Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil. Located in the westernmost part of the country with a two hours time difference from Brasília, Acre is bordered clockwise by Amazonas to the north and northeast, Rondônia to the east, the Bolivian department of Pando to the southeast, the Peruvian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto to the south and west, it occupies an area of 152,581.4 km2. Its capital and largest city is Rio Branco. Other important places include Cruzeiro do Sul, Sena Madureira, Tarauacá and Feijó; the intense extractive activity, which reached its height in the 20th century, attracted Brazilians from many regions to the state. From the mixture of sulista, Southeast Brazil and indigenous traditions arose a diverse cuisine, which unites sun-dried meat with pirarucu, a typical fish of the region; such dishes are seasoned with a sauce made from manioc. Fluvial transport, concentrated on the Juruá and Moa rivers, in the western part of the state, the Tarauacá and Envira Rivers in the northwest, is the principal form of circulation between November and June, when the rain leaves the BR-364 impassable, which connects Rio Branco to Cruzeiro do Sul.
The name, which passed from the river to the territory in 1904, to the state in 1962 originates from the Tupi word a'kir ü "green river" or from the form a'kir, of the tupi word ker, "to sleep, to rest". There is a hypothesis that Acquiri derives from Yasi'ri, or Ysi'ri, meaning "flowing or swift water". On the voyage which he made on the Purús River in 1878, the colonizer, João Gabriel de Carvalho Melo, wrote from there to the merchant, Viscount of Santo Elias, asking him for goods to be sent to the "mouth of the Aquiri River". Since in Belém the proprietor of the commercial establishment and the employees were not able to understand João Gabriel's handwriting, or because he had hastily written Acri or Aqri, instead of Aquiri, the goods and the invoice arrived to the colonizer as having been sent to the Acre River. Acre possesses some nicknames: the End of Brazil, The Rubber Tree State, the Latex State and the Western End; the native inhabitants of Acre are called acrianos, in the singular acriano.
Until the entry in force of the Orthographic Agreement of 1990, the correct spelling was acreano in the singular and in the plural acreanos. In 2009, with the new orthographic agreement, the change generated controversy between the Academy of Letters of Acre and the Brazilian Academy of Letters, alleging that the change would mean the denial of the state's historical and cultural roots, changing the last letter of the toponym from "E" to "I"; the state of Acre occupies an area of 152,581 km2 in the extreme west of Brazil. It is located at 70º00'00" west longitude from the Prime Meridian and at 09º00'00" latitude south of the equator. In Brazil, the state is part of the North Region, forming borders with the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, with two countries: Peru and Bolivia. All of the terrain of the state of Acre is part of the low sandstone plateau, or terra firme, morphological unit which dominates most of the Brazilian Amazon; these terranes rise, in Acre, from the southeast to the northeast, with tabular topography in general.
In the extreme west is found the Serra da Contamana or Serra do Divisor, along the western border, with the highest altitudes in the state. About 63 % of state's surface is lies between 300 m in height; the climate is hot and humid, of the Am type in the Köppen climate classification system, the monthly average temperatures vary between 24 and 27 °C, being the lowest average of the North Region. The rainfall reaches an annual total of 2,100 mm, with a clear dry season in the months of June and August; the Amazon Rainforest covers all of the state territory. Rich in rubber trees of the most valuable species and Brazil nut trees, the forest guarantees that Acre is the greatest national producer of rubber and nuts. Acre's principal rivers navigable during the wet season, cross the state with parallel courses which will only converge outside of its territory; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, tropical forests in the Americas are more species-rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest; the region of present-day Acre is thought to have been inhabited by Pre-Columbian civilizations since at least 2,100 years ago. Evidence includes complex geoglyphs of this age found in the area, which suggest that the natives who crafted them had a advanced knowledge on this technology. Since at least the early 15th century, the region has been inhabited by peoples who spoke Panoan languages. In the mid-18th century, the region was colonized by the Spanish and became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian and Bolivian wars of independence, which ended in 1826, the region and large p
The Mawé known as the Sateré or Sateré-Mawé, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the state of Amazonas. They have an estimated population of about 13,350; the Sateré-Mawé were the first to a popular stimulant. The name "Sateré-Mawé" comes from Sateré, meaning "caterpillar of fire", Mawé, meaning "intelligent and curious parrot", they are called Maué, Mawé, Maragua, Sataré, Arapium. The Mawé speak the Sateré-Mawé language. A grammar book was developed for the language in 1986; the Sateré-Mawé people intentionally use bullet ant stings as part of their initiation rites to become a warrior. The ants are first rendered unconscious by submerging them in a natural sedative and hundreds of them are woven into a glove made out of leaves, stinger facing inward; when the ants regain consciousness, the boy slips the glove onto his hand. The goal of this initiation rite is to keep the glove on for a full five minutes; when finished, the boy's hand and part of his arm are temporarily paralyzed due to the ant venom, he may shake uncontrollably for days.
