific market access commitments, and other policies in goods and services. The new members commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, in other words, the talks determine the benefits other WTO members can expect when the new member joins.
The talks can be complicated, it has been said that in some cases the negotiations are almost as large as an entire round of multilateral trade negotiations. When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party finalizes the terms of accession, sends an accession package, which includes a summary of all the WP meetings, the Protocol of Accession, and lists of the member-to-bes commitments to the General Council or Ministerial Conference. Once the General Council or Ministerial Conference approves of the terms of accession, the documents used in the accession process which are embargoed during the accession process are released once the nation becomes a member. As of July 2016, the WTO has 164 members, as of 2016, four of the successor states of the SFRY are WTO members, and the remaining two are observers negotiating membership. Four other states, Lebanon, Syria, were parties to GATT, the remaining WTO members acceded after first becoming WTO observers and negotiating membership. China and Liberia have since acceded to the WTO, the 28 states of the European Union are dually represented, as the EU is a full member of the organization.
Thus, Hong Kong became a GATT contracting party, by the now terminated sponsorship procedure of the United Kingdom, the WTO has 22 observer states, that with the exception of the Holy See must start their accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers
United States embargo against Cuba
The United States embargo against Cuba is a commercial and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba. An embargo was first imposed by the United States on sale of arms to Cuba on March 14,1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. Again on October 19,1960 the U. S. placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food, on February 7,1962 the embargo was extended to include almost all imports. The stated purpose of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 is to maintain sanctions on Cuba so long as the Cuban government refuses to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights. In 1999, President Bill Clinton expanded the embargo by disallowing foreign subsidiaries of U. S. companies to trade with Cuba. In 2000, Clinton authorized the sale of humanitarian U. S. products to Cuba, despite the Spanish-language term bloqueo, there has been no physical, naval blockade of the country by the United States after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The United States does not block Cubas trade with third parties, other countries are not under the jurisdiction of U. S.
domestic laws, such as the Cuban Democracy Act. Cuba can, and does, conduct trade with many third-party countries. Beyond criticisms of Human rights in Cuba, the United States holds $6 billion worth of financial claims against the Cuban government, the pro-embargo position is that the U. S. embargo is, in part, an appropriate response to these unaddressed claims. The Latin America Working Group argues that pro-embargo Cuban-American exiles, whose votes are crucial in Florida, have swayed many politicians to adopt similar views. The Cuban-American views have been opposed by business leaders who argue that trading freely would be good for Cuba. At present, the embargo, which limits American businesses from conducting business with Cuban interests, is still in effect and is the most enduring trade embargo in modern history, despite the existence of the embargo, the United States is the fifth largest exporter to Cuba. Cuba must, pay cash for all imports, as credit is not allowed, Human rights groups including Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have been critical of the embargo.
Critics of the say that the embargo laws are too harsh. The United States imposed an embargo on Cuba on March 14,1958 during the armed conflict between rebels led by Fidel Castro and the Fulgencio Batista regime. The arms embargo had more of an impact on Batista than the rebels, Congress does not want to lift the embargo. In May 1960, the Cuban government began to purchase regular armaments from the Soviet Union. In July 1960, the United States reduced the Cuban import quota of sugar to 700,000 tons, under the Sugar Act of 1948