The Dilwara Temples are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These Jain temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastupala-Tejpal, Jain ministers of Dholka, between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings; the five marble temples of Dilwara are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain pilgrimage sites in the world; the temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex. Although Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan, Dilwara temples are believed to be the most beautiful example of architectural perfection; the ornamental detail spreading over the minutely carved ceilings, doorways and panels is marvellous. There are five temples in each with its own unique identity.
Each is named after the small village. These are: Vimal Vasahi, dedicated to Shri Rishabhadev. Luna Vasahi, dedicated to the 22nd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Neminatha. Pittalhar, dedicated to the first Jain Tirthankar, Shri Rishabhadev. Parshvanath, dedicated to the 23rd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Parshvanatha. Mahavir Swami, dedicated to the last Jain Tirthankara, Shri Mahaviraswami. Among all the five legendary marble temples of Dilwara, the most famous of those are the Vimal Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi temples; this temple carved out of white marble was built in 1031 A. D. by Vimal Shah, a minister of Bhima I, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. The temple is dedicated to Lord Rishabha; the temple stands in an open courtyard surrounded by a corridor, which has numerous cells containing smaller idols of the tirthankaras. The richly carved corridors, arches, and'mandaps' or porticoes of the temple are amazing; the ceilings feature engraved designs of lotus-buds, petals and scenes from Jain mythology. The Navchowki is a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, each containing beautiful carvings of different designs supported on ornate pillars.
The Gudh mandap is a simple hall once you step inside its decorated doorway. Installed here is the idol of Adi Nath or Lord Rishabdev, as he is known; the mandap is meant for Aarti to the deity. The Hastishala was constructed by Prithvipal, a descendant of Vimalsha in 1147-49 and features a row of elephants in sculpture with the members of the family riding them; the Luna Vasahi temple is dedicated to Lord Neminath. This magnificent temple was built in 1230 by two Porwad brothers - Vastupal and Tejpal - both ministers of a Virdhaval, the Vaghela ruler of Gujarat; the temple built in memory of their late brother Luna was designed after the Vimal Vashi temple. The main hall or Rang mandap features a central dome from which hangs a big ornamental pendent featuring elaborate carving. Arranged in a circular band are 72 figures of Tirthankars in sitting posture and just below this band are 360 small figures of Jain monks in another circular band; the Hathishala or elephant cell features 10 beautiful marble elephants neatly polished and realistically modelled.
The Navchowki features some of the most magnificent and delicate marble stone cutting work of the temple. Each of the nine ceilings here seems to exceed the others in grace; the Gudh mandap features a black marble idol of the 22nd tirthankar Neminatha. The Kirthi Stambha is a big black stone pillar; the pillar was constructed by Maharana Kumbha of Mewar. The remaining three temples of Dilwara are smaller but just as elegant as the other two; this temple was built by a minister of Sultan Begada of Ahmedabad. A massive metal statue of the first tirthankara, Rishabha Dev, cast in five metals, is installed in the temple; the main metal used in this statue is'Pital', hence the name'Pittalhar'. The Shrine consists of a main Gudh mandap and Navchowki, it seems that the construction of the corridor was left unfinished. The old mutilated idol was replaced and installed in 1468-69 AD weighing 108 maunds according to the inscription on it; the image was cast by an artist'Deta', 8 ft. high, 5.5 ft. broad and the figure is 41 inches in height.
In Gudh Mandap on one side, a big marble Panch-Tirthi sculpture of Adinath is installed. Some shrines were constructed in 1490, before construction was abandoned; this temple, dedicated to Lord Parshvanath, was built by Mandlik and his family in 1458-59. It consists of the tallest of all the shrines at Dilwara. On all the four faces of the sanctum on the ground floor are four big mandaps; the outer walls of the sanctum comprise beautiful sculptures in gray sandstone, depicting Dikpals, Yakshinis and other decorative sculptures comparable to the ones in Khajuraho and Konark. This is a small structure dedicated to Lord Mahavira. Being small it is a marvelous temple with carvings on its walls. On the upper walls of the porch there are pictures painted in 1764 by the artists of Sirohi; the temples have undergone repairs time to time. Allauddin Khilji had attacked and damaged the temples in 1311. In 1321, Bijag and Lalag of Mandore had undertaken repairs. In 1906, Lallubhai Jaichand of Patan had the temples repaired and reconsecrated on April 25, 1906, under the supervision of Yati Hemasagar.
Extensive repairs were again undertaken during 1950-1965 by Anandji Kalyanji with the work done by the Sompura firm Amritlal Mulshankar Trivedi. The older marble has a yellow patina, where as
Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception; such a soul is revered in Jainism. In Jainism, moksha is the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective. With the right view and efforts all souls can attain this state; that is why Jainism is known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation". According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra:Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation. From the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls in two categories–bhavya and abhavya. Bhavya souls are those souls who have faith in mokṣa and hence will make some efforts to achieve liberation.
