In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, temporary encampments, "marching" forts; the diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century. In English, the terms Roman fortress, Roman fort, Roman camp are used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the words camp, marching camp, fortress as a translation of castrum. For a list of known castra see List of castra. Castrum appears in Oscan and Umbrian, two other Italic languages, suggests an origin at least as old as Proto-Italic language. Julius Pokorny traces a probable derivation from * k̂es -, schneiden in * k̂es - tro-m; these Italic reflexes based on * kastrom include Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf. They have the same meaning, says Pokorny, as Latin fundus, an estate, or tract of land.
This is not any land, but is a prepared or cultivated tract, such as a farm enclosed by a fence or a wooden or stone wall of some kind. Cornelius Nepos uses Latin castrum in that sense: when Alcibiades deserts to the Persians, Pharnabazus gives him an estate worth 500 talents in tax revenues; this is a change of meaning from the reflexes in other languages, which still mean some sort of knife, axe, or spear. Pokorny explains it as ’Lager’ als ‘abgeschnittenes Stück Land’, “a lager, as a cut-off piece of land.” If this is the civilian interpretation, the military version must be “military reservation,” a piece of land cut off from the common land around it and modified for military use. All castra must be defended by works no more than a stockade, for which the soldiers carried stakes, a ditch; the castra could be prepared under attack behind a battle line. Considering that the earliest military shelters were tents made of hide or cloth, all but the most permanent bases housed the men in tents placed in quadrangles and separated by numbered streets, one castrum may well have acquired the connotation of tent.
The commonest Latin syntagmata for the term castra are: castra stativa Permanent camp/fortresses castra aestiva Summer camp/fortresses castra hiberna Winter camp/fortresses castra navalia or castra nautica Navy camp/fortressesIn Latin the term castrum is much more used as a proper name for geographical locations: e.g. Castrum Album, Castrum Inui, Castrum Novum, Castrum Truentinum, Castrum Vergium; the plural was used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia, from this come the Welsh place name prefix caer- and English suffixes -caster and -chester. Castrorum Filius, "son of the camps," was one of the names used by the emperor Caligula and also by other emperors. Castro derived from Castrum, is a common Spanish family name as well as toponym in Italy, the Balkans and Spain and other Hispanophone countries, either by itself or in various compounds such as the World Heritage Site of Gjirokastër; the terms stratopedon and phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively.
A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and supplies when they were not fighting or marching. This most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castrorum, a manuscript of 11 pages that dates most from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD. Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day. "… as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight until they have walled their camp about. To this end a marching column ported the equipment needed to build and stock the camp in a baggage train of wagons and on the backs of the soldiers. Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti, "chief engineers", who requisitioned manual labor from the soldiers at large as required, they could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it: tertia castra, quarta castra, etc..
More permanent camps were castra stativa. The least permanent of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, "summer camps", in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, "under tents". Summer was the campaign season. For the winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of more solid materials, with timber construction being replaced by stone; the camp supplied army in the field. Neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability: they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days; the largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions. From the time of Augustus more permanent castra with wooden or stone buildings and walls were introduced as the distant and hard-won boundaries of the expanding empire required permanent garrisons to control local and external threats
Forth and Clyde Canal
The Forth and Clyde Canal is a canal opened in 1790, crossing central Scotland. It is 35 miles long and it runs from the River Carron at Grangemouth to the River Clyde at Bowling, had an important basin at Port Dundas in Glasgow. Successful in its day, it suffered as the seagoing vessels were built larger and could no longer pass through; the railway age further impaired the success of the canal, in the 1930s decline had ended in dormancy. The final decision to close the canal in the early 1960s was made due to maintenance costs of bridges crossing the canal exceeding the revenues it brought in. However, subsidies to the rail network were a cause for its decline and the closure ended the movement of the east-coast Forth River fishing fleets across the country to fish the Irish Sea; the lack of political and financial foresight removed a historical recreational waterway and potential future revenue generator to the town of Grangemouth. Unlike the majority of major canals the route through Grangemouth was drained and back filled before 1967 to create a new carriageway for port traffic.