The only "protection" provided is a coating of charcoal on the hands to confuse the ants and inhibit their stinging. To complete the initiation, the boys must go through the ordeal a total of 20 times over the course of several months. Alvarez, Gabriel O. Pós-dradiviano: parentesco e ritual.: sistem de parentesco e rituais de afinabilidade os sateré-mawé. Série Antropologia, no.403. Brasília: Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de Brasília, 2006. Gordon, Hildy Rubin, Jessica Siegel. Gremlins Faces in the Forest. Nature video library. South Burlington, VT: WNET/Thirteen, 1998. Groes-Green, Christian. Courageous Caterpillars and Images of the Whiteman: Storytelling and Exchange as Indigenous Strategies in the Face of Discrimination in Manaus, Brazil. MA Thesis, Department of Anthropology. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2002. Lattas, Andrew. "Anthropological Knowledge and Bolivip, Papua New Guinea: Exchanging Skin." Ethnos 74.3: 433-435. Lorenz, Sônia da Silva. Sateré-Mawé: os filhos do guaraná.
Coleção Projetos, 1. São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Centro de Trabalho Indigenista, 1992. Salzano F. M. T. A. Weimer, M. H. L. P. Franco, M. H. Hutz. "Demography and Genetics of the Sateré-Mawé and their Bearing on the Differentiation of the Tupi Tribes of South America." Journal of Human Evolution 14.7: 647-655. Vilaça, Robin Wright. Native Christians: Modes and Effects of Christianity Among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. Vitality of indigenous religions. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. Uggé, Henrique. Mitología sateré-maué. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones ABYA-YALA, 1991. Sateré-Mawé artwork, National Museum of the American Indian
The Juruá River is a southern affluent river of the Amazon River west of the Purus River, sharing with this the bottom of the immense inland Amazon depression, having all the characteristics of the Purus as regards curvature and general features of the low, half-flooded forest country it traverses. For most of its length the river flows through the Purus várzea ecoregion; this is surrounded by the Juruá-Purus moist forests ecoregion. It rises among the Ucayali highlands, is navigable and unobstructed for a distance of 1,133 miles above its junction with the Amazon, it has a total length of 1,500 miles, is one of the longest tributaries of the Amazon. The 251,577 hectares Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, created in 1997, is on the left bank of the river as it meanders in a northeast direction through the municipality of Carauari; the lower Juruá River forms the western boundary of the 187,982 hectares Baixo Juruá Extractive Reserve, created in 2001. Since 2018 the lower portion of the river in Brazil has been designated as a protected Ramsar site
The Purus River or Rio Purús is a tributary of the Amazon River in South America. Its drainage basin is 63,166 km2, the mean discharge is 8,400 m³/s; the river shares its name with the Alto Purús National Park as well as the Purús Province, one of the four provinces of Peru in the Ucayali Region. The Purus River rises in Peru, it defines the boundary between Peru and Brazil in the centre of the state of Acre runs for a short distance along the boundary of the 231,555 hectares Santa Rosa do Purus National Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit created in 2001 after it is joined by the Santa Rosa River. It flows north east through Manoel Urbano It runs through a continuous forest at the bottom of the great depression, lying between the Madeira River, which skirts the edge of the Brazilian sandstone plateau, the Ucayali River, which hugs the base of the Andes. In the state of Amazonas the river runs through the 133,637 hectares Arapixi Extractive Reserve, created in 2006 and past the town of Boca do Acre at the end of the BR-317 highway.
