Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot. The period of cultivation is terminated when the soil shows signs of exhaustion or, more when the field is overrun by weeds; the length of time that a field is cultivated is shorter than the period over which the land is allowed to regenerate by lying fallow. This technique is used in LEDCs or LICs. In some areas, cultivators use a practice of slash-and-burn as one element of their farming cycle. Others employ land clearing without any burning, some cultivators are purely migratory and do not use any cyclical method on a given plot. Sometimes no slashing at all is needed where regrowth is purely of grasses, an outcome not uncommon when soils are near exhaustion and need to lie fallow. In shifting agriculture, after two or three years of producing vegetable and grain crops on cleared land, the migrants abandon it for another plot.
Land is cleared by slash-and-burn methods—trees and forests are cleared by slashing, the remaining vegetation is burnt. The ashes add potash to the soil; the seeds are sown after the rains. Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture or a cultivation system, in which, at any particular point in time, a minority of'fields' are in cultivation and a majority are in various stages of natural re-growth. Over time, fields are cultivated for a short time, allowed to recover, or are fallowed, for a long time. A cultivated field will be cleared of the natural vegetation and planted in crops again. Fields in established and stable shifting cultivation systems are cultivated and fallowed cyclically; this type of farming is called jhumming in India. Fallow fields are not unproductive. During the fallow period, shifting cultivators use the successive vegetation species for timber for fencing and construction, thatching, clothing, carrying devices and medicines, it is common for fruit and nut trees to be planted in fallow fields to the extent that parts of some fallows are in fact orchards.
Soil-enhancing shrub or tree species may be planted or protected from slashing or burning in fallows. Many of these species have been shown to fix nitrogen. Fallows contain plants that attract birds and animals and are important for hunting, but most tree fallows protect soil against physical erosion and draw nutrients to the surface from deep in the soil profile. The relationship between the time the land is cultivated and the time it is fallowed are critical to the stability of shifting cultivation systems; these parameters determine whether or not the shifting cultivation system as a whole suffers a net loss of nutrients over time. A system in which there is a net loss of nutrients with each cycle will lead to a degradation of resources unless actions are taken to arrest the losses. In some cases soil can be irreversibly exhausted in less than a decade; the longer a field is cropped, the greater the loss of soil organic matter, cation-exchange-capacity and in nitrogen and phosphorus, the greater the increase in acidity, the more soil porosity and infiltration capacity is reduced and the greater the loss of seeds of occurring plant species from soil seed banks.
In a stable shifting cultivation system, the fallow is long enough for the natural vegetation to recover to the state that it was in before it was cleared, for the soil to recover to the condition it was in before cropping began. During fallow periods soil temperatures are lower and water erosion is much reduced, nutrient cycling becomes closed again, nutrients are extracted from the subsoil, soil fauna decreases, acidity is reduced, soil structure and moisture characteristics improve and seed banks are replenished; the secondary forests created by shifting cultivation are richer in plant and animal resources useful to humans than primary forests though they are much less bio-diverse. Shifting cultivators view the forest as an agricultural landscape of fields at various stages in a regular cycle. People unused to living in forests cannot see the fields for the trees. Rather they perceive an chaotic landscape in which trees are cut and burned randomly and so they characterise shifting cultivation as ephemeral or'pre-agricultural', as'primitive' and as a stage to be progressed beyond.
Shifting agriculture is none of these things. Stable shifting cultivation systems are variable adapted to micro-environments and are managed by farmers during both the cropping and fallow stages. Shifting cultivators may possess a developed knowledge and understanding of their local environments and of the crops and native plant species they exploit. Complex and adaptive land tenure systems sometimes exist under shifting cultivation. Introduced crops for food and as cash have been skillfully integrated into some shifting cultivation systems, its disadvantages include the high initial cost. Shifting cultivation was still being practised as a viable and stable form of agriculture in many parts of Europe and east into Siberia at the end of the 19th century and in some places well into the 20th century. In the Ruhr in the late 1860s a forest-field rotation system known as Reutbergwirtschaft was using a 16-year cycle of clearing and fallowing with trees to produce bark for tanneries, wood for charcoal and rye for flour.
