Solidaridad is one of the eleven municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Its municipal seat is the town of Playa del Carmen. Solidaridad is home to the Maya archaeological site of Xcaret; the municipality has some rich continental sites including the ecotourism park of Xcaret. Prior to the creation of the Municipality of Tulum, the municipality was situated between latitudes 20° 45' and 19° 46' north and longitudes 86° 57' and 88° 05' west, had an area of 4,245.67 square kilometres. Today, it borders the municipalities of Benito Juárez and Lázaro Cárdenas to the north and Tulum to the south; the ecotourism park of Xel-Ha and the Calica limestone quarry are not part of Solidaridad as they belong to the neighboring municipality of Cozumel. These are the only two mainland locations for the municipality of Cozumel with sizes of 90 hectares and 11.9 hectares respectively. All of the limestone from Calica is exported to the US, the quarry has its own docks and serves visiting cruise ships.
Like most of the Yucatan Peninsula, Solidaridad is entirely flat with a gentle slope towards the sea, so from west to east, most of the area never reaches an altitude above 25 metres above sea level. Like the rest of the peninsula's surface the land has a limestone base that does not allow the formation of surface water flows such as rivers and streams, the water instead form flows in underground rivers that sometimes rise to the surface in the cenotes. Lakes and cenotes are the major water bodies of the municipality; the largest localities are: Solidaridad is one of the youngest municipalities in the country: it was formed on July 28, 1993, by decree of the State Congress during the administration of Mario Villanueva Madrid. At this time the municipality of Cozumel was split into two, with the mainland section constituting the new municipality of Solidaridad. On March 13, 2008, Solidaridad was split in two when the new Municipality of Tulum was formed, as a result its land area and population were adjusted.
The municipality has a population of 159,310 according to the results of the Population and Housing Census of 2010 conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, of these, 83,468 are men and 75,842 are women. By this time, Tulum Municipality was separated from Solidaridad. Most of its population are immigrants from the southeastern states of Mexico. Official Municipo Solidaridad website—
Othón P. Blanco, Quintana Roo
Othón P. Blanco is one of the eleven subdivisions of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, it had a 2010 census population of 244,553 persons. Its municipal seat is the city of Chetumal, which serves as the state capital; the municipality is named after Othón P. Blanco Núñez de Cáceres; the municipal government is headed by the municipal president of Othón P. Blanco, it used to be the fifth-largest municipality in land area in Mexico, at 17,189.7 square kilometres, occupying more than a third of the entire state. But on February 2, 2011, it lost about 40% of its territory when Bacalar Municipality was created out of Othón P. Blanco; the 2010 census enumerated 727 populated localities plus 804 unpopulated localities. The largest localities are listed below. In early 2011, the municipality was split into two parts, with many of the localities now comprising part of the newly created Bacalar Municipality. A full list of those departing localities was not available. Dzibanché Kohunlich Oxtankah Chakanbakán Kinichna Ichkabal Zamora The vegetation found in the municipality of Othon P. Blanco is of medium forest, spanning most of the interior of the municipality and there are more representative plant species are the sapodilla, the ramon, the guayabillo and Chaco, more isolated areas within the municipality is populated by high forest, where you can find the siricote, the palo de tinte and mahogany, to the southwest of the town are engaged in areas of rainfed agriculture and irrigation, the main crop of sugarcane, along with the Caribbean coast can be traced mangroves.
The fauna is rich and varied, among the main species is the manatee, marine mammal that lives in bays and lagoons lictors and has become a symbol of the region, one can find species such as agouti, wild boar, white-tailed deer, otters and birds. For the protection of animal and plant species in Othon P. Blanco there are three zones of ecological reserve, the area of Protection of Flora and Fauna Uaymil located on the northeast coast of the territory, near Mahahual, the Manatee Sanctuary in the Bay of Chetumal and the Biosphere Reserve Banco Chinchorro. Located on the coast, the eco resort of Kabah-na offers only four cabins in a hexagon shape to circulate the air and thatched roofs which keep the interior temperature cool. A complex system of solar panels provides energy 24 hours a day as well as hot water; the resort offers restaurant, beach bar, outdoor showers, beach volleyball, snorkeling equipment and more. At Laguna de Bacalar is Rancho Encantado, located on the edge of a lagoon, it consists of twelve cabins palm-thatched roofs, handmade furniture and decorated with Mexican accents.