Further down, it forms the west boundary of the 256,000 hectares Purus National Forest, created in 1988. From the town of Pauini down to the town of Lábrea the river is bordered by the 604,209 hectares Médio Purus Extractive Reserve, created in 2008. Below this it runs through the 197,986 hectares Canutama Extractive Reserve along the stretch between the towns of Lábrea and Canutama. In the lowest reaches the river flows through the 1,008,167 hectares Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve, established in 2003, which holds a large part of its floodplain, it enters the Amazon River west of the Madeira River, which it parallels as far south as the falls of the latter stream. William Chandless found its elevation above sea level to be only 107 feet 590 miles from its mouth, it is one of the most crooked streams in the world, its length in a straight line is less than half of its length following its curves. It is only a drainage ditch for the half-submerged, lake-flooded district it crosses.
Its width is uniform for 1000 miles up, for 800 miles its depth is never less than 45 feet. The Purús red howler is a species of howler monkey native to Brazil and north of Bolivia. Peckoltia brevis, a kind of catfish, is found in the middle and upper Amazon within the Purus river basin. Most of the central and lower sections of the river flow through the Purus várzea ecoregion. In the municipality of Tapauá, the river flows through the 233,864 hectares Abufari Biological Reserve, a protected area. In 2008, a unknown pre-Columbian civilization was discovered in the upper region of the river close to the Bolivian border. After much of the forest in the region was cleared for agricultural use, satellite pictures revealed the remains of large geometric earthworks. Amazon rainforest Esperanza, Ucayali Brazilian Amazon Peruvian Amazon River basin Catauxi Purus River.. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 12, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Map of Amazon State with Purus River, Brazilian Ministry of Transport "Peru Preserves Biodiversity in Vast New Park".
Environment News Service. 1 April 2005. Retrieved 5 November 2014. "Alto Purús National Park". Enjoy Peru. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2014
The Matsés or Mayoruna are an indigenous people of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. The tribe's ancestral lands are being encroached by illegal logging practices and poaching; these homelands are located between the Galvez rivers. The Matsés have guarded their lands from outsider colonials; the 3,200 Matsés people speak the Matsés language which belongs to the Panoan language family. In the last thirty years, they have become a settled people living in permanent forest settlements. However, they still rely on gathering for most of their subsistence, their main source of income comes from selling peccary hides and meat. The word Matsés comes from the word for "people" in the Matsés language, they are known as the Mayoruna. The name Mayoruna comes from the Quechua language and means "river people." In Brazil the Matsés people are referred to as Mayorunas, while in Peru they are called Matsés. The Matsés have an elaborate knowledge of the animal life of the surrounding rainforest. Little is imported into the Matsés communities and most of what they need for survival comes from the rainforest.
Traditionally, they hunted with arrows. Their cuisine includes the sweet plaintain beverage chapo. In the animist Matsés worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world; the Matsés believe that animal spirits determine success in hunting. They are careful not to offend animal spirits and have many taboos for hunting different animal species. Plants trees, hold a complex and important interest for the Matsés; each plant is associated with an animal spirit. When a plant product is used as a medicine, it is applied externally and the shaman talks to the animal spirit associated with that plant. Bows and Arrows are the main weapons of the Matsés culture, although they are rarely used in personal conflict, they are only used for hunting animals. The Matsés were never known to use war clubs, they used blowguns, similar to the Matis tribe of Brazil. Matsés families practice polygamy. Cross-cousin marriages are most common. Marriages are between cousins, with a man marrying the daughter of his father’s sister.