Swidden farming was practised in Siberia at least until the 1930s, using specially sel
The Sharda River demarcates Nepal's western border with India. It descends from 3,600 m at Kalapani to 200 m as it enters the Terai plains in Uttar Pradesh, flowing southeast across the plains to join the Ghaghra river, a tributary of the Ganges, it is called Mahakali River in Nepali: महाकाली नदी, mahākālī nadī, शारदा नदी, shāradā nadī in Hindi, Kali Gad or Kali Ganga in Uttarakhand. It is named after Śāradā, another name for Saraswati, the goddess of learning, it offers potential for hydroelectric power generation. The river is proposed as source for one of the many projects in the Himalayan component of the Indian Rivers Inter-link project; the traditional source of the Kali is the pond of the Kali temple at Kalapani. The geographic sources, are some five kilometers further north and some thousand metres higher: streams emerging from glaciers along the watershed with the uppermost Humla Karnali. India's border with China's Tibet Autonomous Region follows this watershed. Below Kalapani the river has been Nepal's western border with India since the Sugauli Treaty concluding the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16.
The Kali receives the right-bank Dhauliganga—not to be confused with the Alaknanda tributary—at Tawaghat. It passes a town Dharchula and receives Gori Ganga at Jauljibi, exiting the high mountains that reach into the alpine zone. At 29º36'N, 80º24'E the first important left-bank tributary from Nepal, the Chameliya joins after flowing southwest from Nepal's Gurans Himal. A bazaar town Jhulaghat is on both sides of the river; the Kali receives the Sarju River at 29º27'N, 80º15'E. The area around Pancheshwar is called Kali Kumaon; the Kali exits the Hill Region at Jogbudha Valley and receives two tributaries: Ladhiya at 29º12'N, 80º14'E and Ramgun at 29º9'N, 80º16'E. It enters the lower Shivalik Hills. Tanakpur town is just above Dam of Sharda Reservoir at 29º3"N, 80º7"E where water is diverted into an irrigation canal; the river exits the last hills into the Terai plains, passing towns Mahendranagar. At 29º0'N, 80º7'E the Iran-Indonesia AH2 Asian highway route crosses as Nepal's east-west Mahendra Highway connects with India's National Highway 125.
The international border turns west of the river to follow a previous channel for some 10 km. Here the river crosses into Uttar Pradesh; the international border bends east and leaving the river after following it for 223 km. Now the river's name changes to Sharda, it flows southeast another 100 km in Uttar Pradesh to join the Ghaghra as a right-bank tributary at 27º39'N, 81º17'E, some 30 km. NNW of Bahraich; the river attracted media attention in 2007, over the Kali river goonch attacks that cost three lives by an exceptionally large catfish of the Bagarius yarrelli species. Efforts to capture the offending fish were shown in episodes of a documentary television program River Monsters; the Pancheshwar Dam, a joint venture of India and Nepal for irrigation and hydro-electric power generation was proposed on this river, in 1995, named as Sarayu or Kali River. However and India have been unable to reach a decision on the 5,600-MW Pancheshwar multipurpose dam project, in part because of political changes both in Nepal and India.
The project became a priority again in 2013, negotiations restarted. The Tanakpur Hydroelectric Project was commissioned in April 1993 by the NHPC, with a barrage on the Sharda River near the town of Tanakpur in the district of Champawat. In Nepal, it lies in the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal and in the Mahakali Zone which has four administrative districts – Baitadi District with Baitadi as its headquarters, Dadeldhura District with Dadeldhura as its headquarters, Darchula District with Darchula as its headquarters and Kanchanpur District with Mahendranagar as its headquarters. In India it lies along the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state, Pithoragarh district, Champawat district and part of Udham Singh Nagar district fall under the Sharda basin. No large tributary joins the Sharda between Upper Lower Sharda barrages in India. In Uttar Pradesh, part of Lakhimpur Kheri district is under the Sharda basin. Mahakali is one of the five major river basins of Nepal, shared with India and has a total basin area of 14871 km up to Upper Sharda Barrage, about 34 per cent of which lies in Nepal.
The total catchment area is 17,818 km up to Lower Sharda Barrage. Notable national parks are the Shuklaphanta National Park in Nepal and Dudhwa National Park in India; the Shuklaphanta National Park was established in 1976 as a wildlife reserve and covers an area of 305 km2 in the Kanchanpur District of the Far-Western Region, Nepal. The protected area supports a wide range of nationally and globally important biodiversity, including 46 mammal species; the prevalent vegetation is grassland. Forest stands comprise sal and sissoo; this protected area hosts the worldwide largest herd of swamp deer, 423 bird species including the largest population of Bengal florican. It has a common boundary with the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in the south and west, formed by the Mahakali River, is bordered on the east by the Chaudhar River and in the north by a forest belt and cultivations; the Dudhwa National Park is located in Uttar Pradesh in India. The northern edge of the Park lies along the Indo-Nepal border, the southern boundary is formed by the Suheli River.
