Ballarat /ˈbæləræt/ is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The city is approximately 105 kilometres west-north-west of the capital, Melbourne. It is the third largest population for a city in Australia. Ballarat is arguably the most significant Victorian era gold rush boomtown in Australia, just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered at Poverty Point on 18 August 1851, within months, migrants from across the world had rushed to the district in search of gold. Unlike many other boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades. The Eureka Rebellion began in Ballarat, and the armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to the event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted, the gold rush and boom gave birth to many other significant cultural legacies. The rebellions symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a symbol and is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat. It has endured as a regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics. It is the capital of the Central Highlands and the largest city in the Goldfields region of Victoria. Ballarat is known for its history, culture and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, after a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in 1921, ending a long standing rivalry. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, the Boro gundidj tribes territory was based along the Yarrowee River. The Yuille family, Scottish settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10, the first houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson, while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp in 1838. Outsiders originally knew of the settlement as Yuilles Station and Yuilles Swamp, Archibald Yuille named the area Ballaarat Some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for the area, balla arat. The meaning of word is not certain, however, several translations have been made. In some dialects, balla means bent elbow, which is translated to mean reclining or resting, another claim is that the name derives from Yuilles native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noahs ark. The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996
Image: Ballarat panorama from black hill
Ballarat's tent city in the summer of 1853–1854 oil painting from an original sketch by Eugene von Guerard.
Pencil drawing of goldfields camp at Ballarat
Battle of the Eureka Stockade. J. B. Henderson (1854) Watercolour