The cabins are surrounded by tropical gardens in which live more than 150 species of birds among the tropical fruit orchards
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon or completely. There may be coral cays on the rim; the coral of the atoll sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height; the word atoll comes from the Dhivehi word atholhu. OED Its first recorded use in English was in 1625 as atollon. Charles Darwin recognized its indigenous origin and coined, in his The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, the definition of atolls as "circular groups of coral islets", synonymous with "lagoon-island". More modern definitions of atoll describe them as "annular reefs enclosing a lagoon in which there are no promontories other than reefs and islets composed of reef detritus" or "in an morphological sense, a ring-shaped ribbon reef enclosing a lagoon".
Most of the world's atolls are in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has no large groups of atolls, other than eight atolls east of Nicaragua that belong to the Colombian department of San Andres and Providencia in the Caribbean. Reef-building corals will thrive only in warm tropical and subtropical waters of oceans and seas, therefore atolls are only found in the tropics and subtropics; the northernmost atoll of the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24′ N, along with other atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The southernmost atolls of the world are Elizabeth Reef at 29°58′ S, nearby Middleton Reef at 29°29′ S, in the Tasman Sea, both of which are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory; the next southerly atoll is Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands Group, at 24°40′ S. Bermuda is sometimes claimed as the "northernmost atoll" at a latitude of 32°24′ N. At this latitude coral reefs would not develop without the warming waters of the Gulf Stream. However, Bermuda is termed a pseudo-atoll because its general form, while resembling that of an atoll, has a different mode of formation.
While there is no atoll directly on the equator, the closest atoll to the Equator is Aranuka of Kiribati, with its southern tip just 12 km north of the equator. In most cases, the land area of an atoll is small in comparison to the total area. Atoll islands are low lying, with their elevations less than 5 meters. Measured by total area, Lifou is the largest raised coral atoll of the world, followed by Rennell Island. More sources however list as the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area Kiritimati, a raised coral atoll, 160 km² main lagoon, 168 km² other lagoons; the remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The second largest atoll by dry land area is Aldabra with 155 km²; the largest atoll in terms of island numbers is Huvadhu Atoll in the south of the Maldives with 255 islands. In 1842, Charles Darwin explained the creation of coral atolls in the southern Pacific Ocean based upon observations made during a five-year voyage aboard HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836.
Accepted as correct, his explanation involved considering that several tropical island types—from high volcanic island, through barrier reef island, to atoll—represented a sequence of gradual subsidence of what started as an oceanic volcano. He reasoned that a fringing coral reef surrounding a volcanic island in the tropical sea will grow upward as the island subsides, becoming an "almost atoll", or barrier reef island, as typified by an island such as Aitutaki in the Cook Islands, Bora Bora and others in the Society Islands; the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef for the reason that the outer part of the reef maintains itself near sea level through biotic growth, while the inner part of the reef falls behind, becoming a lagoon because conditions are less favorable for the coral and calcareous algae responsible for most reef growth. In time, subsidence carries the old volcano below the ocean surface and the barrier reef remains. At this point, the island has become an atoll. Atolls are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters.
Volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of hermatypic organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surface. An island, located where the ocean water temperatures are just sufficiently warm for upward reef growth to keep pace with the rate of subsidence is said to be at the Darwin Point. Islands in colder, more polar regions evolve toward guyots. Reginald Aldworth Daly offered a somewhat different explanation for atoll formation: islands worn away by erosion, by ocean waves and streams, during the last glacial stand of the sea of some 900 feet below present sea level developed as coral islands, or barrier reefs on a platform surrounding a volcanic island not worn away, a
San Gervasio (Maya site)
San Gervasio is an archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the northern third of the island of Cozumel off the northeastern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, in what is now the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. San Gervasio's pre-Hispanic name was Tantun Cuzamil, Mayan for Flat Rock in the place of the Swallows; the ruins were once a hub of worship of the goddess Ix Chel, an aged deity of childbirth, fertility and weaving. Pre-Columbian Maya women would try to travel to San Gervasio and make offerings at least once in their lives. In 1560, the Spanish historian, Diego Lopez de Cogolludo, wrote: "The pilgrims arrive at Cozumel for the fulfillment of their vows to offer their sacrifices, to ask help for their needs, for the mistaken adoration of their false gods." The bishop of Yucatán, Diego de Landa, wrote in 1549 that the Maya "held Cozumel in the same veneration as we have for pilgrimages to Jerusalem and Rome, so they used to go to visit and offer presents there, as we do to holy places.