This potentiality or quality is called bhavyata. However, bhavyata itself does not guarantee mokṣa, as the soul needs to expend necessary efforts to attain it. On the other hand, abhavya souls are those souls who cannot attain liberation as they do not have faith in mokṣa and hence never make any efforts to attain it. According to Jainism, the Ratnatraya or "three Gems", samyagdarśana, samyagjñāna and samyakchāritra, together constitute the mokṣamarga or the path to liberation. According to Acharya KundaKunda's Samayasara:Belief in the nine substances as they are is right faith. Knowledge of these substances without doubt, delusion or misapprehension, is right knowledge. Being free from attachment etc. is right conduct. These three, constitute the path to liberation. Samyak Darsana or rational perception is the rational faith in the true nature of every substance of the universe. Samyak Caritra or rational conduct is the natural conduct of a living being, it consists in following austerities, engaging in right activities and observance of vows and controls.
Once a soul secures samyaktva, mokṣa is assured within a few lifetimes. The fourteen stages on the path to liberation are called Gunasthāna; these are: Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. Nirvāna means final release from the karmic bondage; when an enlightened human, such as an Arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāna. Technically, the death of an Arhat is called their nirvāṇa, as he has ended his worldly existence and attained liberation. Moksha follows nirvāṇa. However, the terms moksa and nirvana are used interchangeably in the Jain texts. An Arhat becomes the liberated one, after attaining nirvana. In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, a fasting day.
A liberated soul dwell in Siddhashila with infinite faith, infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite perfection. According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya: Having achieved the ultimate goal, knowing everything that needs to be known, enjoying eternal and supreme bliss, the Omniscient, Effulgent Soul, rests permanently in the Highest State. Nirvana Kanda Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 9781134501656 Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K. Acarya Pujyapada's Istopadesa – the Golden Discourse, ISBN 978-81-903639-6-9, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jaini, Padmanabh S.
The Jaina Path of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1578-5 Jaini, Padmanabh S. ed. Collected Papers On Jaina Studies, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1691-9
Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style. Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka, it is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road, 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore; the sacred places are spread over two hills and Vindyagiri among the village at the foothill.
Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town. The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning; some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox. This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant; the place is designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs. Shravanabelagola has two hills and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was built there by Ashoka in the third century BC.
Chandragiri has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya; the 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill. It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue; the base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, who erected the statue for his mother; every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka or Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste and gold and silver flowers. Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month; the next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030. The statue is referred to as Gommateshwara by Kannadigas, but the Jains refer to the same as "Bahubali".
Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries. In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are Jaina and cover a extended period from 600 to 1830 A. D; some refer to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola. That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A. D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon. More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD.
A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century; these inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here, it is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Halegannada characters; some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature. On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India. 49% votes went in favor of the statue. 1. Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A. D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.
2. Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century; the middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture. 3. Shantinatha Basadi:This temple is dedicated to Shantinatha, it was built around 1200 A. D. 4. Parshwanatha Basadi: This is a beautiful structure with decorated outer walls. The
Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara. The word Digambara is a combination of two words: dig and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara monks do not wear any clothes; the monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers and shastra. One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda, he authored Prakrit texts such as the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena and Siddhasena Divakara; the Satkhandagama and Kasayapahuda have major significance in the Digambara tradition. Relics found from Harrapan excavations such as seals depicting Kayotsarga posture, idols in Padmasana and a nude bust of red limestone, give insight into the antiquity of the Digambara tradition; the presence of gymnosophists in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice.
Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in period. Ancient Tirthankara statues found in Mathura are naked; the oldest Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE. Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes. According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu. Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali. Digambara tradition consider Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the word Digambara is a combination of two Sanskrit words: dik and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.
Digambara monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be parigraha, which leads to attachment. A Digambara monk has 28 mūla guņas; these are: five. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury and shastra; the head of all monastics is called Āchārya. The Āchārya has 36 primary attributes in addition to the 28 mentioned above; the monks perform kayotsarga daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, toes directed forward. Female monastics in Digambara tradition are known as aryikas. Statistically, there are more Digambara nuns. Digambar Akhara', along with other akharas participates in various inter-sectarian religious activities including Kumbh Melas; the Digambara Jains worship nude idols of tirthankaras and siddha. The tirthankara is seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga posture; the "sky-clad" Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond.
His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, abstraction. The Digambara sect of Jainism rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the Svetambaras. According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Dharasena guided two Āchāryas and Bhutabali, to put the teachings of Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the two Āchāryas wrote Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama on palm leaves, considered to be among the oldest known Digambara texts. Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic. On, some learned Āchāryas started to restore and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas. Digambaras group the texts into four literary categories called anuyoga; the prathmanuyoga contains the universal history, the karananuyoga contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas. Most eminent Digamabara authors include Kundakunda, Pujyapada, Akalanka, Vidyanandi and Asadhara.
