A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, liquor and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu; the term "bar" refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is derived from the metal or wooden bar, located at feet along the length of the "bar". Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours.
Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, to collect cover charges. Such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were important to the leisure time of the working class. Today when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is called "the bar".
The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", "blind tigers". Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink. In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron, intoxicated. Cities and towns have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers; some bars may have a license to serve wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons. Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them.
A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over. Thus, a bar intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an heterosexual clientele. Or a blues bar may become a biker bar. A cocktail lounge is an upscale bar, located within a hotel, restaurant, or airport. A full bar serves liquor, cocktails and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them; some wine bars serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an preppy bar. A music bar is a bar. A dive bar referred to as a "dive", is a informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable.
A non-alcoholic bar is a bar. A Strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is a restaurant; some persons may designate either an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. If a venue has a large dance floor, focuses on dancing rather than seated drinking, hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars. Piano bars are one example. Drag b
The Panamint Range is a short rugged fault-block mountain range in the northern Mojave Desert, within Death Valley National Park in Inyo County, eastern California. Dr. Darwin French is credited as applying the term Panamint in 1860 during his search for the fabled Gunsight Lode; the orographic identity has been liberally applied for decades to include other ranges. The origin of the name is Pa and nïwïnsti; the range runs north-south for 100 miles through Inyo County, forming the western wall of Death Valley and separating it from the Panamint Valley to the west. The range is part of the Range Province, at the western end of the Great Basin; the highest peak in the range is Telescope Peak, with an elevation of 11,049 feet. Both Mount Whitney above the Owens Valley and Badwater Basin in Death Valley are visible from certain vantage points in the Panamint Range, making it one of few places where one can see both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States. Dante's View east of Death Valley is another.
Being a sky island habitat of the Mojave Desert, with more precipitation and temperature variation than the desert floor and hills, there are various plant and animal species endemic to the Panamint Range. The Panamint Mining District is on the western side of the Panamint Range. Panamint City was a mining town in the district in the central section of the range; the historic mining community of Ballarat in the district, is now a ghost town. The Gold Hill Mining District was in the southwestern section of the range, at the northeast end of Butte Valley; the Wildrose Charcoal Kilns are ruins of charcoal kilns located near Wildrose Canyon in the northern range and within Death Valley National Park. They were built in 1877 by the Modock Consolidated Mining Company, to provide fuel for smelters near their lead and silver mines in the Argus Range; the ten beehive shaped masonry structures, about 25 feet tall, are the best known surviving examples of such charcoal kilns in the western U. S. Panamint Range topics SummitPost.org: Panamint Range — Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering NPS.gov: Death Valley National Park Historic Resource Study
Chuckwallas are large lizards found in arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Some are found on coastal islands; the six species of chuckwallas are all placed within the genus Sauromalus. The generic name, Sauromalus, is a combination of two Ancient Greek words:σαῦρος meaning "lizard" and ομαλυς meaning "flat"; the common name "chuckwalla" derives from the Shoshone word tcaxxwal or Cahuilla čaxwal, transcribed by Spaniards as chacahuala. Chuckwallas are wide-bodied lizards with flattened midsections and prominent bellies, their tails are thick. Loose folds of skin characterize the neck and sides of their bodies, which are covered in small, coarsely granular scales; the common chuckwalla measures 15 3/4 inches long, whereas insular species such as the San Esteban chuckwalla of San Esteban Island can measure as long as 30 in. They are sexually dimorphic, with males having reddish-pink to orange, yellow, or light gray bodies and black heads and limbs. Males are larger than females and possess well-developed femoral pores located on the inner sides of their thighs.
The genus Sauromalus has a wide distribution in biomes of the Mojave Deserts. The common chuckwalla is the species with the greatest range, found from southern California east to southern Nevada and Utah and western Arizona, south to Baja California and northwestern Mexico; the peninsular chuckwalla is found on the eastern portion of the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula. The other species are island-dwelling; the Angel Island chuckwalla is found on Isla Ángel de la Guarda and surrounding islands off the coast of the Baja California Peninsula. Two rare and endangered species are the Montserrat chuckwalla found on Islas Carmen and Montserrat in the southern Gulf of California and the San Esteban chuckwalla or painted chuckwalla found on San Esteban Island and Pelicanos. Chuckwallas prefer lava flows and rocky areas vegetated by creosote bush and other such drought-tolerant scrub; the lizards may be found at elevations up to 4,500 ft. Herbivorous, chuckwallas feed on leaves and flowers of annuals and perennial plants.
