1945 New Guinea Gremlin Special rescue
The Gremlin Special was a Douglas C-47 Skytrain that crashed during a sightseeing flight over the Shangri-La valley in New Guinea in 1945. The Gremlin Special flew into the side of a mountain on May 13,1945, five passengers survived the initial wreck with two, Sergeant Laura Besley and Private Eleanor Hanna, succumbing to injuries the next day. The survivors were Corporal Margaret Hastings, Sergeant Kenneth Decker and Lieutenant John McCollom, the Baliem Valley was previously explored in 1938 by Richard Archbold, flying in a PBY-2. Search aircraft were dispatched when the Gremlin Special did not return, three survivors were spotted on the ground during an air search on 17 May. Two medical paratroopers were deployed to the site, followed by 10 other support troops, a journalist, Alexander Cann was dropped into the site to document the rescue attempt, and the interactions with the native people. The high-altitude rescue was performed using Waco CG-4 gliders towed by a Douglas C-47 Skytrain, three separate rescues were performed by towing a glider with single pilot into the valley.
The glider was loaded and configured for a capture by the tow plane which recovered the survivors. The Gremlin Special was a Douglas C-47 Skytrain A Waco CG-4 was used in the rescue attempt, the first glider sustained damage from low flight over trees and a whipping parachute that was snagged on takeoff. A second CG-4 was used for the remaining two rescues
Richard Archbold was an American zoologist and philanthropist. He was independently wealthy, being the grandson of the capitalist John Dustin Archbold and he was educated at private schools and attended classes at Columbia University though he never graduated. In 1929 Archbold joined the ranks of members of the Explorers Club in New York, in 1928 Archbold was invited to participate in a Franco-British-American zoological expedition to Madagascar, led by Jean Delacour, on which he was responsible for mammal collecting. The American component of this expedition was funded by his father, John F. Archbold and it was on this expedition that Archbold first met Austin L. Rand, the expedition ornithologist, who became a long-term research collaborator and lifelong friend. It was during the course of this expedition that he learnt of the death of his father, in the 1930s, inspired and encouraged by Ernst Mayr, Archbold financed a series of major biological expeditions to New Guinea. This used conventional equipment, pack animals and human carriers, logistical problems and limitations started Archbold thinking about the use of aircraft for future expeditions, as well as radio for communications.
The expedition used radio as well as a Fairchild 91 amphibian flying boat, however, a Dutch soldier on board the Guba named the valley Groote Vallei, or Grand Valley, and Archbold declared that would be its name. In August 1938, Archbold dispatched two exploration teams, each consisting of Dutch soldiers and Dyak tribesmen, into the Baliem Valley, one team led by Captain C. G. J. Teerink started at one end of the valley while the other, van Arcken, started at the other end with the goal of meeting in the middle of the valley. On August 10,1938, an incident occurred near the valleys resulting in the death of a Dani tribesman. Towards the conclusion of the expedition in 1939, with Archbold intending to return to the USA across the Pacific and it appeared that Guba II was the only suitable aircraft for the job at short notice. As Archbold was amenable to the project, his plane was chartered for the crossing by the Australian government. The intended flight path across the Indian Ocean was from Port Hedland, Western Australia to the Cocos Islands, Diego Garcia, the Seychelles and Mombasa, Kenya.
Apart from the leg of the flight, when the plane was forced, after leaving Port Hedland, to detour via Batavia because of bad weather. In Mombasa Taylor left the crew to return to Australia and Archbold continued the flight westwards, there were four further Archbold-financed expeditions to New Guinea after the war, but Archbold did not personally participate in them. Summary of the 1933-1934 Papuan Expedition, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 68, 527-579. Summary of the 1936-1937 New Guinea Expedition, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 77, 341-380. Archbold, R. Rand, A. L. & Brass, bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 79, 197-288
Wamena is the capital town of the Jayawijaya Regency of Indonesia. It is the largest town in Indonesian Papuas highlands, in the Baliem Valley and had a population of 31,724 at the 2010 Census. Wamena is the centre of a rural area housing West Papuas highest concentration of population, with over 300,000 people inhabiting the Baliem Valley. These people belong to a number of related groups, the most prominent of which are referred to as Dani, Lani. Because of its isolated location, the main form of access to the area is air travel. The town and the valley are served by Wamena Airport. Dimonim Air, Trigana Air, Aviastar Mandiri, Susi Air, the town is home to the Persiwa Wamena football team, who play in Indonesias premier league. Wamena claims a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables than other regions in Papua. On early June 6,2013, a market was built in the town center to allow traditional farmers to sell their harvests at a proper price. The largely Melanesian town is settled and has extreme rates of HIV infection.
