Redbad, King of the Frisians
Redbad was the king of Frisia from c. 680 until his death. He is considered the last independent ruler of Frisia before Frankish domination, he defeated Charles Martel at Cologne. However, Charles prevailed and compelled the Frisians to submit. Redbad died in 719. What the exact title of the Frisian rulers was depends on the source. Frankish sources tend to call them dukes. Being Germanic pagans, it is that they would have been called kings by their followers, whereas the Christianized Franks, who had inherited the Latin literary tradition, would have referred to them as dukes. While his predecessor, had welcomed Christianity into his realm, Redbad attempted to extirpate the religion and free the Frisians from subjugation to the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks. In 689, Redbad was defeated by Pepin of Herstal in the battle of Dorestad and compelled to cede Frisia Citerior to the Franks. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell into the hands of Pepin; this gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea.
Some sources say that, following this defeat, Redbad retreated, to the island of Heligoland. Others say he retreated to the part of the Netherlands, still known as Friesland. Around this time there was an Archbishopric or bishopric of the Frisians founded for Willibrord and a marriage was held between Grimoald the Younger, the oldest son of Pepin, Thiadsvind, the daughter of Redbad in 711. On Pepin's death in 714, Redbad took the initiative again, he forced Saint Willibrord and his monks to flee and advanced as far as Cologne, where he defeated Charles Martel, Pepin's natural son, in 716. However, Charles prevailed and compelled the Frisians to submit. Redbad died in 719; as an example of how powerful King Redbad still was at the end of his life, the news that he was engaged in assembling an army was enough to fill the Frankish kingdom with fear and trembling. During the second journey of Saint Boniface to Rome, Wulfram, a monk and ex-archbishop of Sens tried to convert Redbad, but after an unsuccessful attempt he returned to Fontenelle.
It is said that Redbad was nearly baptised but refused when he was told that he would not be able to find any of his ancestors in Heaven after his death. He said he preferred spending eternity in Hell with his pagan ancestors than in Heaven with his enemies the Franks; this legend is told with Wulfram being replaced with bishop Willibrord. Saint Radboud was a descendant of Redbad. Saint Radboud was a bishop of Utrecht; the Nijmegen University and its corresponding medical facility were named after him in 2004. In Richard Wagner's Lohengrin a certain "Radbod, ruler of the Frisians" is mentioned as Ortrud's father, it is possible that Wagner was thinking of the historical Redbad, although he died more than 150 years before the birth of Henry the Fowler, another character in the opera, who could not, therefore, be contemporary of Redbad's daughter. In Harry Harrison's The Hammer and the Cross series of novels, Redbad becomes the founder of "the Way", an organized pagan cult, created to combat the efforts of Christian missionaries.
Black metal band Ophidian Forest recorded a concept album Redbad in 2007. Dutch folk metal band'Heidevolk' recorded a song'Koning Radboud' on their 2008 album'Walhalla Wacht' singing about the legend of Wulfram and Redbad. In 2015 the Frisian Folk-Metal band Baldrs Draumar released a full album on the life and deeds of king Redbad called Aldgillessoan, it is based on Kronyk fan in Kening by Willem Schoorstra. In 2018, Dutch production company Farmhouse will release a movie called "Redbad", based on the historical Redbad, it is directed by Roel Reiné and stars Jonathan Banks and Søren Malling alongside a variety of Dutch actors. Frisian–Frankish wars Low Countries mythology This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frisians". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 234–235. Petz, G. H.. MGH Scriptures.. Media related to Redbad, King of the Frisians at Wikimedia Commons
Frederick the Great
Frederick II ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule, he became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people and the rest of Germany. In his youth, Frederick was more interested in philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics and logistics. Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism, he modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble status to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, although he enacted oppressive measures against Polish Catholic subjects in West Prussia. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Frederick is buried at Sanssouci in Potsdam; because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through the German Empire's defeat in World War I; the Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Adolf Hitler, who idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour. Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
He was baptised with only one name and was not given any other names. The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy. With the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King in Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince; the new king wished for his daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who became Madame de Rocoulle, he wished that she educate his children. Frederick William I, popularly dubbed as the Soldier-King, had created a large and powerful army led by his famous "Potsdam Giants" managed his treasury finances and developed a strong, centralized government. However, he possessed a violent temper and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority; as Frederick grew, his preference for music and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William beating and humiliating him.
In contrast, Frederick's mother Sophia was polite and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714. Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. In spite of his father's desire that his education be religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry and Roman classics, French philosophy to supplement his official lessons. Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared. To avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Although Frederick was irreligious, he to some extent appeared to adopt this tenet of Calvinism; some scholars have speculated. In the mid-1720s, a double marriage was proposed. Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine with Amelia and Frederick, the children of her brother, King George II of Great Britain.
Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed the Prussian Minister of War, Field Marshal von Grumbkow, the Prussian ambassador in Lon
The Harlingerland is a strip of land on the North Sea coast of East Frisia. While today the whole of the district of Wittmund is described as Harlingerland it refers to the northern part of the present district, which formed the old Frisian state of this name, in particular, the regions around Esens and Wittmund; the region around Friedeburg still belonged at that time to the Frisian state of Östringen. The local dialect for many folk in the Harlingerland is East Frisian Low Saxon but with a Harlinger variation somewhat different from the rest of East Frisia; the old Frisian language continued to be spoken in the Harlingerland much longer than in most other East Frisian regions. Wittmund produces the local paper of the Anzeiger für Harlingerland; the Harlingerland is named for the Harlebucht, or Harle Bay, which has by now been completely filled in by farmland, through a series of dike-building projects spanning the last several centuries, commencing in 1545 and extending into the 20th century.
The Harlebucht used to extend north of Wittmund and Jever. Harlesiel and Neuharlingersiel all take their name from the same source. Landscape and Cultural Heritage in the Wadden Sea Region Overview of lords in and of Harlingerland
Ubbo Emmius was a German historian and geographer. Ubbo Emmius was born on 5 December 1547 in East Frisia. From the ages of 9 to 18 Emmius studied in a Latin school, before having to leave on the death of his father, a Lutheran preacher. After studying at Rostock, at the age of 30, Emmius took classes in Geneva with Theodorus Beza, a Calvinist who influenced Emmius greatly. Upon returning to East Friesland in 1579 he took the position of rector in the school in which he was taught, the college at Norden, he was subsequently sacked by the local court in 1587 because, as a Calvinist, he would not subscribe to the confession of Augsburg. Following this, in 1588, the Calvinist count Johan offered him the position of rector in the Latin school of Leer.. Whilst remaining in Leer it is known that Emmius had corresponded with many other important people of the time who had fled from Groningen after the area fell into the hands of the Spanish; when Groningen surrendered to Prince Maurits in 1594 those who fled returned and offered Ubbo the position of rector in St Maarten school.
When in 1614 the decision was made to form a university, under the guidance of Emmius. As a result, he was chosen as the principal and professor of history and Greek and became the first rector magnificus of the Academy in which he formed. Ubbo Emmius made prominent contributions to historiography, his primary works were on the History of the Frisian Territories: his 6 part Rerum Frisicarum historiae decades from 1592 to 1616. In one of his other important works titled the Chronologicum he compared the histories of different nations that used different calendars. Other works include: Opus chronologicum Vetus Graecia illustrata Historia temporis nostri, first published at Groningen in 1732An account of his life, written by Nicholas Mulerius, was published, with the lives of other professors of Groningen, at Groningen in 1638. Ubbo Emmius died on the 9 December 1625 in Groningen. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Emmius, Ubbo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 344
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a federal state of Germany. As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.5 million people. Bremen is eleventh in Germany. Bremen is a major economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Übersee-Museum Bremen. Bremen has a reputation as a working-class city. Bremen is home to a large number of manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include Vector Foiltec. Four-time German football champions Werder Bremen are based in the city. Bremen is some 60 km south of the mouth of the Weser on the North Sea. Bremen and Bremerhaven together comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen; the marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC.
Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since the Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemy's Fourth Map of Europe, written in AD 150, refers to Bremen, but Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, these refer to a site northeast of the mouth of the river Visurgis. In Ptolemy's time the Chauci lived in the area now called Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. During the Saxon Wars the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum, which forbid the Saxons worshipping Odin. In 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. In 848 the archdiocese of Hamburg merged with the diocese of Bremen to become Hamburg-Bremen Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, in the following centuries the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen were the driving force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany.
In 888, at the behest of Archbishop Rimbert, Kaiser Arnulf of Carinthia, the Carolingian King of East Francia, granted Bremen the rights to hold its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws. The city's first stone walls were built in 1032. Around that time trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city. In 1186 the Bremian Prince-Archbishop Hartwig of Uthlede and his bailiff in Bremen confirmed – without waiving the prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city – the Gelnhausen Privilege, by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city considerable privileges; the city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship. Property was to be inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner; this privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's status of imperial immediacy. But in reality Bremen did not have complete independence from the Prince-Archbishops: there was no freedom of religion, burghers still had to pay taxes to the Prince-Archbishops.
Bremen played a double role: it participated in the Diets of the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen as part of the Bremian Estates and paid its share of taxes, at least when it had consented to this levy. Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, while not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city against its consent. In 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000. Around this time the Hansekogge became a unique product of Bremen. In 1362, representatives of Bremen rendered homage to Albert II, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen in Langwedel. In return, Albert confirmed the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and Gerhard III, Count of Hoya, who since 1358 had held some burghers of Bremen in captivity; the city had to bail them out. In 1365 an extra tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the burghers and artisans, put down by the city council after much bloodshed.
In 1366, Albert II tried to take advantage of the dispute between Bremen's city council and the guilds, whose members had expelled some city councillors from the city. When these councillors appealed to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city; the fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. The city reserved an extra narrow gate, the so-called Bishop's Needle, for all clergy, including the Prince-Archbishop; the narrowness of the gate made it physically impossible. On the night of 29 May 1366, Albert's troops, helped by some burghers, invaded the city. Afterward, the city had to a
Esens, Lower Saxony
Esens is a municipality in the district of Wittmund, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated near approx. 14 km northwest of Wittmund, 20 km northeast of Aurich. Esens is the seat of the Samtgemeinde Esens. David Fabricius, major amateur astronomer and cartographer Johann Hülsemann, Lutheran theologian Philipp Heinrich Erlebach, composer Christian Everhard, Prince of East Frisia, Prince of East Friesland from the House of Cirksena Enno Rudolph Brenneysen and chancellor of East Friesland Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller, theologian and professor in Erlangen Theodore Thomas, founder of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra Gerhard Tappen, General of the Artillery Timo Schultz, German footballer Media related to Esens at Wikimedia Commons
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. It is the middle section of Frisia between West Frisia in the Netherlands and North Frisia in Schleswig-Holstein. Administratively Ostfriesland belongs to three districts, namely Aurich, Wittmund and to the city of Emden. There are 465,000 people living in an area of 3,144.26 square kilometres. There is a chain of islands off the coast, called the East Frisian Islands; these islands are Borkum, Norderney, Langeoog and Wangerooge. The geographical region of East Frisia was inhabited in Paleolithic times by reindeer hunters of the Hamburg culture. There were Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements of various cultures; the period after prehistory can only be reconstructed from archaeological evidence. Access to the early history of East Frisia is possible in part through archaeology and in part through the studying of external sources such as Roman documents; the first proven historical event was the arrival of a Roman fleet under Drusus in 12 BC.
The earlier settlements, known through material remnants but whose people's name for themselves remains unknown, led up to the invasion of Germanic tribes belonging to the Ingvaeonic group. Those were Chauci mentioned by Tacitus, Frisians; the region between the rivers Ems and Weser was thereupon inhabited by the Chauci. They were displaced by Frisian expansion after about 500, were partially absorbed into the Frisian society. Saxons settled the region and the East Frisian population of medieval times is based on a mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements; the Frisian element is predominant in the coastal area, while the population of the higher Geest area expresses more Saxon influence. Historical information becomes clearer by early Carolingian time, when a Frisian kingdom united the whole area from present-day West Frisia throughout East Frisia up to the river Weser, it was ruled by kings like the famous Radbod whose known names were still mentioned in folk tales until recent times. Frisia was a short-lived kingdom, it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in 689.
East Frisia became part of the Frankish Empire. Charles the Great divided East Frisia into two counties. At this time, Christianization by the missionaries Liudger and Willehad started. With the decay of the Carolingian empire, East Frisia lost its former bindings, a unity of independent self-governed districts was established, their elections were held every year to choose the "Redjeven", who had to be judges as well as administrators or governors. This system prevented the establishment of a feudalistic system in East Frisia during medieval times. Frisians regarded themselves as free people not obliged to any foreign authority; this period is called the time of the "Friesische Freiheit" and is represented by the still well-known salute "Eala Frya Fresena" that affirmed the non-existence of any feudality. Frisian representatives of the many districts of the seven coastal areas of Frisia met once a year at the Upstalsboom, located at Rahe. In the early Middle Ages, people could only settle on the higher situated Geest areas or by erecting in the marsh-areas "Warften", artificial hills to protect the settlement, whether a single farming estate or a whole village, against the North Sea floods.
In about 1000 AD the Frisians started building large dikes along the North Sea shore. This had a great effect on establishing a feeling of national independence; until the late Middle Ages Ostfriesland resisted the attempts of German states to conquer the coasts. During the 14th century adherence to the Redjeven constitution decayed. Catastrophes and epidemics such as pestilence intensified the process of destabilization; this provided an opportunity for influential family-clans to establish a new rule. As chieftains they took control over villages and regions in East Frisia. Instead, the system implemented in Frisia was a system of followship which has some similarity to older forms of rule known from Germanic cultures of the North. There was a specific relation of dependence between the inhabitants of the ruled area and the chieftain, but the people retained their individual freedom and could move where they wanted; the Frisians threatened the ships coming down the river. For this reason the state of Oldenburg made several attempts to subjugate East Frisia during the 12th century.
Thanks to the swampy terrain, the Frisian peasants defeated the Oldenburgian armies every time. In 1156 Henry the Lion failed to conquer the region; the conflicts lasted for the next few centuries. In the 14th century Oldenburg gave up on plans to conquer Ostfriesland, restricting their attacks to irregular invasions, killing livestock leaving; the East Frisian chieftains used to provide shelter for pirates such as the famous Klaus Störtebeker and Goedeke Michel, who were a threat to the ships of the powerful Hanseatic League which they attacked and robbed. In 1400 a punitive expedition of the Hanseatic League against East Frisia succeeded; the chieftains had to promise to discontinu