Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo was a Spanish explorer born in Palma del Rio, Córdoba, although he is claimed by tradition as a native of Portugal. Among other things he was a maritime navigator known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire. Cabrillo was the first European to navigate the coast of present-day California, he is best known for his exploration of the coast of California in 1542–1543. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo served under the command of Pánfilo de Narváez and aided him in the conquest of Cuba about 1518. Cabrillo's nationality – Portuguese or Spanish – has been debated for centuries, he was described as Portuguese by Spanish chronicler Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas. Several locations in Portugal claim to be his birthplace. However, the source for Herrera's description is unknown; some historians have long believed that Cabrillo was from Spain, a set of documents discovered in 2015 gave strength to that opinion. A witness from a 1532 lawsuit, named Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, testified under oath that he was born in Palma de Micergilio, a town in the province of Córdoba in Spain.
Other details of the witness's biography match known facts about the explorer. A leader of San Diego's Portuguese community cautioned that the new evidence must be evaluated, requested that copies of the documents be turned over to the Portuguese government for study. Lapela, in the parish of Cabril and a municipality of Montalegre, is the region where the nickname "Cabrilha" originated, it became the surname Cabrilho and was pronounced at the time Cabrilhe in Galician and Cabrillo in Spanish, according to the historian João Soares Tavares, biographer of João Rodrigues Cabrilho. The name still exists in Portugal as a surname, several localities named Cabril in Beira Alta and neighboring regions as Castro Daire, Viseu or Pampilhosa da Serra have been claimed as Cabrillo's birthplace. In Lapela there is an ancient house. Local people, alleged local descendants of branches of his ancient family with the same surname, call the house Casa do Galego and Casa do Americano. Cabrillo joined forces with Hernán Cortés in Mexico.
His success in mining gold in Guatemala made him one of the richest of the conquistadores in Mexico. According to his biographer Harry Kelsey, he took an indigenous woman as his common-law wife and sired several children, including at least three daughters, he married Beatriz Sanchez de Ortega in Seville during a hiatus in Spain. She bore him two sons. Cabrillo benefited from the encomienda system. In Honduras, for example, he broke up families, sending the men to the mines for gold and to the forest to harvest materials he needed for shipbuilding; the women and girls he gave over to his soldiers and sailors as slaves. He accompanied Francisco de Orozco to subdue the indigenous Mixtec people at what would become the city of Oaxaca, in Mexico. Little is known of. In 1539, Francisco de Ulloa, commissioned by Cortés, discovered the Gulf of California and reached nearly as far north as the 30th parallel. Cabrillo was commissioned by the new Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, to lead an expedition up the Pacific coast in search of trade opportunities to find a way to China or to find the mythical Strait of Anián connecting the Pacific Ocean with Hudson Bay.
Cabrillo built and owned the flagship of his venture, stood to profit from any trade or treasure. In 1540 the fleet sailed from Acajutla, El Salvador, reached Navidad, Mexico on Christmas Day. While in Mexico, Pedro de Alvarado went to the assistance of the town of Nochistlán, under siege by hostile natives, was killed when his horse fell on him, crushing his chest. Following Alvarado's death, the viceroy took possession of Alvarado's fleet. Part of the fleet was sent off to the Philippine Islands under Ruy Lopez de Villalobos and two of the ships were sent north under the command of Cabrillo. On June 27, 1542, Cabrillo set out from Navidad with three ships: the 200-ton galleon and flagship San Salvador, the smaller La Victoria, the lateen-rigged, twenty-six oared "fragata" or "bergantin" San Miguel. On August 1, Cabrillo anchored within sight of Cedros Island. Before the end of the month they had passed Baja Point and entered "uncharted waters, where no Spanish ships had been before". On September 28, he landed in what is now San Diego Bay and named it "San Miguel".
