Dáil Éireann is the lower house, principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann. It consists of 158 members, known as Teachta Dála. TDs represent 40 constituencies, are directly elected at least once every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas. Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, to nominate and remove the Taoiseach. Since 1922, it has met in Leinster House in Dublin; the name Dáil Éireann is taken from the Irish language but is the official title of the body in both English and Irish, including both language versions of the Irish constitution. Since the Dáil was first established in 1919, it has been described variously as a "National Assembly", a "Chamber of Deputies" and a "House of Representatives".
A dáil means an assembly or parliament, so a literal translation of Dáil Éireann is "Assembly of Ireland". Article 15 of Ireland's constitution describes the body as "a House of Representatives to be called Dáil Éireann". In common usage, the word Dáil is accompanied by the definite article. So one speaks of "the Dáil" but not "the Dáil Éireann"; the plural Dálaí is used. Dáil Éireann has 158 members. Under current legislation, members are directly elected at least once in every five years by the people of Ireland under a system of proportional representation known as the single transferable vote. Membership of the Dáil is open to Irish citizens. A member of the Dáil is known as a Teachta TD or Deputy; the Dáil electorate consists of Irish and British citizens over 18 years of age who are registered to vote in Ireland. Under the Constitution a general election for Dáil Éireann must occur once in every seven years, an earlier maximum of five years is set by the Electoral Act, 1992; the Taoiseach can, by making a request to the president dissolve the Dáil at any time, in which case a general election must occur within thirty days.
The President may refuse to dissolve the Dáil, ask the Dáil to form an alternative government without a general election taking place. The STV electoral system broadly produces proportional representation in the Dáil; the small size of the constituencies used, however gives a small advantage to the larger parties and under-represents smaller parties. Since the 1990s the norm in the state has been coalition governments. Prior to 1989, one-party government by the Fianna Fáil party was common; the multi-seat constituencies required by STV mean that candidates must compete for election with others from the same party. This is accused by some of producing TDs who are excessively parochial. Two failed attempts – 1959 and 1968 – have been made to change to the United Kingdom's plurality voting system electoral system. Both were rejected in referendums. By-elections occur under the alternative vote system; every constituency elects between three and five TDs. The constitution specifies that no constituency may return fewer than three TDs but does not specify any upper limit to constituency magnitude.
However, statute specifies a maximum of five seats per constituency. The constitution requires that constituency boundaries be reviewed at least once in every twelve years, so that boundaries may be redrawn to accommodate changes in population. Boundary changes are drafted by an independent commission, its recommendations are followed. Malapportionment is forbidden by the constitution. Under the Constitution, the commission is required to refer to the most recent Census of Ireland when considering boundary changes. Under the Constitution of Ireland there must never be fewer than one TD for every thirty thousand of the population, nor more than one for every twenty thousand. In the 29th Dáil there was one TD for every 25,000 citizens, in line with many other European Union member state national parliament ratios with Malta having one MP for every 6,000 citizens and Spain having one MP for every 130,000 citizens. Ireland has a similar MP to Citizen ratio to Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Latvia and Sweden.
With the adoption of the current constitution in 1937 the membership of the Dáil was reduced from 153 to 138, but in the 1960s the number was increased to 144 for the 1977 election to 148, only to be increased more in 1981 to the figure of 166. The Electoral Act 2011 provides that the number of members "shall be not less than 153 and not more than 160"; this came into effect at the 2016 general election. The Dáil chamber has confrontational benches but the end segment is curved to create a partial hemicycle; the government TDs sit with the main opposition party on his right. The Chamber was adapted for use as a Parliament from its former use as a lecture theatre; the First Dáil Éireann was established on 21 January 1919 as the single chamber parliament of th
Coolock is a large suburban area, centred on a village, on Dublin city's Northside in Ireland. Coolock is crossed by the Santry River, a prominent feature in the middle of the district, with a linear park and ponds; the Coolock suburban area encompasses parts of three Dublin postal districts: Dublin 5, Dublin 13 and Dublin 17. The civil parish of Coolock takes in the land between the Tonlegee Road and the Malahide Road, as well as the lands on either side of the Malahide Road between Darndale and Artane, the lands either side of the Oscar Traynor Road on the approach to Santry. Coolock is the name of the barony which accounts for most of north Dublin city, from the coast in to the Phoenix Park, stretching north as far as to Swords. Coolock has a history dating back over 3,500 years – a bronze-age burial site in the area dates back to 1500 BC; the settlement grew up around a small early-Christian church. A Catholic church, St. John's, was built in the area; the feudal barony of Coolock was granted in 1199 by Henry II to the Archbishop of Dublin.
