A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
For the play titled Solid South see Lawton Campbell The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as important to the interests of Democrats in the southern states. The Southern bloc existed between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. During this period, the Democratic Party controlled state legislatures. Southern Democrats disenfranchised blacks in every state of the former Confederacy at the turn of the 20th century; this resulted in a one-party system, in which a candidate's victory in Democratic primary elections was tantamount to election to the office itself. White primaries were another means that the Democrats used to consolidate their political power, excluding blacks from voting in primaries; the "Solid South" is a loose term referring to the states that made up the voting bloc at any point in time. The Southern region as defined by U. S. Census comprises sixteen states plus Washington, D.
C.—Delaware, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, D. C. West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas; this definition of the Southern region does not correspond to the states in the definition of the Solid South. For example, Maryland was considered part of the Solid South, where Missouri, though classified as a Midwestern state by the U. S. Census was. A former slave state, Missouri became dominated by the Democratic Party after the Civil War. After the 1960s and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, ensuring federal enforcement of registration and voting, African Americans in the region were able to register and vote, rejoining the political system for the first time since the turn of the 20th century. While nearly six million African Americans had left the region by in the Great Migration to other areas of the country, most of those who remained became affiliated with the Democratic Party, its national leaders had supported the civil rights movement. Around the same time, white conservatives began to shift to the Republican Party, which by 2000 attracted most of the white voters.
African Americans have elected numerous candidates of their choice Democrats, from districts where their votes have been concentrated. At the start of the American Civil War, there were 34 states in the United States, 15 of which were slave states. Eleven of these slave states seceded from the United States to form the Confederacy: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Texas, Arkansas and North Carolina; the slave states that stayed in the Union were Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky, they were referred to as the border states. In 1861, West Virginia was created out of Virginia, admitted in 1863 and considered a border state. By the time the Emancipation Proclamation was made in 1863 Tennessee was in Union control. Accordingly the Proclamation applied only to the 10 remaining Confederate states. Several of the border states abolished slavery before the end of the Civil War—the District of Columbia in 1862, Maryland in 1864, Missouri in 1865, one of the Confederate states, Tennessee in 1865, West Virginia in 1865.
However, slavery persisted in Delaware, 10 of the 11 former Confederate states, until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery throughout the United States on December 18, 1865. Abolition of slavery was a condition of the return of local rule in those states that had declared their secession; the Reconstruction era came to an end in 1877. Democratic dominance of the South originated in the struggle of white Southerners during and after Reconstruction to establish white supremacy and disenfranchise blacks; the U. S. government under the Republican Party had defeated the Confederacy, abolished slavery, enfranchised blacks. In several states, black voters were a close to it. Republicans supported by blacks controlled state governments in these states, thus the Democratic Party became the vehicle for the white supremacist "Redeemers". The Ku Klux Klan, as well as other insurgent paramilitary groups such as the White League and Red Shirts from 1874, acted as "the military arm of the Democratic party" to disrupt Republican organizing, intimidate and suppress black voters.
By 1876, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all the state governments in the South. From until the 1960s, state and local government in the South was entirely monopolized by Democrats; the Democrats elected all but a handful of U. S. Representatives and Senators, Democratic presidential candidates swept the region – from 1880 through 1944, winning a cumulative total of 182 of 187 states; the Democrats reinforced the loyalty of white voters by emphasizing the suffering of the South during the war at the hands of "Yankee invaders" under Republican leadership, the noble service of their white forefathers in "the Lost Cause". This rhetoric was effective with many Southerners. However, this propaganda was ineffective in areas, loyal to the Union during the war, such as eastern Tennessee. Eastern Tennessee welcomed U. S. troops as liberators, voted Republican after the war to the present. After white Democrats regained control of state legislatures, some blacks were elected to local offices and state legislatures in the South.
Black U. S. Representatives were elected from the South as late as the 1890s from overwhelmingly black areas. In the 1890s, the Populists developed a following in
Dorchester County, South Carolina
Dorchester County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,555, its county seat is St. George. Dorchester County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Dorchester County is named for its first settlement area, established by Congregationalists in 1696; these settlers applied the name "Dorchester" after their last residence in Dorchester, Massachusetts. Dorchester was not established as a separate county until 1897. However, when it was separately established, it came from parts of the neighboring Colleton and Berkeley counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 573 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. Bamberg County - west Berkeley County - east Charleston County - southeast Colleton County - southwest Orangeburg County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 96,413 people, 34,709 households, 26,309 families residing in the county; the population density was 168 people per square mile.
There were 37,237 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 71.05% White, 25.08% Black or African American, 0.73% Native American, 1.13% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. 1.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,709 households out of which 40.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.20% were non-families. 20.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.90% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 31.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,316, the median income for a family was $50,177. Males had a median income of $35,423 versus $24,405 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,840. About 7.10% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 136,555 people, 50,259 households, 36,850 families residing in the county; the population density was 238.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 55,186 housing units at an average density of 96.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.8% white, 25.8% black or African American, 1.5% Asian, 0.7% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.4% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 50,259 households, 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families, 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 35.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,034 and the median income for a family was $63,847. Males had a median income of $45,659 versus $32,221 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,497. About 9.0% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. The South Carolina Department of Corrections operates the Lieber Correctional Institution in Ridgeville in Dorchester County; the prison houses the state's male death row. North Charleston Harleyville Lincolnville Reevesville Ridgeville St. George Summerville Ladson Grover Byrds Dorchester Jedburg Knightsville Dorchester, South Carolina, abandoned settlement National Register of Historic Places listings in Dorchester County, South Carolina Dorchester County website US Census Bureau Data Geographic data related to Dorchester County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap Dorchester County History and Images
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census