A little over a week he reached Santa Catalina Island, which he named "San Salvador", after his flagship. On sending a boat to the island "a great crowd of armed Indians appeared" — whom, they "befriended". Nearby San Clemente Island was named "Victoria", in honor of the third ship of the fleet; the next morning, October 8, Cabrillo came to San Pedro Bay, named "Baya de los Fumos". The following day they anchored overnight in Santa Monica Bay. Going up the coast Cabrillo saw Anacapa Island, which they learned from the Indians was uninhabited; the fleet spent the next week in the i
Mile Rocks Lighthouse
Mile Rocks Lighthouse is located on a rock about 1 mile southwest of the Golden Gate Bridge, off of Lands End in San Francisco, California. It was completed in 1906. In 1966, the light was automated, the original 85 m tower of the lighthouse was demolished and replaced by a helipad; the lighthouse was at one time painted with alternating red and white rings, but as of 2017, the lighthouse is painted plain white. In 1889, the United States Lighthouse Service placed a bell buoy near the rocks. However, strong currents in the area would pull the buoy beneath the surface of the water and set it adrift. On February 22, 1901, the SS City of Rio de Janeiro wrecked on the rocks, which prompted the lighthouse to be built. One hundred and twenty-eight persons, of 209 aboard, lost their lives; the lighthouse was constructed by contractor James McMahon who hired sailors from San Francisco after his original crew refused to work in the dangerous conditions. Mile Rocks Lighthouse was finished in 1906 after considerable difficulty caused by the heavy seas and strong currents near the site.
The rock upon which the lighthouse is built measures only 40 by 30 feet at high water. The base of the tower is a large block of concrete protected by steel plating. Steel and concrete in the foundation weigh 1500 tons; the superstructure is made of steel and houses the fog signal apparatus and the quarters for the former keepers. In 1966, the light was automated and the tower was removed, leaving only foundation and the first story; the top of the first story was modified to support a helipad for the US Coast Guard. The original third order Fresnel lens was transferred to the Old Point Loma lighthouse in San Diego. List of lighthouses in the United States "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mile Rock Lighthouse
The Coronado Islands are a group of four islands off the northwest coast of the Mexican state of Baja California. Battered by the wind and waves, they are barren and uninhabited except for a small military detachment and a few lighthouse keepers; the islands lie between 15 and 19 miles south of the entrance to San Diego bay, but only 8 miles from the Mexican mainland. The Coronado Islands are a Mexican wildlife refuge. North Coronado has no bay but boats can anchor on a jetty on the eastern side. Location: 32°26.45′N 117°17.85′W Size: 460,000 m2 Height: 153 m Length: 800 m Pilón de Azúcar is difficult to land on. It has flocks of birds nest here. Location: 32°25.45′N 117°15.75′W Size: 70,000 m2 Height: 33 m Central Coronado has a rocky peak with a heap of cactus and scrubs near the summit. Location: 32°25.05′N 117°15.63′W Size: 140,000 m2 Height: 32 m South Coronado has the only bay of the islands, called'Puerto Cueva'. There is a lighthouse at each end of the island. Location: 32°24.5′N 117°14.75′W Size: 1.83 km2 Height: 220 m Length: 3,200 m Width: 800 m The Coronado Islands are part of the municipality of Tijuana, Baja California, as ruled in the books of the Baja Californian Government, published on December 20, 1959: Article 7 - the state of Baja California is divided and understood as the following municipalities....
Tijuana. C) The Municipality of Tijuana is made up of..... in addition. In September 1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo described them as islas desiertas. In 1602 the priest for Sebastián Vizcaíno called them Los Cuatro Coronados to honour four martyrs. Although they have been called a dozen other names they have been provocatively called The Sentries of San Diego Bay though they belong to Mexico. In the 1920s and 1930s, during Prohibition in the United States, the cove on the Northeast side of South Coronado Island was used as a meeting place for alcohol smugglers. Since it was the time before radar, as foggy nights are common, the large number of boats resulted in collisions. There was so much traffic. Only the stone foundation remains though the name Smugglers Cove, more Casino Cove, adorn modern maps. In May 1943 the U. S. Navy's USS PC-815, commanded by L. Ron Hubbard, conducted unauthorized gunnery exercises involving the shelling of the Coronado Islands, in the belief they were uninhabited and belonged to the United States.
