Bill Gunn Dam
The Bill Gunn Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam with an un-gated spillway located off-stream in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of the Lockyer Valley; the resultant reservoir is called Lake Dyer. Located 1.5 kilometres west of the town of Laidley, the dam was developed to increase the capacity of the existing Lake Dyer, a natural lake adjacent to Laidley Creek, a tributary of Lockyer Creek. The dam is managed by SEQ Water; the 1,170 m long earthfill structure has a maximum height of 12 m and an overflow spillway which diverts excess water into Laidley Creek. The dam has a maximum surface area of 108 hectares. Water from the dam is used in the densely cropped Lockyer Valley. Bill Gunn Dam suffers from high drawdowns and summer evaporation which together with phosphate fertilizer creates significant blue green algae problems. In November 2005, during drought conditions in the area, the dam's water level declined to just 1%. A boating permit is not required, however a maximum of eight boats are allowed on the lake at once.
A single concrete boat ramp and some facilities for visitors, including campers, are available at a lakeside caravan park, managed by the local council. The dam is stocked with silver perch and golden perch, while bony bream, spangled perch and eel-tailed catfish breed naturally. A Stocked Impoundment Permit is required to fish in the dam; the poor water quality means that fish caught in the dam may, at times of an algae outbreak, be a health hazard if eaten. List of dams in Queensland Sweetwater Fishing, Lake Dyer/Bill Gunn Dam
The Coolmunda Dam is an earth–fill embankment dam with a gated spillway across the Macintrye Brook, a tributary of the Dumaresq River, located in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia. The main purposes of the dam are for potable water supply; the impounded reservoir is called the Lake Coolmunda. The dam is located 13 km east of Inglewood, just off the Cunningham Highway. Two smaller creeks, Bracker Creek and Sandy Creek provide inflows to the reservoir. Completed in 1968 the earth -- fill dam structure is 2,826 metres long; the 690-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 69,000-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 1,760 square kilometres, the dam creates Lake Coolmunda at an elevation of 314.7 metres above sea level, with a surface area of 1,645 hectares at a maximum depth of 16.1 metres when at full capacity. The controlled spillway with radial gates has a discharge capacity of 6,860 cubic metres per second; the dam is managed by SunWater. There is three picnic areas with good facilities as well as a caravan park.
Free bush camping by the lake was once permitted. In 2013, a new camping area was opened to the public. There are no boating restrictions in place. Parts of the lake contain stretches of standing timber and along the northern bank there are submerged fence posts the demark a former creek bed. Eel-tailed catfish and spangled perch are found in the lake's waters and the Lake Coolmunda Restocking Group Inc. stocks it with murray cod, silver perch and golden perch. The introduced species european carp has been found in the lake. A stocked impoundment permit is required to fish in the dam. List of dams in Queensland "Coolmunda Dam". Picture Australia. National Library of Australia
The Atkinson Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam across the Buaraba Creek and a forming lagoon, located near Lowood in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of farming land in the lower Lockyer Valley; the resultant reservoir is called Lake Atkinson. Located in the locality of Atkinsons Dam, 22 kilometres northeast of Gatton in the Somerset Region local government area of West Moreton region, the dam wall was constructed in 1970 over the natural Atkinson Lagoon; the dam wall is 9 metres high and 2,088 metres long and holds back 30,500 megalitres of water when at full capacity. The surface area of the reservoir is 556 hectares and the catchment area is 4,105 square kilometres; the uncontrolled spillway has a discharge capacity of 439 cubic metres per second. The dam is connected to Seven Mile Lagoon via a 1.2-kilometre channel. Facilities at the dam include picnic tables and two caravan parks. A maximum of 15 boats are permitted on the lake at any one time.
In mid-2006 the dam was empty due to drought conditions in Australia. Fish stocking of silver perch, southern saratoga and golden perch has resulted in an excellent fishery, although the dry periods, high evaporation rates and drawdowns for irrigation in summer, result in low water levels as well as oxygen depleted water which makes fishing much more difficult. Other fish that are present includes spangled perch. List of dams in Queensland Media related to Atkinson Dam at Wikimedia Commons Atkinson's Dam Fishing Information, pictures & Water Level Gauge
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
The Wivenhoe Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam with a concrete spillway across the Brisbane River in South East Queensland, Australia. The dam wall is located about 80 kilometres by road from the centre of Brisbane; the primary purpose of the dam is the supply of potable water for the Ipswich regions. In addition, the dam provides for flood mitigation control and for recreation; the impounded reservoir is called Lake Wivenhoe and the dam, the lake and a narrow strip of surrounding land forms a locality called Lake Wivenhoe. Wivenhoe Dam was planned in the water storage dam; the 1974 Brisbane flood highlighted the need for flood protection for South East Queensland. The lake forms part of the water storages for the Wivenhoe Power Station; the earth and rock dam structure is 2,300 metres long. The 4,140-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 1,165,000-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 7,020 square kilometres that includes much of the south–western slopes of the D'Aguilar National Park, the dam creates Lake Wivenhoe, with a surface area of 1,094 hectares, a maximum shoreline of 462 kilometres, an average annual evaporation level of 1,872 mm.