The lizards are said to prefer yellow flowers, such as those of the brittlebush. Harmless to humans, these lizards are known to run from potential threats; when disturbed, a chuckwalla wedges itself into a tight rock crevice and inflates its lungs to entrench itself. Males are conditionally territorial. Chuckwallas use a combination of color and physical displays, namely "push-ups", head-hobbing, gaping of the mouth, to communicate and defend their territory. Chuckwallas are diurnal animals and as they are ectothermic, spend much of their mornings and winter days basking; these lizards are well adapted to desert conditions. Juveniles emerge first adults, as temperatures reach around 90 °F. Chuckwallas hibernate during cooler months and emerge in February. Mating occurs from April with five to 16 eggs laid between June and August; the eggs hatch in late September. Chuckwallas may live for 25 years or more; the Comca’ac considered the Angel Island species of chuckwalla an important food item. They are believed to have translocated the lizards to most of the islands in Bahia de los Angeles for use as a food source in times of need.
ARKive - images and movies of the San Esteban Island chuckwalla www.chuckwalla-reptiles-tirol.at https://www.facebook.com/groups/555917997826565/
Obselidia is a 2010 American drama film written and directed by Diane Bell, starring Michael Piccirilli, Gaynor Howe and Frank Hoyt Taylor. The film won two awards at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival: the Excellence in Cinematography award and the Alfred P. Sloan Prize. On his quest to catalogue soon obsolete occupations, George a librarian joins forces with a silent film projectionist, together they journey to Death Valley to interview a maverick scientist, predicting the imminent end of the world. Michael Piccirilli – George Gaynor Howe – Sophie Frank Hoyt Taylor – Lewis Chris Byrne – Mitch Kim Beuche – Jennifer Michael Blackman Beck – Paul Linda Walton – Linda Grant Mathis – Monk The influential film critic Todd McCarthy wrote in Variety that it was "gentle, gorgeously made and utterly eccentric." It was acclaimed for its "sheer beauty" and for being "a true original." Excellence in Cinematography. Sundance 2010 Film Festival Alfred P. Sloan Feature Film Prize. Sundance 2010 Film Festival Juried Best Feature.
Ashland Independent Film Festival 2010 Alfed P. Sloan 2010 Grantees. TFI Sloan Filmmaker Fund 2010. Sundance Winner Variety Ashland Film Tribeca Obselidia on IMDb
Death Valley Railroad
The Death Valley Railroad was a 3 ft narrow gauge railroad that operated in California's Death Valley to carry borax with the route running from Ryan, California to the mines at Ryan C. located just east of Death Valley National Park, to Death Valley Junction, a distance of 20 miles. When mining operations at the Lila C. Mine were declining around 1914, Pacific Coast Borax Company began scouting the land outside Furnace Creek for richer borax deposits. Once they found some a bit west of the present mines, plans were put forward to build a narrow gauge railroad from the new mines to connect with the Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad at Death Valley Junction to ship the borax away for processing and packaging; the line was built by a separate company from Pacific Coast Borax Company, because they were struggling with financial issues at the time. Equipment and Heisler locomotive #2 "Francis" from the Pacific Coast Borax Company's old Borate and Daggett Railroad were used to build the Death Valley Railroad.
After the line was completed, two 2-8-0 steam locomotives were bought from the Baldwin Locomotive Works to work the line and Francis was sold off. One train ran per day bringing food and water to the workers at the Ryan mine, bought ore back late in the afternoon. After better deposits of borax were discovered at Boron, the Death Valley Railroad tried to resort to tourist operations by bringing in a Brill railcar to transport tourists to the old mines. Due to a lack of profit from tourists and freight trains and the closure of the mines, the railroad closed in 1931. Much of the railroad ran parallel to what is today State Route 190. After this railroad ceased operations, the United States Potash Company bought the equipment and rolling stock to construct their own line located near Loving, New Mexico, which became the United States Potash Railroad. All the rails from the Death Valley Railroad were used on the new line until about 1941 when they were replaced by heavier-pound rails from the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad.