The Digambara tradition can be divided into modern community. Mula Sangha can be further divided into heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included Nandi, Sena and Deva sangha. Heterodox traditions included Dravida, Yapaniya and Mathura sangha. Other traditions of Mula sangha include Deshiya Balatkara Gana traditions. Modern Digambara community is divided into various sub-sects viz. Terapanthi, Taranpanthi and Totapanthi. Digambara community was divided into Terapanthi and Bisapanthi on the acceptance of authority of Bhattaraka; the Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ethics of Jainism
Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct. One for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the śrāvaka. Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries; these vows are observed by śrāvakas and are termed as anuvratas. Ascetics observe these fives vows more and therefore observe complete abstinence; these five vows are: Ahiṃsā Satya Asteya Brahmacharya Aparigraha According to Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:All these subdivisions are hiṃsā as indulgence in these sullies the pure nature of the soul. Falsehood etc. have been mentioned separately only to make the disciple understand through illustrations. Apart from five main vows, a householder is expected to observe seven supplementary vows and last sallekhanā vow. Mahavrata are the five fundamental observed by the Jain ascetics. According to Acharya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakaraņdaka śrāvakācāra:Abstaining from the commitment of five kinds of sins by way of doing these by oneself, causing these to be done, approval when done by others, through the three kinds of activity, constitutes the great vows of celebrated ascetics.
Ahimsa is formalised into Jain doctrine as the foremost vow. According to the Jain text, Tattvarthsutra: "The severance of vitalities out of passion is injury." Satya is the vow to not lie, to speak the truth. A monk or nun must not speak the false, either be silent or speak the truth. According to Pravin Shah, the great vow of satya applies to "speech and deed", it means discouraging and disapproving others who perpetuate a falsehood; the underlying cause of falsehood is passion and therefore, it is said to cause hiṃsā. Asteya as a great vow means not take anything, not given and without permission, it applies to anything if unattended or unclaimed, whether it is of worth or worthless thing. This vow of non-stealing applies to action and thought. Further a mendicant, states Shah, must neither encourage others to do so nor approve of such activities. According to the Jain text, Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya:Driven by passions, taking anything that has not been given be termed as theft and since theft causes injury, it is hiṃsā According to Tattvarthasutra, five observances that strengthen this vow are: Residence in a solitary place Residence in a deserted habitation Causing no hindrance to others, Acceptance of clean food, Not quarreling with brother monks.
Brahmacharya as a great vow of Jain mendicants means celibacy and avoiding any form of sexual activity with body, words or mind. A monk or nun should not enjoy sensual pleasures, which includes all the five senses, nor ask others to do the same, nor approve of another monk or nun engaging in sexual or sensual activity. According to Tattvarthsutra, "Infatuation is attachment to possessions". Jain texts mentions that "attachment to possessions is of two kinds: attachment to internal possessions, attachment to external possessions; the fourteen internal possessions are: Wrong belief The three sex-passions Male sex-passion Female sex-passion Neuter sex-passion Six defects Laughter Liking Disliking Sorrow Fear Disgust Four passions Anger Pride Deceitfulness GreedExternal possessions are divided into two subclasses, the non-living, the living. According to Jain texts, both internal and external possessions are proved to be hiṃsā; the five great vows apply only to ascetics in Jainism, in their place are five minor vows for householders.
The historic texts of Jains accept that any activity by a layperson would involve some form of himsa to some living beings, therefore the minor vow emphasizes reduction of the impact and active efforts to protect. The five "minor vows" in Jainism are modeled after the great vows, but differ in degree and they are less demanding or restrictive than the same "great vows" for ascetics. Thus, brahmacharya for householders means chastity, or being sexually faithful to one's partner. States John Cort, a mendicant's great vow of ahimsa requires that he or she must avoid gross and subtle forms of violence to all six kinds of living beings. In contrast, a Jain householder's minor vow requires no gross violence against higher life forms and an effort to protect animals from "slaughter, beating and suffering". Apart from five fundamental vows seven supplementary vows are prescribed for a śrāvaka; these include four śikşā vratas. The vow of sallekhanâ is observed by the votary at the end of his life, it is prescribed both for the householders.