The M8 motorway in the eastern approaches to Glasgow took over some of the alignment of the canal, but more recent ideas have regenerated the utility of the canal for leisure use. The eastern end of the canal is connected to the River Forth by a stretch of the River Carron near Grangemouth; the canal follows the course of the Roman Antonine Wall and was the biggest infrastructure project in Scotland since then. The highest section of the canal passes close to Kilsyth and it is fed there by an aqueduct which gathers water from Birkenburn Reservoir in the Kilsyth Hills, stored in another purpose-built reservoir called Townhead near Banton, from where it feeds the canal via a feeder from the Shawend Burn near Craigmarloch; the canal continues past Twechar, through Kirkintilloch and Bishopbriggs to the Maryhill area north of Glasgow city centre. A branch to Port Dundas was built to secure the agreement and financial support of Glasgow merchants who feared losing business if the canal bypassed them completely.
This branch flows past Murano Street Student Village, halls of residence for the University of Glasgow. A bridge crossing the canal to the halls has been colourfully nicknamed "Stabby Bridge" by students; the western end of the canal connects to the River Clyde at Bowling. In 1840, a 0.5 mile canal, the Forth and Cart Canal was built to link the Forth and Clyde canal, at Whitecrook, to the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Cart. Priestley, writing in 1831, said: The first act of parliament relating to this canal, received the royal assent on the 8th of March, 1768, it is entitled,'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; the subscribers were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £150,000, in fifteen hundred shares of £100 each, an additional sum of £50,000, if necessary.
At first there were difficulties with securing the capital for the work, but soon, thanks in the main to investment by Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1st Baronet, "the execution of this canal proceeded with such rapidity, under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, that in two years and three quarters from the date of the first act, one half of the work was finished; the work was completed on the 28 July 1790. Priestley wrote in 1831, Besides the fine rivers above-mentioned, is joined by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal, near Falkirk; this magnificent canal commences in the River Forth, in Grangemouth Harbour, near to where the Carron empties itself into that river. Its course is parallel with the Carron, in nearly a westwardly direction, passing to the north of the town of Falkirk, thence to Red Bridge, where it quits the county of Stirling, enters a detached portion of the shire of Dumbarton. Hence it passes to the south of Kilsyth, runs along the south bank of the River Kelvin, over the Luggie Water, by a fine stone aqueduct, at Kirkintilloch.
Seabegs Wood was the site of a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. At Seabegs, the outline of Antonine's Wall, has lasted. Archaeologists from previous generations recorded this and stated that the ditch was deep and watterlogged. There is an underpass under the Clyde Canal nearby known locally as the Pend. In in the 1890s, the Antonine Wall Committee of Glasgow Archaeological Society’s cut several trenches across the Roman rampart; these uncovered its stone base. Subsequent excavations in 1977 found a Roman fortlet attached to the south of the Rampart. In 1981, a mound little has been discovered; the neighbouring forts to this fortlet are Rough Castle in the east. Sir George Macdonald and others theorized that because these neighbouring fort were widespread another structure was in the Seabegs area. No coinage has been recovered nor any inscriptions. There are two marching camps nearby at Milnquarter. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry.
There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Drone footage from Seabegs Wood ]
Antoninus Pius known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. Born into a senatorial family, Antoninus held various offices during the reign of emperor Hadrian, acquiring favor which saw him adopted as Hadrian's son and successor shortly before Hadrian's death, he acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his years. His reign is notable for the peaceful state of the Empire, with no major revolts or military incursions during this time, for his governing without leaving Italy. A successful military campaign in southern Scotland early in his reign resulted in the construction of the Antonine Wall. Antoninus was an effective administrator, leaving his successors a large surplus in the treasury, expanding free access to drinking water throughout the Empire, encouraging legal conformity, facilitating the enfranchisement of freed slaves.
He died of illness in 161 and was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul in 86, whose family came from Nemausus. Titus Aurelius Fulvius was the son of a senator of the same name, who, as legate of Legio III Gallica, had supported Vespasian in his bid to the Imperial office and been rewarded with a suffect consulship, plus an ordinary one under Domitian in 85; the Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a new senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between Antoninus' family and their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. Antoninus was born near Lanuvium and his mother was Arria Fadilla. Antoninus’ father died shortly after his 89 ordinary consulship, Antoninus was raised by his maternal grandfather Gnaeus Arrius Antoninus, reputed by contemporaries to be a man of integrity and culture and a friend of Pliny the Younger.