16 June 2015, jayawijaya regional secretary Yohanis Walilo, rectified the total hiv cases to 4,521 hiv cases
Jayapura City is the provincial capital of Papua, Indonesia. It is situated on the island of New Guinea, on Yos Sudarso Bay. It covers an area of 935.92 km2, and borders Jayapura Regency to the west, Keerom Regency to the south, the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the north. It had a population of 256,705 at the 2010 Census, Jayapura is the largest city in the Indonesian part of New Guinea. It is served by Sentani Airport, located near Lake Sentani, a highway connects the city to Skow, a small town near the border with Papua New Guinea and continues beyond the border to Vanimo. The government is planning to build a railway from Jayapura to Sarmi. Further plans could connect Jayapura with Manokwari and Sorong, the project is planned for completion by 2030. The last battle against the Dutch was fought in Jayapura from 14 August 1962 -15 August 1962, nowadays the Humboldt bay natives know the city as Port Numbay. The topography of Jayapura varies from valleys to hills, Jayapura overlooks the Yos Sudarso Bay.
Jayapura is about 94,000 ha in area, and is divided into 5 districts, around 30% of the area is inhabited, with the remainder consisting of a rough terrain and protected forest. The average temperature is 29 °C-31.8 °C, before its inclusion into the colonial government of the Dutch Indies, the location of present-day Jayapura was known as Numbay. The mode of the trade was through barter for spices, salted fish, the society of Numbay was led by an ondoafi. In the 1800s, Numbay maintained relations with the Ternate Sultanate, on September 28,1909 a detachment of the Dutch navy under Captain F. J. P. Sachse came ashore at Humboldt Bay near the mouth of the Numbay river and their task was the systematic exploration of northern New Guinea and the search for a natural border between the Dutch and German spheres on New Guinea. Their camp along the river was called Kloofkamp, a still in use as the name of an ancient district of Jayapura. Forty coconut trees were cut down for the establishment of the camp and they were bought from the owners at a cost of one rijksdaalder per palm.
On March 7,1910, the Dutch flag was raised, on the other side of the bay there was already a German camp, Germania-Huk, which is now uninhabited and part of Indonesian territory. Hollandia was the capital of a district of the name in the northeast of West New Guinea
The Dani people, spelled Ndani, and sometimes conflated with the Lani group to the west, are a people from the central highlands of western New Guinea. They are one of the most populous tribes in the highlands, the Dani are one of the most well-known ethnic groups in Papua, due to the relatively numerous tourists who visit the Baliem Valley area where they predominate. This trait makes it a field of research for language psychologists, e. g. Eleanor Rosch. The Grand Valley Dani were only sighted in the summer of 1938 from an airplane by Richard Archbold, sweet potatoes are important in their local culture, being the most important tool used in bartering, especially in dowries. Likewise pigs feasts are extremely important to celebrate events communally, the success of a feast, the Dani use an earth oven method of cooking pig and their staple crops such as sweet potato and cassava. They heat some stones in a fire until they are hot, wrap cuts of meat. After a couple of hours the pit is opened and the food removed, pigs are too valuable to be served regularly, and are reserved for special occasions only.
Ritual small-scale warfare between villages is integral to traditional Dani culture, with much time spent preparing weapons. Typically the emphasis in battle is to insult the enemy and wound or kill token victims, observers have noted that pro-independence and anti-Indonesian sentiment tends to run higher in highland areas than for other areas of Papua. There are cases of abuses where Dani and other Papuans have been shot and/or imprisoned trying to raise the flag of West Papua, in 1961, as a member of the Harvard-Peabody study, filmmaker Robert Gardner began recording the Dani of the Baliem River Valley. In 1965, he created the film Dead Birds from this experience, Gardner emphasizes the themes of death and people-as-birds in Dani culture. Dead birds or dead men are terms the Dani use for the weapons and these trophies are displayed during the two-day dance of victory after an enemy is killed. Michael Rockefeller, son of former Vice-President of the United States Nelson Rockefeller, was a member of the Harvard-Peabody study, while conducting further research on the Asmat people elsewhere in New Guinea, Michael Rockefeller disappeared.