The gated spillway, with five steel crest gates that are 12 metres wide and 16.6 metres high, has a discharge capacity of 12,000 cubic metres per second. The dam has an auxiliary spillway to stop over-topping; the dam is managed by SEQ Water since July 2008 when most dam assets were transferred to the statutory authority, as part of a water security project in the South East Queensland region, known as the South East Queensland Water Grid. Wivenhoe was investigated for a dam site in the 1890s and again in 1933. Further investigations into a dam began in the mid 1960s. In November 1971, Government approval was given to proceed with construction. Acquisition of lands of the submerged portion of the dam began in March 1973. In 1976, the Government gave approval to proceed with construction of the pumped storage hydro-electric scheme. Total cost for the hydro-electric project was A$450 million. In March 1977, the first construction contract was awarded; the dam was designed by the Queensland Water Resources Commission.
In June 1983, the completed dam mitigated a severe flood that may have caused damage equal to the 1893 Brisbane flood. Construction work was complete by 1985. To provide the 337.5 square kilometres of land required for the dam, 200 properties were acquired. The catchment area has an average annual rainfall of 940 millimetres; the dam holds twice as much water as Sydney Harbour and holds about seven more capacity than the Hinze Dam on the Gold Coast. Wivenhoe Dam contributes to the Gold Coast's water supply; the dam was designed as a response to the floods that damaged Brisbane in 1974. Built in the late 1970s – early 1980s as a multifunction facility by a consortium of construction companies including Thiess Brothers, Wivenhoe Dam provides a safe water supply to the people of Brisbane and adjacent regions. Additionally, Wivenhoe Dam serves as the lower storage in a pumped-storage, hydro-electric generating facility, the Wivenhoe Power Station; the upper reservoir is formed by Splityard Creek Dam, of earth and rock construction, with a capacity of 28,700 megalitres.
Under normal conditions the dam supplies water via pipeline to both Tarong Power Station and Tarong North Power Station, but during drought conditions only supplies water to Tarong North. During a flood the dam is designed to hold back 1.45 million megalitres of additional water for flood mitigation or 225% capacity. Under the water release plan, defined by law, excess water must be released from the dam within seven days or a week of it reaching 100% capacity. Between April 2004 and September 2008, a 165-metre wide auxiliary spillway with a three-bay fuse plug was installed on the western portion of the dam to further mitigate flooding. In 2007, a feasibility study concluded that Wivenhoe Dam failed to satisfy the Australian National Committee on Large Dams guidelines on acceptable flood capacity. Brisbane water levels reduced to under 20% of capacity, having had no substantial inflow for five years; the largest recorded inflows for the dam occurred in January 2011. On 11 January 2011, Wivenhoe Dam reached its highest level 191% of normal water supply storage capacity, as it held back floodwater.
Because it is an embankment dam, it was not designed to spill over its crest or overtop and there is a risk that if waters spilled over the crest, this could erode the dam wall and cause the dam to fail. In this scenario the water level would need to rise to 225% capacity. To prevent this, the dam was built to include a second emergency spillway. During the peak of the flooding event the dam water level reached 60 centimetres below the auxiliary spillway height. In 2006, emergency plans for placing treated recycled water from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme into the dam to supplement supply were made public. Sixty million litres of recycled water were to be pumped into the dam by early 2009. Increasing rainfall from 2008 resulted in the plan for recycled water to enter the region's drinking water supply to be postponed. Lake Wivenhoe is a camping and outdoor recreation destination. Camping sites are provided at Captain Lumley Hill Areas; the managed camping facilities at Captain Logan Camp include hot showers and toi
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
South West Queensland
South West Queensland is a remote region in the Australian state of Queensland which covers 319,808 km2. The region lies to the south of Central West Queensland and west of the Darling Downs and includes the Maranoa district and parts of the Channel Country; the area is noted for its cattle cotton farming, opal mining and oil and gas deposits. At the federal level the whole region is encompassed by the Division of Maranoa. Local Government areas included in the region are Maranoa Region, Shire of Balonne, Shire of Paroo, Shire of Murweh, Shire of Bulloo and the Shire of Quilpie. South West Queensland has a population of 26,489; the region is serviced by the ABC Western Queensland radio station. Aboriginal society traded objects based on need; the South West region of Queensland was the primary source of the traded plant Duboisia hopwoodii, from which a traditional chewing tobacco was made. Eastern parts of the region around the upper reaches of the Warrego River were explored by Thomas Mitchell in 1845.
It wasn't until after William Landsborough explored the area during his 1862 expedition that settlers began to take up pastoral runs. In 1860, Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills began an expedition from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria to explore large areas of inland Australia which remained unknown to the European settlers. A pivotal meeting place or depôt camp used by the expedition was located at Bullah Bullah Waterhole on Cooper Creek. After failing to reach the northern coastline due to the mangrove swamps of the Flinders River delta the party of four set off for the return journey short on supplies. Charles Gray died on the way leaving three of the party who managed to return to Cooper Creek on 21 April 1861, only to find the other half of the party had just left for Menindee nine hours earlier. A tree at the camp was used to mark the location of a food cache, it became the resting place for Burke who died of malnourishment after they ran low on supplies amid controversial and tragic circumstances.
Wills died from weakness and malnourishment downstream at Breerily Waterhole. John King was the sole survivor of the party; the expedition's journals and maps inspired pastoralists and opened up of vast tracts of Queensland to pastoral settlement. Western parts of the region receive an average of 150 mm annual rainfall. Further east around St. George, receives an average of 500 mm per year. Limited access to water in the region restricted early pastoralism. After artesian bore water had been discovered and developed the lands were able to support sheep and not just cattle. A Cobb & Co factory and was built at Charleville in 1893. During the 1880s coach services expanded into the region. Cobb & Co was Australia's most famous historical coaching firm and once provided passenger and mail services across the country, they produced an eight-passenger coach that gained repute for its strength and the forgiving suspension. In 1922, QANTAS began its first regular flights from Charleville; the northern extent of the Sturt Stony Desert lies within the region around the location known as Cameron Corner.
Part of the Cooper Basin is located in the region. The basin contains natural gas deposits in Australia. Near Roma at Hospital Hill, Australia's first natural gas strike was made. Oil was found in the region in 1961; the Eromanga Basin located in South West Queensland has been explored and developed for petroleum production. Commercial quantities of gas were first discovered in 1976 and oil in 1978; the Tookoonooka crater is a large impact crater located in the region, however it is not visible at the surface. Major towns of South West Queensland include Charleville, Augathella, Thargomindah, St George and Cunnamulla. Cunnamulla has the biggest wool-loading station on the Queensland railway network. Australia's largest cotton farm, Cubbie Station near St George, covers 93,000 hectares. Smaller towns in the region include Amby, Jackson, Muckadilla, Surat, Yuleba, Bollon, Dirranbandi, Mungindi, Thallon, Eulo, Tuen, Yowah, Bakers Bend, Nive, Thargomindah, Noccundra, Norley, Quilpie, Cheepie and Toompine.
Cooladdi is a ghost town with a population of just six. Historical geographical records have suggested changes in the flow of local tertiary sandstone springs have occurred since the 1880s. Blasting was used to enhance spring flow and causing its destruction as with bores and dams. Only 45% of springs that were documented in the south west queensland records, remain. Waterways coursing through South West Queensland include the Warrego, Merivale and its tributary the Bokhara River, Culgoa and Cooper Creek; the Balonne is used for an extensive irrigation network. The Bulloo River system is the only closed river system in Australia. A number of national parks have been declared in the region, including Alton National Park, Chesterton Range National Park, Culgoa Floodplain National Park, Currawinya National Park, Diamantina National Park, Idalia National Park, Lake Bindegolly National Park, Mariala National Park, Thrushton National Park and Tregole National Park. Bowra Sanctuary is a nature reserve near Cunnamulla, managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy.
Major roads in the region include the Mitchell Highway out of outback New South Wales and the Balonne Highway which travels east from St George to Cunnamulla. The Warrego Highway travels in an east/west direction across the north of the region; the northern tip of the Castlerea