The Arrii Antonini were an older senatorial family from Italy influential during Nerva's reign. Arria Fadilla, Antoninus' mother, married afterwards Publius Julius Lupus, suffect consul in 98; some time between 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Faustina was a beautiful woman, despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore two sons and two daughters, they were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus, his name appears on a Greek Imperial coin. Aurelia Fadilla, she appeared to have no children with her husband. Annia Galeria Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger, a future Roman Empress, married her maternal cousin Marcus Aurelius in 146; when Faustina died in 141, Antoninus was distressed. In honour of her memory, he asked the Senate to deify her as a goddess, authorised the construction of a temple to be built in the Roman Forum in her name, with priestesses serving in her temple.
He had various coins with her portrait struck in her honor. These coins were elaborately decorated, he further created a charity which he founded and called it Puellae Faustinianae or Girls of Faustina, which assisted destitute girls of good family. Antoninus created a new alimenta; the emperor never remarried. Instead, he lived with one of Faustina's freed women. Concubinage was a form of female companionship sometimes chosen by powerful men in Ancient Rome widowers like Vespasian, Marcus Aurelius, their union could not produce any legitimate offspring who could threaten any heirs, such as those of Antoninus. As one could not have a wife and an official concubine at the same time, Antoninus avoided being pressed into a marriage with a noblewoman from another family. Having filled the offices of quaestor and praetor with more than usual success, he obtained the consulship in 120, he was next appointed by the Emperor Hadrian as one of the four proconsuls to administer Italia greatly increased his reputation by his conduct as proconsul of Asia during 134–135.
He acquired much favor with Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and successor on 25 February 138, after the death of his first adopted son Lucius Aelius, on the condition that Antoninus would in turn adopt Marcus Annius Verus, the son of his wife's brother, Lucius, son of Lucius Aelius, who afterwards became the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. On his accession, Antoninus' name and style became Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pontifex Maximus. One of his first acts as Emperor was to persuade the Senate to grant divine honours to Hadrian
East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the north-west of the City of Glasgow and contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as many of the city's commuter towns and villages. East Dunbartonshire shares borders with North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire; the council area covers parts of the historic counties of Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire. The council area was formed as a result of the Local Government etc.. Act 1994, from part of the former Bearsden and Milngavie and Strathkelvin districts of the wider Strathclyde region. East Dunbartonshire council area has low levels of deprivation, with low unemployment and low levels of crime; the population is both ageing. In a 2007 Reader's Digest poll, East Dunbartonshire was voted the best place in Britain to raise a family; the area continually tops the Halifax Bank Quality of Life list. In 2010 East Dunbartonshire ranked 3rd in Scotland and was the only Scottish area in the British Top 20 in 2008 A Legatum Prosperity Index published by the Legatum Institute in October 2016 showed East Dunbartonshire as the most prosperous council area in Scotland and the ninth most prosperous in the United Kingdom.
At the first election to East Dunbartonshire Council in April 1995, 26 councillors were elected for a four-year term. Labour gained an outright majority and formed a single-party administration, headed by Charles Kennedy and Michael McCarron as leader and depute leader, with John Dempsey and Ann Cameron taking the civic posts of Provost and Depute Provost. Cllr Kennedy was the leader of Strathkelvin District Council, continued to hold that post during the shadow year of East Dunbartonshire until the final abolition of the district council in April 1996; the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives were the only other parties represented on East Dunbartonshire Council and sat in opposition for the next four years. The number of councillors was reduced to 24 at the May 1999 election, when the Labour Party was again returned as the largest group, but without an overall majority. At the statutory meeting, Charles Kennedy and Rhondda Geekie were appointed as leader and depute leader of a minority Labour administration, but the Provost and Depute Provost roles were taken by Lib Dem councillor Robin McSkimming and Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis.