Although most of the stone structures at San Gervasio now lack their roofs and upper portions of their walls, archaeologists from Harvard and the University of Arizona compiled detailed plans of the remains in the early 1970s that allowed them to create reconstructed views of these buildings. Renderings of these reconstructions are illustrated in the guidebook offered for sale by the Cozumel Parks and Museum Foundation, an agency of the Mexican State of Quintana Roo and the agency responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the State park that surrounds the National Monument of the ruins of San Gervasio, administered separately by the National Institute of Anthropology and History. More information about the archaeological park, including hours of operation, entrance fees, directions are available on the FPMCQROO website CozumelParks.com The park is a wildlife refuge and the local iguana population has become quite habituated to humans. Although other species of lizards abound, they are not so trusting.
The peccaries and coatis that are sometimes spotted as they pass through the ruins tend to keep a safe distance from the tourists. The ruins cover 4 districts spread out over several square kilometers, but only certain parts of District 1 are open to the public. Most of the District 1 buildings that are accessible lie within or near the District 1 Central Plaza Group; the first European to visit San Gervasio was Juan de Grijalva, who discovered the island for the Spanish in 1518. The second group of European visitors came with the Hernan Cortes expedition, which stopped by the island on the way to Veracruz in 1519. Both groups were received well by the Maya of Cozumel, Cortez wrote a letter for them to present to any Spaniards that came to the island in the future, stating that “there is no gold here and these are peaceful people.” The letter did not help much, when the Panfilo de Narvaez expedition arrived in 1520. Several of the expedition’s crewmembers were sick with smallpox; the sickness ran rampant across the island.
There have been three mass graves discovered at San Gervasio where these smallpox victims were buried, along with their glass trade-beads given to them by the Spanish. Meaning: Little Hands Constructed during: Terminal-Classic Location: East of the District 1 Central Plaza Las Manitas was the residence of the halach unik, or the Mayan ruler of Cozumel during the Terminal Classic Period, it has an outer room, his residence and an inner sanctum, his personal shrine. The name of the building comes from red-colored hand prints on the interior walls. Meaning: Small House Constructed during: Post Classic Location: to the East of Las Manitas This building was an oratorio, or chapel, used by the family of the halach uinik who lived in the nearby residence of Las Manitas, it consisted of a large outer room with a small inner sanctum containing an altar. In the nearby altar platform to the west of Las Manitas, a single vaulted-roofed tomb was discovered in 1973, the only one of its kind found in San Gervasio.
Meaning: Tall House Constructed during: Post-Classic Location: West of the District 1 Central Plaza This pyramid is the largest single structure in San Gervasio. Due to certain architectural arrangements in the interior of the small room on the top, this structure may have been the temple of Ixchel described in 1552 by Francisco Lopez de Gomara, when he wrote of a temple "where they kept a strange idol distinct from the others; the body of this great idol was hollow, made of baked clay and fastened to the wall with mortar, in back of, something like a sacristy, where the priests had a small secret door cut into the side of the idol, into which one of them would enter, from it speak to and answer those who came to worship and beg favors. With this trickery, simple men were made to believe whatever the god told them." In 1618, Diego Lopez de Cogolludo wrote that "they venerated the statue more than the others, sacrificing to it birds, their own blood, men." Meaning: The Arch Constructed during: A reconstruction erected in the 1980s Location: Northeast of District 1 Central Plaza This arch is the main entrance from the north and west to San Gervasio’s District 1 Central Plaza Group.