The line was used until 1967 when better potash deposits were discovered in Saskatchewan and Pacific Coast Borax Company merged with U. S. Potash and became U. S. Borax & Chemical Cooperation. All three engines that were on the Death Valley Railroad are preserved. After the United States Potash Railroad turned over their operations to diesel locomotives in the 1950s, the two ex-Death Valley Railroad engines were both singled out for preservation. No. 1 was sent to Carlsbad, New Mexico and put on display in between Park Drive and E. Riverside Drive and sports the bold lettering of "U. S. Potash" on the sides of her tender. No. 2 worked for the United States Potash Railroad, but she was bought by the Death Valley National Park and is now at the Borax Museum at Furnace Creek. A railcar was bought in the years of the line in 1928, when Pacific Coast Borax attempted to save their dying railroads, DVRR included, from the scrapheap by promoting them as tourist attractions, she too, was bought by the United States Potash Railroad to transport workers to the potash mines.
By 1967, she was worn out, but the Laws Rail Museum of Bishop, California managed to step in just in time to save her from scrap. After several years of extensive restoration, she now runs on the museum's 3 ft narrow gauge track; the bogey trucks of some of the old DVRR ore cars are said to still exist at Laws, whilst the old caboose still exists on the property of the old potash refinery site at Loving, New Mexico. The tankcar bodies are located just outside Carlsbad; the old Heisler locomotive "Francis" from the Borate and Daggett Railroad, saw some years of service on the DVRR after construction was completed, until the arrival of Baldwin #2 in 1916. At that time the Heisler was sold off to the Nevada Short Line Railway, saw use in the timber fields working for the Terry Lumber Company, it was scrapped around 1925 after the closure of the Terry lumber mill following a devastating fire. Myrick, David F.. Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California - The Southern Roads. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
ISBN 0-87417-193-8. Chappell, Gordon. "To Death Valley by Rail: A Brief History of the Death Valley Railroad". In Pisarowicz, James. Proceedings: Third Death Valley Conference on History & Prehistory, January 30-February 2, 1992. Death Valley, Calif.: Death Valley Natural History Association. ISBN 9781878900265. Palazzo, Robert P.. Railroads of Death Valley. Charleston, S. C.: Arcadia Pub. ISBN 9780738574790. Tonopah & Tidewater RR Database --- Death Valley Railroad and its environs and images U. S. Potash Railroad excerpt of book by Gordon Chappell, explaining the lives of the Death Valley Railroad engines on the United States Potash Railroad Winchester, Clarence, ed. "Defying Death Valley", Railway Wonders of the World, pp. 93–96 Jeff Terry: Death Valley No. 5 and the Laws Railroad Museum
Harmony Borax Works
The Harmony Borax Works is located in Death Valley at Furnace Creek Springs called Greenland. It is now located within Death Valley National Park in California, it is on the National Register of Historic Places. After discovery of Borax deposits here by Aaron and Rosie Winters in 1881, business associates William Tell Coleman and Francis Marion Smith subsequently obtained claims to these deposits, opening the way for "large-scale" borax mining in Death Valley; the Harmony operation became famous through the use, from 1883 to 1889, of large Twenty-mule teams and double wagons which hauled borax the long overland route to the closest railroad in Mojave, California. During the summer months, when it was too hot to crystallize borax in Death Valley, a smaller borax mining operation shifted to his Amargosa Borax Plant in Amargosa, near the present community of Tecopa, California; the Harmony Works remained under Coleman's operation until 1888. William Coleman's original holdings in the works were subsequently acquired by Frank M. "Borax" Smith in 1890, to become the Pacific Coast Borax Company with the 20 Mule Team Borax brand.
Activity at Harmony Borax Works ceased with the development of the richer Colemanite borax deposits at Borate in the Calico Mountains, where they continued until 1907. The Harmony Borax Works was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 31, 1974, they are part of the National Park Service historical site preservation program in Death Valley National Park. Eagle Borax Works "Borax" Smith is a character in the historical fiction novel Carter Beats the Devil by Glen David Gold. Media related to Harmony Borax Works at Wikimedia Commons NPS: Death Valley National Park - Harmony Borax Works of Death Valley NPS: History of the Twenty Mule Teams NPS: official Death Valley National Park
Easy Rider is a 1969 American independent road drama film written by Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, Terry Southern, produced by Fonda, directed by Hopper. Fonda and Hopper played two bikers who travel through the American Southwest and South carrying the proceeds from a cocaine deal; the success of Easy Rider helped spark the New Hollywood era of filmmaking during the early 1970s. A landmark counterculture film, a "touchstone for a generation" that "captured the national imagination," Easy Rider explores the societal landscape and tensions in the United States during the 1960s, such as the rise of the hippie movement, drug use, communal lifestyle. Real drugs were used in scenes showing the use of marijuana and other substances. Easy Rider was released by Columbia Pictures on July 14, 1969, grossing $60 million worldwide from a filming budget of no more than $400,000. Critics have praised the performances, writing, soundtrack and atmosphere; the film was added to the Library of Congress National Film Registry in 1998.