Within a few months, the Labour administration fell, with support from the Conservatives, the Lib Dem councillors Keith Moody and John Morrison took over as leader and depute leader of a new administration in which members of both the Lib Dem and Conservative groups held the various convenerships. At the May 2003 election, the Liberal Democrats further increased their representation on the council, securing 12 out of the 24 seats. With the reduced Labour group declining to put forward nominations, Lib Dem councillors Pat Steel and Cathy McInnes became Provost and Depute Provost, John Morrison and Fiona Risk leader and depute leader. For the next four years the Lib Dems ran a single party administration that relied, when necessary, on the casting vote of the chair. June 2004 saw the emergence of the East Dunbartonshire Independent Alliance, when Jack Young and former council leader Charles Kennedy, elected as Labour councillors the previous year, formed a fourth group on East Dunbartonshire Council.
As a result of the 2007 election, the Scottish Liberal Democrats were reduced to three councillors and lost control of East Dunbartonshire Council, with one of the primary grievances amongst the electorate being fortnightly waste collection, after the introduction of kerbside collections for recycling plastics, glass and paper. Although the SNP were elected as the largest group, the administration became a Labour/Conservative coalition due to no single party having overall control; the leader of the council was Labour councillor Rhondda Geekie and the position of provost was subsequently held by Lib Dem councillor Eric Gotts. The depute leader and depute provost were the Conservative councillors Billy Anne Jarvis. In December 2009, Lib Dem representation increased to 4, following Ashay Ghai's win in the Bearsden South by-election caused by the resignation of the Conservatives' Simon Hutchison. However, their numbers reverted to 3 in June 2011, when Lib Dem councillor Duncan Cumming resigned from the party citing issues relating to the Liberal Democrats' role in the UK coalition government, sitting thereafter as an independent.
The 2012 election, again returned a council where no single party had overall control, the administration became a three-way Labour/Lib-Dem/Conservative coalition. The leader of the council remained Rhondda Geekie; the depute leader and depute provost were the Lib Dem councillor Ashay Ghai and the Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis. EDIA councillor Charles Kennedy, of the Campsie and Kirkintilloch North ward, died on 13 July 2012; the subsequent by-election took place on 13 September. Thereafter the EDIA was voluntarily deregistered, its remaining councillor, Jack Young, continuing as an independent for the remainder of his term retiring from the council in May 2017. Following a disagreement between the Liberal Democrats and their administration colleagues, the ruling three-party coalition reverted to a minority two-party Labour/Conservative coalition in January 2016, the Conservatives' Billy Hendry resumed the role of depute council leader; the number of seats on the local council was reduced to 22 at the 2017 election
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned 63 kilometres and was about 3 metres high and 5 metres wide. Lidar scans have been carried out to establish the length of the wall and the Roman distance units used. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side, it is thought. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in what the English once called Northern Britain, its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian's Wall to the south because the turf and wood wall has weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor. Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north.
The Antonine Wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them. The soldiers who built the wall commemorated the construction and their struggles with the Caledonians in decorative slabs, twenty of which survive; the wall was abandoned only eight years after completion, the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius ordered repairs; the occupation ended a few years and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are visible. Many of these have come under the care of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall around 142. Quintus Lollius Urbicus, governor of Roman Britain at the time supervised the effort, which took about twelve years to complete; the wall stretches 63 kilometres from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth. The wall was intended to extend Roman territory and dominance by replacing Hadrian's Wall 160 kilometres to the south, as the frontier of Britannia.
But while the Romans did establish many forts and temporary camps further north of the Antonine Wall in order to protect their routes to the north of Scotland, they did not conquer the Caledonians, the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks. The Romans called the land north of the wall Caledonia, though in some contexts the term may refer to the whole area north of Hadrian's Wall; the Antonine Wall was shorter than Hadrian's Wall and built of turf on a stone foundation, but it was still an impressive achievement. It was a simpler fortification than Hadrian's Wall insofar as it did not have a subsidiary ditch system behind it to the south, as Hadrian's Wall did with its Vallum; the stone foundations and wing walls of the original forts on the Antonine Wall demonstrate that the original plan was to build a stone wall similar to Hadrian's Wall, but this was amended. As built, the wall was a bank, about four metres high, made of layered turves and earth with a wide ditch on the north side, a military way on the south.