Gardens of War and Death in the New Guinea Stone Age, the Dugum Dani, A Papuan Culture in the Highlands of West New Guinea. Under the Mountain Wall, A Chronicle of Two Seasons in Stone Age New Guinea, poisoned Arrows, An Investigative Journey Through Indonesia. Lost in Shangri-La, A True Story of Survival, harper ISBN 978-0-06-198834-9 Arbay, Evi Aryati. Self Publisher by Evi Aryati Arbay
Special Region of Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of western New Guinea. Papua is bordered by the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east and it was formerly called Irian Jaya and comprised all of Indonesian New Guinea. In 2002 the current name was adopted and in 2003 West Papua province was created from parts of Papua province. Papua is the official Indonesian and internationally recognised name for the province, during the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of Dutch New Guinea or Netherlands New Guinea. Since its annexation in 1969, it known as West Irian or Irian Barat until 1973. This was the name until the name Papua was adopted in 2002. Today, the inhabitants of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans. The name West Papua was adopted in 1961 by the New Guinea Council until the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. West Papua has since used by Papuans as a self-identifying term, especially by those demanding self-determination.
The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been renamed as West Papua. The entire western New Guinea is often referred to as West Papua internationally – especially among networks of solidarity with the West Papuan independence movement. The province of Papua is governed by an elected governor. Nevertheless, the agreement with the UN was nominally upheld, and was recognised by the community in spite of protests. This intensified the movement among indigenous West Papuans, deepening the Papua conflict. The conflict has continued to the present, with Indonesian security forces being accused of human rights abuses in their suppression of the independence movement. The Indonesian government maintains control over the region, barring foreign journalists or rights monitors from entering. In 1999 it was proposed to split the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papuan protests, in January 2003 President Megawati Sukarnoputri signed an order dividing Papua into three provinces, Central Irian Jaya and West Papua.
The creation of this separate Central Irian Jaya Province was blocked by Indonesian courts, the previous division into two provinces was allowed to stand as an established fact
New Guinea Highlands
The highlands run generally east-west the length of the island, which is divided politically between Indonesia in the west and Papua New Guinea in the east. A. Lorentz in 1909 at 14,635 ft, and whose highest peaks are Puncak Jaya at 4,884 m, Puncak Mandala at 4,760 m, the Highlands Highway connects many of these towns. The climate is humid as you would expect of the tropical rainforested island of New Guinea, mining is very active in the region to the detriment of indigenous groups, with frequent friction. This chain of mountains continues to rise as the Australian plate collides with the plates to the northeast, yet marking the boundaries of the Maoke Plate. The width of the range varies considerably, with a central thin segment near the borders of the two nations. The fertile Highlands have long been inhabited and artifacts uncovered in the Ivane Valley indicate that the Highlands were first settled about 50000 years ago, the inhabitants were nomadic foragers but around 10000 years ago began developing a fairly advanced agricultural society.
The montane rain forests can be categorised into three broad vegetation zones on the mountains, distinguished by elevation. The lower montane forests extend from 1,000 to 1,500 metres elevation and they are dominated by broadleaf evergreen trees, including Castanopsis acuminatissima, Lithocarpus spp. elaeocarps, and laurels. Coniferous Araucarias may form thick stands, the upper montane forests, which extend from 1,500 to 2,500 metres elevation, are dominated by moss-covered Nothofagus. Finally, the mountain forest extends from 2,500 to 3,000 metres elevation. Conifers and broadleaf trees of the family form a thin canopy. The montane forests are home to a wildlife, a great deal of which is unique to these mountains including many plants and over 100 birds. Of the 90 mammals found on the island,44 are endemic, the birds and animals include many Australasian species such as tree-kangaroos, Australasian robins and birds-of-paradise. There are 55 bird species endemic to the mountains from a total of 348 birds found here, there are a number of endemic butterflies, particularly on the Weyland Mountains and the Wahgi Valley.
