Band I is a range of radio frequencies within the high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The first time there was defined "for simplicity" in Annex 1 of "Final acts of the European Broadcasting Conference in the VHF and UHF bands - Stockholm, 1961". Band I ranges from 47 to 68 MHz for the European Broadcasting Area, from 54 to 88 MHz for the Americas and it is used for television broadcasting in line to ITU Radio Regulations. Channel spacings vary from country with spacings of 6, 7 and 8 MHz being common. In the UK, Band I was used by the BBC for monochrome 405-line television. Both 405-line and 819-line systems were discontinued in the mid-1980s. Other European countries used Band I for 625-line analogue television, first in monochrome and in colour; this was being phased out with the introduction of digital television in the DVB-T standard, not defined for VHF Band I, though some older receivers and some modulators do support it. In the United States, use of this band is for analog NTSC and digital ATSC.
Digital television has problems with impulse noise interference in this band. In European countries that use System B for television broadcasting, the band is subdivided into three channels, each being 7 MHz wide: Italy uses a "outband" "channel C", it was used by the first transmitter brought in service by the RAI in Torino in the Fifties, used in WW2 by the US to broadcast NTSC TV on channel A6 for military purposes donated to Italy, it had its video carrier shifted 1 MHz lower to accommodate the System B standard. This channel was widely used by private local stations until the switch over to DVB-T; some countries use different frequencies or don't use Band 1 at all for terrestrial broadcast television. The fast growing of digital television as well as the susceptibility of this band to interference during E skip events in all European countries is accompanied by the progressive closedown of band I analog transmitters, e.g. former French-language Swiss Television transmitter at La Dôle near Geneva on channel E4 or French analog transmitters used by Canal Plus for its Pay-TV VHF network, e.g. Besançon and Carcassonne both on French channel "L-3".
Swiss VHF Band I transmitters are switched off untile 25/06/2007, 26/11/2007, for Uetliberg, Bantiger French analog Canal Plus VHF band I are switched off until 2010. In the countries that use System D television broadcast system, the channel allocation in the VHF-I band is as follows: The band is subdivided into five channels for television broadcasting, each occupying 6 MHz. Channel 1 is not being used for broadcasting; the upper end of this band, 87.5 to 88 MHz, is the lower end of the FM radio band. In the United States, the FCC will issue a license for 87.9 MHz. In Japan and some former Soviet republics frequencies lower than 87MHz are still used for FM radio broadcasting. Television channel frequencies
The Francis D. Williams House is a historic brick house located at 3 Plain Street in Taunton, Massachusetts. Built in about 1830, it is a prominent and rare example of Federal period architecture in the city's Weir Village neighborhood; the Francis D. Williams House is prominently sited, standing just beyond the eastern end of Taunton's Plain Street Bridge across the Taunton River, on a triangular parcel bounded by Plain and Berkley Streets, it is a large 2-1/2 story brick building, with a side-gable roof pierced by two gabled dormers and a central brick chimney stack. The facade facing toward the bridge is eight bays wide, evenly spaced and all filled with sash windows that have granite sills and lintels; the entrances are on the side facades, facing toward Plain Streets. A five-bay two-story brick ell extends to the main block's rear; the house was built circa 1830, when the Weir Village area where it stands was a thriving seaport and industrial area. It is one of Taunton's only brick Greek Revival houses, was built by Francis Williams, member of a prominent local family involved in sea trade.
Its size suggest that it may have been used by the Williams family to board sailors involved in the coasting trade. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 5, 1984. National Register of Historic Places listings in Taunton, Massachusetts
Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary headquartered in Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the only habitat in the world which provides home for the Jerdon's courser, a endangered bird species. In addition to that it is a home to nearly 176 families of vegetation and living organisms; the Sanctuary is well known for its habitation of the Jerdon's courser, a critically endangered species. The bird was first discovered in 1848 by the surgeon-naturalist Thomas C. Jerdon and was thought to be extinct until its rediscovery in 1986; the bird now inhabits the sparse scrub regions and forests of the Sri Lanka Malleshwara Sanctuary where the topography and weather conditions are compatible with its existence. The Sanctuary provides a home to nearly 1400 plant species and nearly 176 families of vegetation and living organisms, it has dry deciduous mixed thorn forests with steep slopes. Red Sanders, an endemic species, can be found here, its fauna includes the panther, sloth bear, sambar, chinkara, wild boar and the Jerdon's courser.
Though tourists are allowed to visit the sanctuary any time of the year, the best visiting period is between October to March. The sanctuary can be reached easily, it is only 15 km far from the city of Kadapa which has the nearest airport. Accessibility: 60 km. by road from Cuddapah railway station. Accommodation: Forest rest house at Siddavotam & Cuddapah. Season: October to March
The Moro National Liberation Front is a political organization in the Philippines, founded in 1972. It started as a splinter group of the Muslim Independence Movement; the MNLF was the leading organization among Moro separatists for about two decades beginning from the 1970s. In 1996, the MNLF signed a landmark peace agreement with the Philippine government that saw the creation of Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, an area composed of two mainland provinces and three island provinces in which the predominantly Muslim population enjoys a degree of self-rule. Nur Misuari was installed as the region's governor but his rule ended in violence when he led a failed rebellion against the Philippine government in November 2001, fled to Sabah before being deported back to the Philippines by the Malaysian authorities; the MNLF is internationally recognized by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and its Parliamentary Union of OIC Member States. Since 1977, the MNLF has been an observer member of the OIC.