The Romans planned to build forts every 10 kilometres, but this was soon revised to every 3.3 kilometres, resulting in a total of nineteen forts along the wall. The best preserved but one of the smallest forts is Rough Castle Fort. In addition to the forts, there are at least 9 smaller fortlets likely on Roman mile spacings, which formed part of the original scheme, some of which were replaced by forts; the most visible fortlet is Kinneil, at the eastern end of the Wall, near Bo'ness. There was once a remarkable Roman structure within sight of the Antonine Wall at Stenhousemuir; this was Arthur's O'on, a circular stone domed monument or rotunda, which may have been a temple, or a tropaeum, a victory monument. It was demolished for its stone in 1743. In addition to the line of the Wall itself there are a number of coastal forts both in the East and West, which should be considered as outposts and/or supply bases to the Wall itself. In addition a number of forts farther north were brought back into service in the Gask Ridge area, including Ardoch, Strageath and Dalginross and Cargill.
Recent research by Glasgow University has shown that the distance stones, stone sculptures unique to the Antonine Wall which were embedded in the wall to mark the lengths built by each legion, were brightly painted unlike their present bare appearance. These stones are preserved in the University's museum and are said to be the best-preserved examples of statuary from any Roman frontier. Several of the slabs have been analysed by various techniques including portable X-ray fluorescence. Tiny remnants of paint have been detected by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Several of the distance slabs have been scanned and 3-D videos produced. There are plans to reproduce the slabs, both digitally and in real physical copies, with their authentic colours. A copy of the Bridgeness Slab has been made and can be found in Bo'ness, it is expected that lottery funding will allow replicas of distance markers to be placed along the length of the wall. The wall was abandoned onl
The River Kelvin is a tributary of the River Clyde in northern and northeastern Glasgow, Scotland. It rises on the moor south east of the village of Banton, east of Kilsyth. At 22 miles long, it flows south to Dullatur Bog where it falls into a man made trench and takes a ninety degree turn flowing west through Strathkelvin and along the northern boundary of the bog parallel with the Forth and Clyde Canal; the river's first important confluence is with the Chantyclear Burn which originates from the ridge of Dullatur. It continues its westward flow being joined by the depleted Shawend Burn to the west of Craigmarloch bridge; the next important tributary is the Garrel at a point south-east of Kilsyth south of Dumbreck Marsh. The Kelvin passes through the large flood plain north of Twechar where it is fed by the Dock Water, Queenzie Burn, the Cast Burn and the Board Burn before reaching Kirkintilloch at its confluence with the more substantial waters of the Glazert and Luggie, it flows past Torrance, meanders through Balmore Haughs, to the south of Bardowie where it joins the Allander Water, after which it takes a south-westerly direction towards Maryhill, through Kelvingrove Park before falling into the River Clyde at Yorkhill Basin in the city of Glasgow.
Wildlife along Strathkelvin include the grey squirrel, grey heron, blue tit, great tit, snipe, great spotted woodpecker, redwing, carrion crow, mallard, roe deer, red fox, water vole and brown rat. Successive attempts at improving the quality of the water have been rewarded by the return of salmon; the river has always been home to brown trout and both species can be fished by obtaining the relevant permits. The Kelvin is bridged at several points throughout Glasgow. Most notable is the Great Western Bridge on Great Western Road in the city's West End. Below this bridge is an underground station that bears the name Kelvinbridge, a name attached to the area. Other bridges include the one near the Antonine Wall at Balmuildy, Partick Bridge on Dumbarton Road, the bridge at Queen Margaret Drive, Ha'penny Bridge and several in the grounds of Kelvingrove Park; the Kelvin Aqueduct carries the Clyde Canal over the river. It was Britain's largest; the river is used as an overflow for the canal. The famous physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin was named Baron Kelvin in honour of his achievements, named after the river that flowed past his university.
Allander Water, Allander Burn List of places in East Dunbartonshire List of places in Scotland History of Banton. Stratkelvin district council. Friends of the River Kelvin River Kelvin based charity River Kelvin Angling Association River Kelvin Angling Association Kelvin Walkway - Glasgow West End Illustrated guide to riverside walk