Apart from in the valleys the montane forests are largely intact. The alpine habitat above 4,000 metres consists of compact rosette and cushion herbs, such as Ranunculus, Potentilla and Epilobium, grasses and lichens. Four of these are endemic, the small marsupial black-tailed antechinus, western shrew mouse, glacier rat, list of highest mountains of New Guinea Highlands Highway Central Range montane rain forests
Western New Guinea
Western New Guinea, formerly known as Irian Jaya, is the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea, lying to the west of the nation of Papua New Guinea. The territory is considered to include smaller nearby islands including Biak, the region is predominantly dense forest where numerous traditional tribes live such as the Dani of the Baliem Valley, although the majority of the population live in or near coastal areas. The largest city in the region is Jayapura, the official and most commonly spoken language is Indonesian. Estimates of the number of languages in the region range from 200 to over 700, with the most widely spoken including Dani, Ekari. The predominant religion is Christianity followed by Islam, the main industries include agriculture, oil production, and mining. The territory has been part of Indonesia since May 1963, human habitation is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. The Netherlands claimed the region and commenced work in the nineteenth century.
The region was annexed by Indonesia in the 1960s, following the 1998 commencement of reforms across Indonesia and other Indonesian provinces received greater regional autonomy. In 2001, Special Autonomy status was granted to Papua province, although to date, implementation has been partial, the region was administered as a single province until 2003, when it was split into the provinces of Papua and West Papua. Speakers align themselves with a political orientation when choosing a name for the half of the island of New Guinea. West Papua, which is not the name for the western half of the island, is preferred by ethnic Papuans. The region has had the names of Netherlands New Guinea, West New Guinea, West Irian, Irian Jaya. Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid considered his use of the name Papua in 2002 as a concession to the West Papuans. Since 2003, western New Guinea has had two provinces, the province of West Papua on the west, and the province of Papua on the east and administrators refer to the province when they say West Papua, independence activists mean the whole of western New Guinea.
The region is 1,200 kilometres from east to west and 736 kilometres from north to south and it has an area of 420,540 square kilometres, which equates to approximately 22% of Indonesias land area. The border with Papua New Guinea mostly follows the 141st meridian east, the island of New Guinea was once part of the Australian landmass and lie on the Sahul. The collision between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific plate resulting in the Maoke Mountains run through the centre of the region and are 600 km long and 100 km across. The range includes about ten peaks over 4,000 metres, including Puncak Jaya, Puncak Mandala, the range ensures a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere
Peter Matthiessen was an American novelist, wilderness writer and CIA agent. A co-founder of the literary magazine The Paris Review, he was the writer to have won the National Book Award in both fiction and nonfiction. He was a prominent environmental activist and his fiction was adapted for film, the early story Travelin Man was made into The Young One by Luis Buñuel and the novel At Play in the Fields of the Lord into the 1991 film of the same name. According to critic Michael Dirda, No one writes more lyrically about animals or describes more movingly the spiritual experience of mountaintops, Matthiessen was treated for acute leukemia for more than a year. His death came as he awaited publication of his final novel, Matthiessen was born in New York City to Erard A. and Elizabeth Matthiessen. Erard, an architect, joined the Navy during World War II, later, he gave up architecture to become a spokesman and fundraiser for the Audubon Society and the Nature Conservancy. He attended St. Bernards School, the Hotchkiss School, and — after briefly serving in the U. S.
Navy – Yale University, at Yale, he majored in English, published short stories, and studied zoology. Marrying and resolving to undertake a career, he soon moved back to Paris. There, in 1953, he one of the founders, along with Harold L. Humes, Thomas Guinzburg, Donald Hall. As revealed in a 2006 film, he was working for the U. S, central Intelligence Agency at the time, using the Review as his cover. In a 2008 interview with Charlie Rose, Matthiessen stated that he invented The Paris Review as cover for his CIA activities and he completed his novel Partisans while employed by the CIA. He returned to the U. S. in 1954, leaving Plimpton in charge of the Review, Matthiessen divorced in 1956 and began traveling extensively. In 1965, Matthiessen published At Play in the Fields of the Lord, the book was adapted into the film of the same name in 1991. In 1968, he signed the “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge and his work on oceanographic research, Blue Meridian, with photographer Peter A. Lake, documented the making of the film Blue Water, White Death, directed by Peter Gimbel and Jim Lipscomb.
Late in 1973 Matthiessen joined field biologist George Schaller on an expedition in the Himalaya Mountains and he revised and edited the three books, which had originated as one 1, 500-page manuscript, which eventually yielded the award-winning single-volume Shadow Country. Yet after a day of arranging my research, my set of facts, I feel stale and drained, deep in a novel, one scarcely knows what may surface next, let alone where it comes from. In abandoning oneself to the creation of something never beheld on earth. Janklow, the former South Dakota governor, the plaintiffs sought over $49 million in damages, Janklow sued to have all copies of the book withdrawn from bookstores