The Matsés made their first permanent contact with the outside world in 1969 when they accepted SIL missionaries into their communities. Before that date, they were at-war with the Peruvian government, which had bombed their villages with napalm and sent the Peruvian army to invade their communities. At present, relations between the Matsés and the Peruvian government are peaceful. Dan James Pantone and Bjorn Svensson describe the Matsés first peaceful contact with the outside world in an article in Native Planet; the Matsés are divided and politically unorganized. Each village has its own chief and there is little centralized authority for the tribe. Lack of political organization has made it difficult for the Matsés people to obtain medical assistance from the outside world; the Matsés have title to the Matsés Indigenous Reserve, established in 1998. The reserve measures 457000 ha. Despite having title to their own reserve, living conditions for the Matsés have deteriorated. According to a recent article in Cultural Survival Quarterly by Dan James Pantone, living conditions have become much worse, to the point that the survival of the Matsés people is in jeopardy.
At present, there is a proposal to expand the Matsés Communal Reserve to give the Matsés people control over their traditional hunting grounds. In September 2013, the Matsés chief announced plans to start logging the Matsés Native Community lands and rejected environmental organisations that he claims are manipulating Matsés students. In response, Matsés students said that the chief is being manipulated by loggers and demanded that the Matsés chief be sacked for not knowing how to defend the interests of his people. To make matters more complex for the Matsés people, in September 2013 the Matsés mayor of the Yaquerana District was publicly accused of corruption by the municipal regulators who blocked his ability to use the municipal checking account; the municipality where the Matsés live has had a history of fraud and the ex-mayor, Helen Ruiz Torres, was sentenced to six years in jail for embezzling municipal funds. Acaté Amazon Conservation is a non-profit, founded in 2013, but existed since 2006 as a loose organization of its founders, Christopher Herndon, MD, William Park.
Acaté operates projects in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest, integrates culture and ecology into all of its projects. Its current projects include documenting and preserving the indigenous medicinal knowledge of the Matsés by completing the first traditional medicine encyclopedia written in the Matsés language, resiliency projects / programs utilizing permaculture techniques, providing the Matsés economic opportunities with renewable non-timber natural products. Nu-nu, a snuff used by Matsés men Romanov S. D. M. Huanan, F. S. Uaqui, D. W. Fleck; the Traditional Life of the Matsés. CAAAP Press: Lima, Peru. 148 pp. Acaté Amazon Conservation. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Mayoruna Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. New Amazonian reserve saves over a million acres in Peru Mayoruna art, National Museum of the American Indian Matsés Indigenous Traditions
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
The Yaminawá are an indigenous people who live in Acre, Madre de Dios, Bolivia. Their homeland is Brazil; the Yaminawá translated to "people of the axe." They are called the Iaminaua, Yaminawá, Yaminahua, as well as Yuminahua, Yambinahua and other variants. The Yaminawá name was given to them by outsiders, they have several autonyms including Bashonawá, Marinawá, Xixinawá, or Yawanawá. The Yaminawá language belongs to the Panoan language family. Linguists estimate, its ISO 639-3 code is YAA. Few Yaminawá people speak Spanish or Portuguese, their literacy rate is low; the Yawanawa community is led by Tashka and Laura Yawanawa. Tashka Yawanawa had served as Chief of the Yananawa since 2001. In just a few years and his wife Laura have worked to increase Yawanawa territory, reinvigorate Yawanawa culture, establish economically and empowering relationships with the outside world; the Yawanawa community and their allies are developing a new model of sustainability that allows the Yawanawa to protect the rainforest and engage with the outside world on their own terms, without losing their cultural and spiritual identity.
Yaminawá in the Encyclopedia of Indigenous Peoples in Brazil Video of Yaminawa mourning songs