According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:The man who incessantly observes all the supplementary vows and sallekhanâ for the sake of safeguarding his vows, gets fervently garlanded by the maiden called'liberation'. Digvrata- restriction on movement with regard to directions. Bhogopabhogaparimana- vow of limiting consumable and non-consumable things Anartha-dandaviramana- refraining from harmful occupations and activities. Samayika- vow to meditate and concentrate periodically. Desavrata- limiting movement to certain places for a fixed period of time. Prosadhopavâsa- Fasting at regular intervals. Atihti samvibhag- Vow of offering food to the ascetic and needy people. An ascetic or householder who has observed all
Girnar Jain temples
The group temples of Jainism are situated on the Mount Girnar situated near Junagadh in Junagadh district, India. There temples are sacred to the Svetambara branches of Jainism. According to Jain religious beliefs, the 22nd Tirthankara Neminath became an ascetic after he saw the slaughter of animals for a feast on his wedding, he came to Mount Girnar to attain salvation. He Moksha on the Mount Girnar, his bride-to-be Rajulmati renounced and became a nun. Girnar was anciently called Raivata or Ujjayanta, sacred amongst the Jains to Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankar, a place of pilgrimage before 250 BCE. Situated on the first plateau of Mount Girnar at the height of about 3800 steps, at an altitude of 2370 ft above Junagadh, still some 600 ft below the first summit of Girnar, there are Jain temples with marvelous carvings in marble; some 16 Jain temples here form a sort of fort on the ledge at the top of the great cliff. These temples are along the west face of the hill, are all enclosed; the Neminath temple is the largest temple of the group standing in a quadrangular court 195 x 130 feet.
The temple was rebuilt by Sajjana, the governor of Saurashtra appointed by Jayasimha Siddharaja, in 1129 CE. There is an inscription on one of the pillars of the mandapa stating that it was repaired in 1278 CE, it consists of two rangamandapa halls with two porches and a central shrine, which contains a large black image of Neminath sitting in the lotus position holding a conch in his palm. The principal hall in front of the central shrine measures across from door to door inside 41' 7" x 44' 7" from the shrine door to that leading out at the west end; the roof is supported by 22 square columns of granite coated with white lime while the floor is of tessellated marble. Round the central shrine is a circumambulatory passage with many images in white marble including that of a Ganesha and a Chovishi or slab of the twenty four Tirthankara. Between the outer and inner halls are two shrines; the outer hall measures 38' x 21' 3". The outer hall has two small raised platforms paved with slabs of yellow stone, covered with representations of feet in pairs called padukas, which represent the 2452 feet of the Gandharas, first disciples of Tirthankaras.
On the west of this is a closed entrance with a porch overhanging the perpendicular scarp of the hill. On two of the pillars of the mandapa are inscriptions dated 1275, 1281, 1278 — dates of restoration; the enclosure in which these rangamandapas and the central shrine are situated, is nearly surrounded inside by 70 little cells, each enshrining a marble image on a bench, with a covered passage running round in front of them lighted by a perforated stone screen. The principal entrance was on the east side of the court. On south side, there is a passage leading with granite pillars in lines. Opposite the entrance is a recess containing two large black images. Behind these figures is a room from, a descent into a cave, with a large white marble image, concealed, it has a slight hollow in the shoulder, said to be caused by water dropping from the ear, whence it was called Amijhara, "nectar drop". There are few shrines in the court dedicated to Jain monks. In the North porch are inscriptions which state that in Samwat 1215 certain Thakurs completed the shrine, built the Temple of Ambika.
There is a small temple of Adinath behind the Neminath temple facing west, built by Jagmal Gordhan of Porwad family in VS 1848 under guidance of Jinendra Suri. There are three temples to the left of the passsage from the north porch of the Neminath temple. Of them, the temple on the south contains a colossal image of Adinatha, the first Tirthankar like that at Palitana temples; the image is in standing meditating position On the throne of this image is a slab of yellow stone carved in 1442, with figures of the 24 Tirthankars. On the north, opposite the Adabadji temple, there is Panchabai's or Panchmeru temple, built in VS 1859, it contains spires each enshrining quadruple images. West of Panchmeru temple, there is a large temple; the temples is called Merakavasahi or Merakavashi due to false identification. Madhusudan Dhaky noted that the Merakavasahi was a small shrine somewhere near east gate of Neminatha temple while the current temple is large one and outside the north gate of the Neminatha temple.
Based on its architecture, Dhaky dates the temple to 15th century and notes that it is mentioned as Kharataravasahi built or restored by Bhansali Narpal Sanghavi in the old itineraries of Jain monks. The temple is depicted in the Shatrunjaya-Giranar Patta dated 1451 CE in Ranakpur temple so it must have built before it; the temple may have been built as early as 1438 CE. Dhaky believes that the temple may have been built on the site of the Satyapuravatara Mahavira's temple built by Vastupala. According to an anecdote said by modern Jain writers, the minister of Chaulukya king Siddharaja Jayasimha, built the Neminatha temple using the state treasury; when he collected the funds to return as a compensation, the king declined to accept it so the funds were used to built the temple. Dhaky concludes that the anecdote is false. Sahastraphana Parshwanatha, the image, consecrated in 1803 CE by Vijayajinendra Suri, is the central deity in the temple; the temple housed the golden image of Mahavira and brass images of Shanti