Coolock remained a small village until the 1950s, with lands around the village being further developed over time, notably Bonnybrook and Kilmore West, between which a new centre to the area formed. At one time the old village was on the Malahide Road but that road was diverted and now passes to the east of the village. Again, lands in the north of Coolock were developed to form the new districts of Darndale and Priorswood. Coolock lies either side of the valley of the Santry River, includes a diversion from the little Naniken River, it is a flat area a little above sea level, with a linear park around the Santry, small green areas scattered through residential developments. Coolock lies at the centre of majority working class Northside suburbs such as Kilbarrack and the Edenmore part of Raheny, itself includes localities such as Ayrfield, Darndale, Priorswood and Kilmore West; as with other large suburban areas, such as Tallaght or Swords, there is no legal definition for Coolock, so no definitive population figures, but it is one of Dublin's largest residential areas.
The majority of Coolock, excluding Ayrfield, was built-up by the city authority, Dublin Corporation, as part of a programme of phased inner city slum clearance. Dublin City Council calculates that addresses containing "Coolock" comprise the largest stock of local authority houses within its jurisdiction and the area is central to the linear range of local authority building that took place during between the 1960s and the 1980s across Dublin's Northside - i.e. Ballymun including Poppintree, Coolock, Edenmore and Donaghmede; the permanent Traveller halting site estates of Cara Park and Dominick Park, found in the Belcamp area are among the largest halting site facilities provided by local authorities in Ireland. They contain an adult education centre and pre-school facilities for the local Traveller population, both located beside Dominick Park. At least one smaller, more traditional, Traveller settlement is found in the area, close to the Clare Hall Shopping Centre. King of the Travellers, Jim Watt, is a resident of this settlement.
Public parks in the area include the Santry River Linear Park, in Bonnybrook the Stardust Memorial Garden, dedicated to the 48 people who lost their lives in the Stardust nightclub. Parnells GAA club is based in Coolock village. Coolock is a centre of local government activity, with a Dublin City Council major centre, NEAR FM community radio station, a Health Services Executive centre and a recycling centre. Ayrfield, an area beginning on the north side of the Tonlegee Road, predominantly within the Dublin 13 postal code, opposite Edenmore, near Donaghmede and Darndale, containing several estates such as Rathvale, Millbrook, Foxhill and Ard na Greine. Ayrfield has St. Pauls Junior and Senior National School; the main access road, Blunden Drive, is the home of Ayrfield Credit Union, Ayrfield Community Centre and O'Tooles GAC clubhouse and playing pitches. Ayrfield is a parish in the Howth deanery of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, it is served by the Church of St Paul. It is home to Ayrfield United F.
C. which has pitches beside the credit union. Belcamp, today comprising some housing between Darndale and Priorswood but referring to a broader rural area, it is situated near the site of the former Belcamp Cottage and included cottages demolished to make way for the N32 road. Belcamp Hall, designed by architect James Hoban is a feature. Bonnybrook, a locality within the core of Coolock, above the original village, site of the main shopping centre, with its own Catholic church and primary school. Clonshaugh, stretching from the large Clonshaugh Industrial Estate opposite Kilmore all the way to the AUL, close to Baskin Lane; this includes Riverside, a housing estate at the side of the Santry River, with over 500 residents, first described as being in Santry, but with the postal district changed from Dublin 5 to Dublin 17, Newbury, situated behind Riverside, accessed from the Clonshaugh Road. Darndale, built as a range of social housing estates, east of Clonshaugh and west of Clare Hall, it comprises Marigold Court, Primrose Grove, Snowdrop Walk and Tulip Court.
Greencastle, a locality within the core of Coolo
Civil parishes in Ireland
Civil parishes are units of territory in the island of Ireland that have their origins in old Gaelic territorial divisions. They were adopted by the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland and by the Elizabethan Kingdom of Ireland, were formalised as land divisions at the time of the Plantations of Ireland, they no longer correspond to the boundaries of Roman Catholic or Church of Ireland parishes, which are larger. Their use as administrative units was replaced by Poor Law Divisions in the 19th century, although they were not formally abolished. Today they are still sometimes used for legal purposes; the Irish parish was based on the Gaelic territorial unit called a túath orTrícha cét. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Anglo-Norman barons retained the tuath renamed a parish or manor, as a unit of taxation; the civil parish was formally created by Elizabethan legislation. Accounts were kept of income and expenditures for each parish including poor relief. Statutes were based on ecclesiastical parishes, although it is not known how well-defined such parishes were.
At the time of the English Civil War, in 1654–56 a Civil Survey was taken of all the lands of Ireland. It proved inaccurate, in 1656–58 the Down Survey was conducted, using physical measurements to make as accurate a map as was possible at the time of townlands and baronies; this became the basis for all future land claims. Parishes are an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. A civil parish is made up of 25–30 townlands, it may include urban areas such as villages. A parish may cross the boundaries of both counties. Civil parishes had some use in local taxation, they were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. The Local Government Act 1898 established administrative counties divided into county districts making parishes obsolete, they were removed from subsequent editions of OS maps. For poor law purposes district electoral divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. Townlands are the smallest land unit in Ireland, were the most precise address that most rural people had until the 2015 introduction of postcodes.
An 1871 report to parliament noted that there were three classes of parish in Ireland: the civil parish, the Church of Ireland parish and the Roman Catholic parish. The first two but not always had the same boundaries, while the third did not; as a result of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic church had to adapt to a structure based on towns and villages, with parishes that were larger than the old parishes. A Tudor statute, renewed in 1695 by the Irish parliament, said that land should be granted in each parish for a resident Protestant schoolmaster; the Union of Parishes Act 1827 defined rules for redefining parish boundaries, erecting Chapels of Ease and making Perpetual Cures. It has since in part repealed. While the boundaries of the parishes of the Church of Ireland changed following the disestablishment of the church in 1869, this did not affect the boundaries of the civil parishes; the 1871 report noted that ecclesiastical parish boundaries must be flexible to meet the requirements of the cure of souls, but that for statistical and administrative purposes the boundaries of civil parishes should be fixed, or at least should change.
By 1800 civil parishes had replaced the ecclesiastical parishes for administrative purposes. Although the timing and method of the change is not well-documented; the civil parish was used for taxation purposes. The civil parishes were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. At the time of the 1861 census there were 2,428 civil parishes in Ireland. Poor Law districts were created in 1838, each centered on a large town. There were 130 poor law unions with 829 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions for census purposes. In 1898 poor law unions replaced civil parishes as the basic local government unit. "parish councils" which gained a modicum of official recognition were based on Roman Catholic parishes: first those recognised by the Congested Districts Board for Ireland. Civil parishes have not been formally abolished in either Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland, are still used in some legal contexts. One example where the parish is still referenced in Republic of Ireland law is the Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1988, which allows "any person resident in the parish in which the club premises are situated" to object to the granting of an alcohol licence to a club.
Until 1981 the Republic's official census reports included the populations of civil parishes in and near cities, because "numerous requests" were still being made for them. In 2001 there were 2,508 civil parishes. Old records of marriages, births etc. are organised by civil parish. Church of Ireland parishes conform to civil parish boundaries. List of civil parishes of Ireland Citations Sources "Historic 6-inch map". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. 1833–46. Retrieved 8 November 2014. "Memorial Atlas of Ireland". NUI Galway. 2014. County maps include colour-coded parishes "Alphabetical index to
Cabra is an inner suburb on the northside of Dublin city in Ireland. It is 2 kilometres northwest of the city centre, in the administrative area of Dublin City Council, it was known as Cabragh until the early 20th century. Located between the Royal Canal and the Phoenix Park, it is a residential suburb, with a range of institutions and some light industry. Cabra is governed by Dublin City Council, served by bus, light rail and mainline rail. From about 1480, the manor of Cabra was held by a branch of the Plunket family, another branch of, ennobled as Earls of Fingall; the branch which held Cabragh had their main residence at Dunsoghly Castle near Finglas. There are three contiguous townlands called "Cabra", each in a different civil parish: Grangegorman and Castleknock; the three met at the gate lodge of Cabragh House, today the location of the roundabout at the meeting of Ratoath Road and Drumcliffe Road and the Canon Burke Senior Citizens Flats complex. Completed in 1598, Cabragh House was first occupied by the Segrave family.
The mansion was the home of the "hanging judge" Lord Norbury, until he died in 1831 and the Segrave family managed to reacquire it. Charles Segrave, whose son was the famous racing driver Henry Segrave lived there until 1912; the big house was bought by Dublin Corporation by way of a compulsory purchase order in 1939 for the construction of local authority housing, the historic house was razed to the ground. The Industrial Revolution brought the construction of the Royal Canal in 1790 and the laying of one railway line, both through the northern part of the area, while another railway line ran through the heart of the area; the Great Southern and Western branch line had a side line for the North City Mills on the border of Cabra and Phibsboro. Due to the proximity of Broadstone, there were no local railway stations, the nearest being beyond Phibsboro, Glasnevin Station northeast of Cross Guns Bridge. From about 1880 to 1930, Cabra was a prominent market garden centre and a giant lairage, where cattle being brought to market at Hanlon's Corner were kept in pens and grazing fields.