Wyatt and Billy are freewheeling motorcyclists. After smuggling cocaine from Mexico to Los Angeles, they sell their haul and receive a large sum of money. With the cash stuffed into a plastic tube hidden inside the Stars & Stripes-painted fuel tank of Wyatt's California-style chopper, they ride eastward aiming to reach New Orleans, Louisiana, in time for the Mardi Gras festival. During their trip and Billy stop to repair one of the bikes at a farmstead in Arizona and have a meal with the farmer and his family. Wyatt picks up a hippie hitch-hiker, he invites them to visit his commune, where they stay for the rest of the day; the notion of "free love" appears to be practiced, with two of the women and Sarah sharing the affections of the hitch-hiking commune member before turning their attention to Wyatt and Billy. As the bikers leave, the hitch-hiker gives Wyatt some LSD for him to share with "the right people". While riding along with a parade in New Mexico, the pair are arrested for "parading without a permit" and thrown in jail.
There, they befriend ACLU lawyer George Hanson, who has spent the night in jail after overindulging in alcohol. George decides to travel with Wyatt and Billy to New Orleans; as they camp that night and Billy introduce George to marijuana. As an alcoholic and a "square", George is reluctant to try it due to his fear of becoming "hooked" and it leading to worse but relents. Stopping to eat at a small-town Louisiana diner, the trio attracts the attention of the locals; the girls in the restaurant think they are exciting, but the local men and a police officer make denigrating comments and taunts. Wyatt and George decide to leave without any fuss, they make camp outside town. In the middle of the night, a group of locals attack the sleeping trio. Billy screams and brandishes a knife, the attackers leave. Wyatt and Billy suffer minor injuries. Wyatt and Billy wrap George's body in his sleeping bag, gather his belongings, vow to return the items to his family, they find a brothel George had told them about.
Taking prostitutes Karen and Mary with them and Billy wander the parade-filled streets of the Mardi Gras celebration. They end up in a French Quarter cemetery, where all four ingest the LSD the hitch-hiker had given to Wyatt and experience a bad trip; the next morning, as they are overtaken on a two-lane country road by two local men in an older pickup truck, the passenger in the truck reaches for a shotgun, saying he will scare them. As they pass Billy, the passenger fires, Billy has a lowside crash; the truck passes Wyatt who has stopped, Wyatt rides back to Billy, finding him lying flat on the side of the road and covered in blood. Wyatt covers Billy's wound with his own leather jacket. Wyatt rides down the road toward the pickup as it makes a U-turn. Passing in the opposite direction, the passenger fires the shotgun again, this time through the driver's-side window. Wyatt's riderless motorcycle flies through the air and comes apart before landing and becoming engulfed in flames. Hopper and Fonda's first collaboration was in The Trip, written by Jack Nicholson, which had themes and characters similar to those of Easy Rider.
Peter Fonda had become "an icon of the counterculture" in The Wild Angels, where he established "a persona he would develop further in The Trip and Easy Rider." The Trip popularized LSD, while Easy Rider went on to "celebrate 60s counterculture" but does so "stripped of its innocence." Author Katie Mills wrote that The Trip is a way point along the "metamorphosis of the rebel road story from a Beat relic into its hippie reincarnation as Easy Rider", connected Peter Fonda's characters in those two films, along with his character in The Wild Angels, deviating from the "formulaic biker" persona and critiquing "commodity-oriented filmmakers appropriating avant-garde film techniques." It was a step in the transition from independent film into Hollywood's mainstream, while The Trip was criticized as a faux, popularized underground film made by Hollywood insiders, Easy Rider "interrogates" the attitude that underground film must "remain segregated from Hollywood." Mills wrote that the famous acid trip scene in Easy Rider "clearly derives from their first tentative explorations as filmmakers in The Trip."When seeing a still of himself and Bruce Dern in The Wild Angels, Peter Fonda had the idea of a modern Western, involving two bikers travelling around the country and getting shot by hillbillies.
He called Dennis Hopper, the two decided t