It is a simple arch about seven feet tall that straddles the main religious pathway running northeast from the plaza. It was reconstructed by INAH in the form of similar arches found at other sites on the east coast of Quintana Roo, such as El Cedral, located on the southern portion of Cozumel. To the north of this arch, on the western edge of the r
Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo
Benito Juárez is one of the eleven municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Most of its population reside in the municipal seat, Cancún, it is named after statesman Benito Juárez. Benito Juárez is located in the north of the state with the Caribbean Sea as its eastern border, it borders on the municipalities of Isla Mujeres to the north, Solidaridad to the south, Lázaro Cárdenas to the west. The municipality covers an area 1,664 square kilometres, 3.72% of the territory of the state. The 2010 census enumerated 295 populated 272 unpopulated localities; the largest are as follows: Puerto Juárez, the primary location of the original population of the area before the founding of the city of Cancún, was considered a separate location from 1960 until 1990, when it was abolished as such and incorporated as one of Cancún's districts. The Mayan culture occupied the territory and they are still subsisting. In Cancún are different types of archeological monuments like "Ruinas de el Rey". At the time the town of Cancún was founded the majority of its business activity was the production and export gum and "palo de tinte".
They transported it to Puerto Morelos for the translation to Cozumel and from there it was exported to other countries. After World War II gum production dropped. In the 1960s, other commercial activities were started. In the 1960s the "island of Cancún" was only occupied at certain times of the year, however by 1974 the first hotel was opened in what is now known as the Hotel Zone; this was the year Quintana Roo, recognized as a state. At the time Benito Juarez was founded, it was part the Isla Mujeres territory. In 2016, the municipality of Puerto Morelos was split off from Benito Juárez; the principal businesses in this municipality are hotels, travel agencies and tourist transportation. Economic activities: Primary……………….3.7% Secondary…………….6.0% Tertiary……………….90.3% Mayors: Julián Javier Ricalde Magaña 2011-2013 Gregorio Sánchez Martínez 2008-2010 Media related to Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo at Wikimedia Commons Official Cancún Website
Puerto Morelos is a town and seaport in Quintana Roo, Mexico's easternmost state, on the Yucatán Peninsula. The town is located in the northeast of the state, about 36 km south of the resort city of Cancún, about 30 km north of the city of Playa del Carmen. Puerto Morelos merged with the village of Leona Vicario on December 6, 2015, to become the 11th municipality in Quintana Roo, separating from its former municipality of Benito Juarez; the marine terminal at Puerto Morelos is equipped to handle containers and is the oldest and most important seaport in the state of Quintana Roo. Puerto Morelos is divided by a mangrove swamp into three sections; the section west of the highway is known as "Colonia Joaquin Zetina Gazca". The section east of the highway is called "Colonia Pescadores"; the section on the coast east of the mangrove swamp is "Puerto" or "Antiguo Puerto Morelos". This original coastal fishing village is now a quiet, mixed-use neighborhood of private homes, condominiums and tourist shops.
The second part is about 2 km. inland and adjacent to Highway 307, on the western side. The inland portion is single level dwellings for local workers. New residential developments have sprung up in recent years adding to the housing mix. There are now multi-story apartment buildings, private residential developments between the highway and the mangrove where one can buy lots and build a house of one's own design. Classified by Köppen-Geiger system as tropical wet and dry climate, because its driest month has less than 60 millimetres of precipitation and less than 100 − because each month has a mean average above 18 °C, it has been the main port between the mainland of Yucatán and the Island of Cozumel, an automobile ferry used to run from Puerto Morelos to Cozumel. The town is named after Independence leader José María Morelos. Resorts are abundant in the Puerto Morelos region along the Riviera Maya and attractions, such as the Crococun Crocodile Zoo, the Botanical Garden, a host of cenotes are increasing in number.
New smaller inns have been built which offers an evening programs of Talks on local history, marine biology, healthy living practices. One hundred meters off shore lies the Puerto Morelos portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, designated as a National Marine Park in 1998 due to local environmental activists. Puerto Morelos has grown with the development of tourism and as of the 2010 census is the home to 9,188 people. Media related to Puerto Morelos at Wikimedia Commons Puerto Morelos National Marine Park