Until the 1920s, when large scale housing developments took place, the area comprised fields and open countryside on the edge of the city. Many of the people who moved to the new suburb were from the city centre slums. Quarry Road was called Quarry Lane, after a small quarry, situated near where the current statue of Our Blessed Lady is located at the roundabout with Fassaugh Road This quarry was filled in the early part of the 1900s and the family who lived in the Homestead grew cabbages on the reclaimed land. Cabra is located southwest of the Royal Canal, except for one small piece of land between canal and railway line, northeast of the Phoenix Park, runs southeast to northwest, from Phibsboro at Doyle's Corner and around the sixth Royal Canal lock, Grangegorman at Hanlon's Corner, to Ashtown and Pelletstown; the area is divided into Cabra East and Cabra West, but these are not well-defined. The Bradogue River rises underground at the southern edge of the district. Dublin Bus' two main routes for the area are the 120 Ashtown via Cabra West/East to Parnell Street/Ballsbridge and 122 Ashington, Cabra West/East, City to Drimnagh.
Routes 38/a/b and Nitelink 39N serve Cabra Road, while 39, 39a,70, 70N serve Navan Road. Route 46A travels the North Circular Road, part of Cabra's southern boundary; the Luas Green Line, part of Dublin's light rail system, has been extended to a terminus at Broombridge railway station, with another local LUAS stop deep in the area and nearby Phibsborough and Broadstone-DIT – the last two serving the new Dublin Institute of Technology campus at Grangegorman. Suburban rail stops at Broombridge railway station, en route to Maynooth railway station, M3 Parkway railway station or station in Dublin city centre such as Docklands railway station or Dublin Connolly railway station. Broom Bridge known as Brougham Bridge, is a small bridge along Broombridge Road which crosses the Royal Canal in Cabra; the bridge is named after one of the directors of the Royal Canal company. Broom Bridge is the location where Sir William Rowan Hamilton, following a'eureka experience', first wrote down the fundamental formula for quaternions on 16 October 1843, to this day commemorated by a stone plaque on the northwest corner of the underside of the bridge.
The text on the plaque reads: Here as he walked by on the 16th of October 1843 Sir William Rowan Hamilton in a flash of genius discovered the fundamental formula for quaternion multiplication i² = j² = k² = ijk = −1 and cut it on a stone of this bridge. Given the historical importance of the mathematical contribution, mathematicians have been known to make a pilgrimage of sorts to the site. Dublin city's public libraries have one of their administrative centres in the area, attached to Cabra Library – this Bibliographic Centre processes all books received and dispatches them to all branch libraries. Deaf Village Ireland the School and Home for the Deaf, is located in a parkland setting in southern Cabra East; this facility is home to a range including Deaf Sports Ireland. Along the canal towards Liffey Junction, serving the railway, was once a coke-making site, of w
Ashtown is a small suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is a townland in the civil parish of Castleknock and falls into the postal districts of Dublin 15, with some addresses falling into the Dublin 7 postal district. Ashtown is bounded by the townlands of Castleknock to the west, it is situated by the Royal Canal, near the Navan Road, which some addresses being named off Navan Road. The Phoenix Park is nearby, its Ashtown Gate entrance about 500 metres south of the railway station; the townland's 278 acres are within Dublin City. The suburb had a population of 13,209 inhabitants as reported in the 2016 census. Teagasc has a food research centre at Ashtown; the Dublin-Sligo railway passes through the area and it is served by Ashtown railway station, which opened on 1 August 1902. Stopping at Ashtown is the Western Commuter service, which runs between Maynooth and Pearse Station in the city centre; the area is served by the 120 Dublin Bus route, which terminates at the railway station, by the 37, 38, 39 and 70 routes, which pass nearby on the Navan Road.
The Broombridge LUAS Green Line station opened in December 2017. The grounds of St Oliver Plunketts/Eoghan Ruadh GAA are located in Martin Savage Park, just to the south of the railway line and runs along it. Phoenix FC known as Kinvara Ards use this park for their youth teams, but have used a football complex in Scribblestown for their senior team since their merger with Ashtown Villa in 2006. Ashtown is in the Dublin West and the Cabra-Glasnevin Local Electoral Area of Dublin City Council
Ballyboughal sometimes Ballyboghil, is a village and district in central Fingal within the historic County Dublin, near the Naul. The name means the town of the staff, the Bachal Isu was protected in this area until Strongbow moved it to Christ Church, Dublin, it is near Oldtown. In addition to the Church of the Assumption, erected in 1836, the medieval church still stands in ruins in the Old Ballyboughal Burial Ground north of the center of the town, it is the place. All the walls stand without the roof, the building, which has some grave markers on the inside, is divided into a nave and chancel with doors on the north and south sides; the west gable has a triple bellcote, the east gable has an arched window dating from the fourteenth century. There was a monastery in Ballyboughal sometime before the arrival of the Anglo-Normans; the Ballyboughal River flows eastward through the center of the settlement. It has its source at Tobergregan, south of Garristown, its mouth at the Rogerstown Estuary.
There is Ballyboughal Airfield, ICAO code EIBB, near the village. Lying within the Dublin Control Zone, this grass-strip facility holds a small number of historical aircraft, has occasional educational activities, as well as hosting meetings of Balheary model aircraft flying club