The terrain of the park varies from dense sal forests and swampy marshes. It has diverse wildlife population. Another res
Kumauni or Kumaoni or Kumai are people from Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India. In colloquial language, people of Kumaon are referred to as "Pahari". Kumain is addressed to person having origin in Kumaon region; the word Kumain is a direct derivative of Kumaoni. They include all those who speak the Kumaoni language or any of its numerous dialects, living in the Almora, Champawat, Nainital, Udham Singh Nagar, districts of Uttarakhand and Doti, Bajang region of Nepal; the Kumaon Regiment, established at Ranikhet in 1917, still gets its recruits from the Kumaonis of the Kumaon division and the Ahir from the plains. There were widespread opposition to British rule in various parts of Kumaon; the Kumauni people the Champawat District, rose in rebellion against the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 under the leadership of Kalu Singh Mahara. UNESCO designated Kumaoni as language in the unsafe category which requires consistent conservation efforts. After harvesting season people relax, rejoice and sing, thus a festival is generated.
At the transition of the sun from one constellation to another Sankranti is observed. Each Sankranti has a festival connected to it somewhere in Kumaon. Fooldeyi, Harela, Ghee Sankranti, Khatarua and Ghughutiya are the most-observed Sankranties throughout the region. Other festivals have the bearings in the moon and thus the dates change in the Gregorian Calendar. Basant Panchami, Shiv Ratri, Samvatsar Parwa, Ram Navami, Batsavitri, Janmastmi and Deepawali are some of the auspicious occasions. Dasshera festival starts in Kumaon with the performance of Ramlila, itself unique as it is based on the musical rendering of the katha or story of Lord Ram based on the theatrical traditions set by Uday Shankar while on his stay in Almora; these traditions were further enriched by Brijendra Lal Sah. Known as the Almora or Kumaon style, Ramlila has been recognised by UNESCO as one of the representative styles of Ramlila in India. Kumaoni theatre, which developed through its'Ramleela' plays evolved into a modern theatre form through the efforts of theatre stalwarts like Mohan Upreti and Dinesh Pandey and groups like'Parvatiya Kala Kendra' and'Parvatiya Lok Kala Manch'.
Besides this the famous Hindi poet, Sumitranandan Pant hailed from Kausani, district Bageshwar. Trans World Radio – 7320 Hz Kumaoni food is simple and comprises of vegetables and pulses, it is nutritious to enable survival in the hard environment of the hills and cold climate. Vegetables like potato, colocacia leaves, pumpkin and many others are grown locally by the agrarian populace and consumed in various forms. Bharat Ratna Govind Ballabh Pant, Union Home Minister, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Premier of United Provinces and B. D. Pande, Union Cabinet Secretary, Governor of Punjab, Governor of Bengal, Administrator of Chandigarh Kamlesh_Nagarkoti Rishabh_Pant Unmukt Chand N. D. Tiwari Anushka Sharma
Uttarakhand known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is referred to as the Devabhumi due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being created from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh, it borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north. The state is divided into two divisions and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts; the interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times; the region formed a part of the Uttara Kuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism.
Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighboring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, culture and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s; the natives of the state are called Uttarakhandi, or more either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India. Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words uttara meaning'north', khaṇḍa meaning'land', altogether meaning'Northern Land'.
The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of "Kedarkhand" and "Manaskhand". Uttarakhand was the ancient Puranic term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas. However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led central government and Uttar Pradesh state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act; the name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage. In August 2006, Union Cabinet of India assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament.
The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, since January 1, 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand. Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, paleolithic stone tools, megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic practices in the area; the Pauravas, Mauryans, Kunindas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Raikas, Karkotas, Parmars or Panwars, the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. It is believed. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet, it is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy persisted here; however and Kumaon were restored to nominal Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.
Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley in Kumaon. The significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and remodelled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji and Tharu people. By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period and new forms of painting developed. Modern-day Garhwal was unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom, it was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.