For Hubbard, the islands belonged to Mexico and were occupied by the Mexican Coast Guard. The Mexican government complained and Hubbard was relieved of command; the islands are a popular location for yellowtail fishing for San Diego fishermen. On the North and South Coronados there are sea dahlias, various species of cactus, wild cucumber and houseleek. There are colonies of birds that nest on the islands and can be spotted in the nearby waters like gulls, pelicans, storm-petrels, alcids; the Coronado Islands have the largest known colony of the rare Scripps's murrelet. Pilón de Azúcar, better known as Middle Rock, is host to the northernmost nesting colony of brown boobies on the west coast of North America. Ten species of reptiles and amphibians are found on the islands; the best known is the Coronado rattlesnake, a smaller subspecies than the one found on the mainland. There is the Coronado Island gopher snake, which feeds off birds' eggs, the Coronado skink, found on all four islands, the arboreal salamanders which live on the three biggest islands.
Southern alligator lizards are found on the north and central islands. There are two types of mammals in the islands: mice. How they reached the islands is unknown. Sea mammals are plentiful and it is not uncommon to see groups of California sea lions and seals. Middle Island is home to a small colony of northern elephant seals. Oberbauer, Thomas A. "Vegetation and Flora of Islas Los Coronados, Baja California, Mexico", California Island Plant Distribution Patterns: Proceedings of the Fifth California Islands Symposium: 29 March to 1 April 1999, Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, pp. 212–223, archived from the original on July 22, 2012 http://www.sandiegogeologists.org/pub_download/1978_CoronadoIslandsBC.pdf Islas Coronado Mexico Photo Gallery https://web.archive.org/web/20120722175550/http://diver.net/seahunt/maps/coronodos.htm This links to a news article about the use of one of the islands as a waypoint for illegal migration to the United States. November 2010
Los Angeles Harbor Light
Los Angeles Harbor Light known as Angels Gate Light, is a lighthouse in California, United States, at San Pedro Breakwater in Los Angeles Harbor, California. The lighthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is listed as Los Angeles Light in the USCG Lights list. It is the only lighthouse in the world; the original plan for the lighthouse was a wooden, two-story building like those constructed for Oakland Harbor and Southampton Shoals. However, the plans were changed and the Los Angeles Light was anchored to the concrete block and built of steel reinforced concrete, it is the only lighthouse built to this design. The original paint on the lighthouse was only white which caused a problem with seeing the lighthouse building during fog. Vertical black stripes were added for increased visibility. By 2011, the years of exposure have led to rusted through walls, broken windows, cracked masonry, leaks during storms. In cooperation with the Coast Guard, the Cabrillo Beach Boosters Club completed a $1.8 million overhaul of the exterior, funded by the Port of Los Angeles.
The overhaul was completed in May 2012. A $1.2 million overhaul of the interior is planned. This lighthouse is inaccessible to the public, but can be viewed from the Cabrillo Beach area, San Pedro Breakwater or by boat. List of lighthouses in the United States San Pedro Bay List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Harbor area National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles County, California "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. United States Coast Guard Historic Lighthouses and Light Stations in California National Park Service
Battery Point Light
Battery Point Light is a lighthouse in Crescent City, United States. It is registered as a California Historical Landmark, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as "Crescent City Lighthouse". Battery Point Light was one of the first lighthouses on the California coast. Rugged mountains and unbridged rivers meant coastal travel was essential for the economic survival of this region. In 1855, Congress appropriated $15,000 for the construction of a lighthouse on the tiny islet, connected to Battery Point by an isthmus, visible, can be traversed on foot, at low tide. Although not included in the 1852 contract by the United States Lighthouse Service for the first eight west coast lighthouses, the Battery Point Lighthouse was lit ten days before the Humboldt Harbor Lighthouse, the last of the original eight to become operational; the fourth-order Fresnel lens was lit in 1856. The lighthouse was automated in 1953, a modern 14.8-inch lens replaced the fourth-order Fresnel lens. Theophilis Magruder was the station's first keeper.