On January 30, 2012, MNLF became an observer member of the Parliamentary Union of Islamic Cooperation, as approved during the 7th PUIC global session held in Palembang, Indonesia. The Philippine government wanted to encourage migration of landless Christians from other parts of the country in a so-called Homestead Program. There was no land titling system by the natives of Mindanao at that time, the Christian settlers exploited the situation. Lanao and Cotabato received an influx of migrants from Visayas. Tensions between Moros and Christians were caused by disputes about land ownership and disenfranchisement of Muslims; the Homestead Program is one of the root-causes of the Moro conflict. Poverty, grievances of the Muslim population, weak rule of law and difficult terrain have made counterterrorism challenging against insurgents in the Southern Philippines. On March 18, 1968 there was an alleged massacre of Moro soldiers in Corregidor Island. There has been a long-standing allegation that Malaysia provided the initial training and arming of the first batch of MNLF cadres known as "Top 90" in 1969.
It has been alleged that Malaysia was either ignorant or tolerated the illicit arms shipments from the Middle East, flowing into Mindanao that fueled the insurgency. The founder and former leader of the MNLF is Nur Misuari; the MNLF was founded as a splinter group of the Muslim Independence Movement on October 21, 1972. MNLF claims that its ideology is egalitarianism, it is not a religious organization like its Islamic splinter group the Moro Islamic Liberation Front; the MNLF was the leading organization among Moro separatists for about two decades beginning from the 1970s. However, discontent on Nur Misuari's leadership caused the group to unravel after the 1996 peace agreement. Integration of former rebels in the society was a factor in the weakening. At the present there are multiple competing factions. For instance, Hadja Bainon Karon's faction supported peace deal in 2012, after Nur Misuari had criticized it. There was a case of defections of Moro Islamic Liberation Front fighters to MNLF.
As of 14 August 2015, the current chairman of the group is uncertain and the sources, including Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Philippine Government, disagree. Nur Misuari still has support among some of the factions. Many splits followed tribal affiliation. United Nations Security Council report stated in 2010 that the splinter groups Moro Islamic Liberation Front and Abu Sayyaf recruit and use child soldiers in the conflict. Libyan and Muammar Gaddafi's mediation resulted in the Tripoli Agreement on December 23, 1976, it would have established an autonomous region and given Moros influence on foreign policy, education and finances. Areas such as Basilan and Sulu would have been included in the autonomous region; the plans failed due to president Ferdinand Marcos' decision to hold a referendum on each area, to be included in the autonomous region. Most of the regions did not have a Muslim majority; the referendums however did influence Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao by creating its predecessors.
MNLF decided to continued armed struggle. The MNLF shifted from demands of full independence to autonomy in the 1980s. In 1986 a ceasefire and attempts to have a peace agreement were made. Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was established in 1989, despite opposition from the MNLF. OIC, Libya and Indonesia mediated peace talks which were restarted in 1992. Statements of Understanding and Interim Agreements were made between 1992 and 1996. Jakarta Peace Agreement was signed in 1996. Tensions between the Philippine Government and the MNLF have been fueled by mineral wealth sharing, problems of implementing the peace agreement and the Nur Misuari faction's ongoing opposition of the peace agreement. In 2015 Nur Misuari rejected reports on the MNLF involvement in the North Borneo dispute and said only the Sultanate of Sulu can pursue the negotiations for the Sabah claim with the Malaysian sides; the MNLF has asserted that their group are not involved in any part of the North Borneo dispute and stressing it is a non-issue as Sabah has become the "home-base for different tribal groupings of Muslims from different regions of Southeast Asia that have enjoyed peaceful and harmonious co-existence with the Chinese and Christian populace in the area."European Union and the United States do not use the classification of "terrorist" for the MNLF.
In 2013, the Nur Misuari faction of the MNLF declared independence for the Bangsamoro Republik and attacked Zamboanga City. During the MNLF standoff with the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the group was accused by the Philippines of using civilia
Sean Graham Joyner is a former English cricketer. Joyner was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Oxfordshire. Joyner made his debut for Oxfordshire in the 1992 Minor Counties Championship against Wiltshire. Joyner played Minor counties cricket for Oxfordshire from 1992 to 1995, which included 17 Minor Counties Championship matches and 2 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches, he made his List A debut against Lancashire in the 1992 NatWest Trophy. He played 3 further List the last coming against Lancashire in the 1996 NatWest Trophy. In his 4 List A matches he scored 11 runs at a batting average of 3.66, with a high score of 11. With the ball, he took a single wicket at a cost of 221 runs, with best figures of 1/48, he has played for the Gloucestershire Second XI and the Northamptonshire Second XI. Sean Joyner at ESPNcricinfo Sean Joyner at CricketArchive
Homage to Leonardo, sometimes referred to as Vitruvian Man for being a representation of the drawing of the same name by Leonardo da Vinci, is an outdoor statue by Italian sculptor Enzo Plazzotta, located at Belgrave Square in London, United Kingdom. The statue was completed posthumously by Plazzotta's assistant Mark Holloway in 1982, was installed in 1984. An inscription on the front of the base reads: "Homage to Leonardo"; the back of the base includes the inscription: "Homage to Leonardo / From the original conception by the Italian sculptor Enzo Plazzotta. Completed by his assistant Mark Holloway in 1982 and sponsored by Mr & Mrs John Harbert III. Birmingham, Alabama." A third inscription on a nearby plaque reads: "Homage to Leonardo ‘The Vitruvian Man’ / Enzo Plazzotta. / Completed posthumously by Mark Holloway in 1982. Sited in 1984. Kindly sponsored by Mr and Mrs John Harbert III." Media related to Homage to Leonardo by Enzo Plazzotta at Wikimedia Commons