The Garhwal Kingdom was re-established from a smaller region in Tehri. Af
Pithoragarh district is the easternmost Himalayan district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is landscaped with high Himalayan mountains, snow-capped peaks, valleys, alpine meadows, waterfalls, perennial rivers and springs; the flora and fauna of the area have rich ecological diversity. Pithoragarh has many temples and ruined forts from the once flourishing reign of the warrior Chand Kingdom; the geographical area of the district is 7,110 km2. At the 2011 census, the total population of the district was 485,993; the total literacy rate was 82.93 percent. Pithoragarh town, located in Saur Valley, is its headquarters; the district is within the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state. The Tibet plateau is situated to the north and Nepal is to the east; the Kali River flows south, forming the eastern border with Nepal. The Hindu pilgrimage route for Mount Kailash-Lake Manasarovar passes through this district via Lipulekh Pass in the greater Himalayas; the district is administratively divided into six tehsils: Munsiari.
Naini Saini Airport is the nearest civil airport, but it does not have regular scheduled commercial passenger service. The mineral deposits present in the district are magnesium ore, copper ore and slate; some attribute the name to King Pithora Chand from the Chand Dynasty, while others cite Prithvi Raj Chauhan of the Chauhan Rajputs, who built a fort named Pithora Garh in the Saur Valley. After its conquest by Bhartpal, the Rajwar of Uku, in the year 1364, Pithoragarh was ruled for the rest of the 14th century by three generations of Pals, the kingdom extended from Pithoragarh to Askot. According to a tamrapatra from 1420, the Pal dynasty, based out of Askot, was uprooted by Chand kings. Vijay Brahm took over the empire as King. Following the death of Gyan Chand, in a conflict with Kshetra Pal, the Pals were able to regain the throne, it is believed that Bharti Chand, an ancestor of Gyan Chand, had replaced Bams, the ruler of Pithoragarh, after defeating them in 1445. In the 16th century, the Chand dynasty again took control over Pithoragarh town and, in 1790, built a new fort on the hill where the present Girls Inter College is situated.
This fort was destroyed by the Indian government in 1962 after China attacked India. The Chand rule, at its zenith, is seen as one of the most prominent empires in Kumaon, their rule coincides with a period of cultural resurgence. Archeological surveys point towards the development of art forms in this period, they contribute to built the distic and they are kind and initiative and they came from Nepal where they were king and did many social developing things. British rule began on 2 December 1815. Pithoragarh remained a tehsil under Almora district until 1960 when its status was elevated to that of a district. There was an army cantonment, a church, a mission school, resulting in the spread of Christianity in the region. In 1997, part of Pithoragarh district was separated to form the new Champawat district. Kumaoni, with its numerous variations, is the most spoken language; the language is written in Devanagari script. Hindi is the common language between the outsiders; those who visit the place do not find any difficulty as Hindi is the most common link language everywhere.
English is spoken by some people specially teachers and lecturers engaged in educational institution and students in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Shauka tribe of tehsil Dharchula speak 3 dialects of Runglo called Byansi spoken in Byans valley, Bangbani spoken in Chaudas valley and Darmia in Darma valley; these are spoken languages. The Van Rawat tribe speaks their own unique Kumaoni variant. There are several Sino-Tibetan languages of the West Himalayish branch are spoken in Pithoragarh district; these include the Rawat language, was spoken in Pithoragarh district and is now extinct. Pithoragarh town, being in a valley, is warm during summer and cool during winter. During the coldest months of December and January, the tropical and temperate mountain ridges and high locations receive snowfall and have an average temperature of 5.5–8.0 °C. Pithoragarh district has extreme variation in temperature due to the large variations in altitude; the temperature rises from mid-March through mid-June.
The areas above 3,500 metres remain in a permanent snow cover. Regions lying at 3,000–3,500 metres become snowbound for four to six months. At places like the river gorges at Dharchula, Jhulaghat and Sera, temperatures reach 40 °C; the annual average rainfall in lower reaches is 360 centimetres.. ISBN 8170998980. After June the district receives monsoon showers. Winter is a time for transhumance – the seasonal migration of the Bhotiya tribe with their herds of livestock to lower, warmer areas. Winter: December–March Summer: March–June Season of general rains: North–West monsoon – mid-June to mid-September Season of retreating monsoon: September–November According to the 2011 census Pithoragarh district has a population of 485,993 equal to the nation of Suriname; this gives it a ranking of 546th among the 640 Districts of India. The district has a population density of 69 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.13%. Pithoragarh has a sex ratio of 1021 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 82.93%.
Native tribes in the district include the Van Shaukas. Va
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle