Balti language

Balti is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district and in the Kargil district of Ladakh, India. It is quite different from Standard Tibetan. Many sounds of Old Tibetan that were lost in Standard Tibetan are retained in the Balti language, it has a simple pitch accent system only in multi-syllabic words while Standard Tibetan has a complex and distinct pitch system that includes tone contour. Balti is spoken in the whole of Baltistan in the northern Pakistan and some parts of Northern India in Ladakh as well as Jammu and Kashmir, it is said that Purki dialect of Purgi and Suru-Kartse valleys come into the Balti group linguistically to some extent. However, Balti is spoken by people living in Baltistan, different parts of the states of northern India like Dehradun, Kalsigate, Ambadi in Uttrakhand and parts of Jammu and Kashmir like Jammu and Ramban in Jammu region, Hariparbat and Tral in Kashmir region. In the twin districts of Ladakh region it is spoken in Kargil city and its surrounding villages like Hardass, Lato and Balti Bazar and in Leh – Turtuk, Tyakshi including Leh city and nearby villages.

In some rural areas, the Shina people still speak the Shina language but they are few in number. Their language has many loanwords from Balti, as Balti is the majority language in Baltistan. Tournadre considers Balti and Purgi to be distinct languages because they do not have mutual intelligibility; as a group, they are termed Ladakhi–Balti or Western Archaic Tibetan, as opposed to Western Innovative Tibetan languages, such as Lahuli–Spiti. The missionary and linguist Heinrich August Jäschke classified Balti as one of the westernmost Tibetic languages. In his Tibetan–English Dictionary, he defines it as "Bal, the most westerly of the districts in which the Tibetan language is spoken". /l/ can have allophones heard as. /ɖ/ can have an allophone heard as. /s/ can have an allophone heard as. An allophone of /ɑ/ is heard as; the predominant writing system in use for Balti is the Perso-Arabic script, although there have been attempts to revive the Tibetan script, used between the 8th and the 16th centuries.

Additionally, there are two, nowadays extinct, indigenous writing systems, there have been proposals for the adoption of Roman– as well as Devanagari-based orthographies. The main script for writing Balti is the local adaptation of the Tibetan alphabet, called Yige in Baltiyul Baltistan, but it is written in the Persian alphabet within Pakistan. In 1985, Abadi added four new letters to the Tibetan script and seven new letters to the Persian script to adapt both of them according to the need of Balti language. Two of the four added letters now stand included in the Tibetan Unicode alphabet; the Tibetan script had been in vogue in Baltistan until the last quarter of the 14th century, when the Baltis converted to Islam. Since Persian script replaced the Tibetan script, but the former had no letters for seven Balti sounds and was in vogue in spite of the fact that it was defective. Adding the seven new letters has now made it a complete script for Balti. A number of Balti scholars and social activists have attempted to promote the use of the Tibetan Balti or "Yige" alphabet with the aim of helping to preserve indigenous Balti and Ladakhi culture and ethnic identity.

Following a request from this community, the September 2006 Tokyo meeting of ISO/IEC 10646 WG2 agreed to encode two characters which are invented by Abadi in the ISO 10646 and Unicode standards in order to support rendering Urdu loanwords present in modern Balti using the Yige alphabet. Since Pakistan gained control of the region in 1948, Urdu words have been introduced into local dialects and languages, including Balti. In modern times, Balti has no native names or vocabulary for dozens of newly invented and introduced things. Balti has retained many honorific words that are characteristic of Tibetan dialects and many other languages. Below are a few examples: No prose literature except proverb collections have been found written in Balti; some epics and sagas appear in oral literature such as the Epic of King Gesar, the stories of rgya lu cho lo bzang and rgya lu sras bu. All other literature is in verse. Balti literature has adopted numerous Persian styles of verse and vocables which amplify the beauty and melody of its poetry.

Nearly all the languages and dialects of the mountain region in the north of Pakistan such as Pashto and Shina are Indo-Aryan or Iranic languages, but Balti is one of the Sino-Tibetan languages. As such, it has nothing in common with neighboring languages except some loanwords absorbed as a result of linguistic contact. Balti and Ladakhi are related; the major issue facing the development of Balti literature is its centuries-long isolation from Tibet, owing to political divisions and strong religious differences and from its immediate neighbor Ladakh for the last 50 years. Separated from its linguistic kin, Balti is under pressure from more dominant languages such as Urdu; this is compounded by the lack of a suitable means of transcribing the language following the abandonment of its original Tibetan script. The Baltis do not have the awareness to revive their original script and there is no institution that could restore it and persuade the people to use it again. If the script is revived, it would need modification to express certain Urdu phonemes that occur in common loanwords within Balti.



Roeselare is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Roeselare proper and the towns of Beveren and Rumbeke; the name of the city is derived from two Germanic words meaning "reed" and "open space", i.e. a marsh in a forest glade. Roeselare's minor seminary is famous for having hosted the famous Flemish poets Guido Gezelle, Albrecht Rodenbach and missionary Jesuit Constant Lievens; the city is home to the Rodenbach brewery. Traces of early dwellings have been found in the area, including prehistoric flint tools, Gallo-Roman wells, a small 9th century Frankish building; the first mention of Roslar dates from a document dated 821 or 822, whereby the former domain of the Menapii called the Rollare villa in documents, was given to Elnon Abbey. According to legend, Baldwin Iron Arm, Count of Flanders, kidnapped Judith, the daughter of Charles the Bold in 862 in Senlis and brought her to a fortress that used to be where the present Rumbeke Castle stands.

The Roeselare area soon became part of the County of Flanders. The rights to build fortifications and to hold a public market date from 957, during the lordship of Baldwin III; the city received its charter of freedoms in the mid-13th century, period in which it built its first city hall and belfry. The manufacturing of cloth was the main driver of the local economy; the few defensive walls that the city had were no match against the forces of Maximilian of Austria, who utterly destroyed the city at the end of the 15th century. The market hall and Saint Michael church were rebuilt in the year 1500; the center of Roeselare belonged throughout history to the Fiefdom of Wijnendale and therefore fell under the responsibility of the House of Cleves in the 15th and 16th century and under the Dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg in the 17th and 18th century. The 16th century proved to be disastrous for the city as the Spanish rulers ruthlessly repressed any desire for autonomy in the Low Countries, both political and religious.

Iconoclasts destroyed most of the sacred art. The Eighty Years' War that followed put an end to the wool supply from England, which in turn resulted in the disappearance of the cloth industry in Roeselare. Starting with the reigns of Archdukes Albert and Isabella, the beginning of the 17th century was a lot kinder to Roeselare. New churches and religious houses were built and old ones repaired. New schools appeared in the city and the cloth industry found a new life; the second half of the century, was marked by the wars of Louis XIV and Marshal Turenne against the Spanish, with further plundering and misery. The Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678 made Roeselare a border city, a situation that encouraged smuggling rather than regular economic development; the 18th century was a prosperous period that saw the construction of the current city hall. In 1794, the area was the scene of a French victory over the Austrians; the victors imposed deep reforms on the country, such as a new legal system and the curtailment of religious freedoms, which lasted until the Concordat of 1802 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII.

Several members of the Rodenbach family of Roeselare took part in the events leading to Belgian Independence in 1830. Other members of the family became diplomats. Pedro and Alexander founded the brewery, still in operation today; the general economy, did not fare well as mechanization displaced many small artisans. The advent of the railway and the digging of a canal linking the city to the River Lys in the 1860s were beneficial. World War I stopped the economic boom in its tracks as the city became a large camp ground for the German troops fighting on the front lines in neighbouring Diksmuide. By the end of the war, two thirds of the city was destroyed due to British bombing. On 27 and 28 May 1940, the Belgian army lost its last stand here against the advancing Wehrmacht; this was followed by four years of German occupation. The city today is a regional center that provides commercial and media services, as well as a variety of occupations in the food industry, to the surrounding area; the rococo city hall on the central market square dates from the 18th century.

The city hall, market hall, belfry are classified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Rodenbach brewery was founded in 1821; the tour of the facilities includes an explanation of the process used to make this one-of-a-kind beer style. The Renaissance-style Rumbeke Castle is located within the Sterrebos forest. Now, it houses the company Busworld; the nearby Kazandmolen is the only one of the area's thirteen windmills to have survived until today. A unique bicycle museum can be visited in Roeselare; the Canal Roeselare-Leie, completed in 1872, provides not only an economic advantage but creates great cycling and walking opportunities also. The Roeselare railway station is an important place in the city with a car-free square and a busstation; the Eaststreet is an important shopping-street. Roeselare houses a whole family of giant puppets; the head of the family, Rolarius –, the alleged founder of the city – his wife Carlotta and son Opsinjoorke, as well as several other relatives, appear at festivities and carnivals, dancing to the beat of the giants’ song.

Roeselare houses some kind of folklore around the character named Peegie, he's a slick merchant, is in a way based on the real character of the town as a merchant town in his early days. Roeselare is the hometown of soccer team KSV Roeselare who play in

Harry Boyes (cricketer)

Harry Edward Boyes was a South African cricketer who played a single first-class match for Natal during the 1929–30 season. Boyes was the younger brother of George Wroughton Boyes, who played first-class cricket for Natal; the brothers were both born in present-day Lesotho. They represent two of only a handful of first-class cricketers to be born in that country. Harry Boyes played his only match for Natal against Border in Queenstown. A middle-order batsman, he made five runs in six in the second. Three other players – John Beveridge, Cecil Warner, Murray Whitehead – were making their first-class debuts in the match, part of 1929–30 season of the Currie Cup. Boyes died in Pietermaritzburg in 1979, aged 71