The 1964 Alaska earthquake, the strongest earthquake recorded in the northern hemisphere, caused a tsunami. The lighthouse survived. In the following year, the modern beacon that replaced the Fresnel lens in the tower was switched off, a flashing light at the end of the nearby breakwater served as the harbor's navigational aid. In 1982, the light in the lighthouse tower was lit again, the Battery Point Lighthouse was listed as a private aid to navigation. Del Norte Historical Society operates Museum; the lighthouse is open to the public only when low tide permits access, daily from April through September with tours between 10 AM and 4 PM. October through March, the lighthouse is open for tours on weekends, from 10 AM to 4 PM. In both seasons, visits to the Battery Point Lighthouse and Island are only possible at low tides, it is recommended that visitors research tide times before visiting, as the tide rises quickly at the point and the land bridge to the lighthouse can disappear rapidly. The museum includes the lighthouse keeper's quarters with period furniture and artifacts left behind since the 1850s, as well as displays of maritime artifacts and historical documents.
Tours include a climb into the light tower. At least two novels have been set at Battery Point Light. Walk Across the Sea, by Susan Fletcher, is a 2001 historical fiction for teens; the Lightkeeper's Daughter, by Colleen Coble, is a 2010 inspirational romance for adults. The music video for the Tim McGraw song "Not a Moment Too Soon" has scenes of Tim next to the light on the lighthouse's top balcony and scenes of the Battery Point Light from a distance. List of lighthouses in the United States United States Coast Guard Del Norte Historical Society: Battery Point Lighthouse and Museum "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office
Point Diablo Light
The Point Diablo Light is a lighthouse in California, United States, about halfway between Point Bonita and Lime Point on the northern side of the Golden Gate Bridge, California In 1923, the Lighthouse Service decided to mark this navigational hazard, a small white shack with a pitched red roof was placed on the sloping point some eighty feet above the water. An array of solar panels now powers the modern beacon positioned atop the shack. List of lighthouses in the United States United States Coast Guard
Fort Point Light, San Francisco
Fort Point Light is a decommissioned lighthouse built on the third tier of Fort Point, now directly beneath the south anchorage of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California. The lighthouse is at the south end of the narrowest part of Golden Gate strait, it was preceded by two other lighthouses in nearby locations. The present lighthouse was in operation from 1864 until 1934. There have been three lighthouses built in the area; the original lighthouse, built in 1853, was a Cape Cod style lighthouse with an integral tower. It was the second lighthouse to be built on the US west coast, but it stood for only three months, was never lit. While awaiting the arrival of its lens, it was torn down to make room for the Army fort; the second lighthouse at Fort Point was a squat wooden 36-foot tower with four sides that sloped up to a square watch room. It was built on the narrow ledge between the water. In 1855, the light behind its fourth-order Fresnel lens was lit for the first time. Erosion undermined its foundation, in 1863 it was torn down to make way for a bigger seawall.
Fort Point's third lighthouse was built atop the wall of the fort in 1864. It was built as a 27-foot iron skeleton tower with a spiral staircase. A fifth-order lens was fitted, but in 1902 the lens was upgraded to a fourth-order lens, which produced alternating white and red flashes. In 1933, when work on the Golden Gate Bridge began, a fog signal and navigational light were placed at the base of the bridge's south tower. On September 1, 1934, after the towers for the Golden Gate Bridge were completed, the lighthouse was deactivated; the bridge would block off much of the light from the lighthouse, as the towers were 740 feet tall, they provided a more visible warning for mariners. Early keepers of Fort Point Light included: B. F. Deane J. C. Frachey George D. Wise Henry Hickson John D. Jenkins George W. Omey Scott Blanchard R. S. Martin Frank Thompson J. T. Hule James Rankin George D. Cobb Assistant keepers included: Ephrin Sohn Return J. Henter George D. Wise D. Dennison G. W. Thomas James Gormley James Jenkins James Heron C. H. Warren G. W. Omey G. A. Braley J. J. Wickersham Ann Blanchard William Ferry Mrs. Rachel L. Jones Theresa Welch F. B.
Morehouse Mrs. Mary Thompson Sophie Hule John Riley H. P. McKeever Frank P. Stanyan List of lighthouses in the United States United States Coast Guard National Park Service Fort Point Page Fort Point Lighthouse Page www.us-lighthouses.com "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Fort Point Lighthouse