Banda Singh Bahadur
Banda Singh Bahadur, was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh. At age 15 he left home to become an ascetic, was given the name ‘’Madho Das’’, he established a monastery at Nānded, on the bank of the river Godāvarī, where in September 1708 he was visited by, became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new name of Banda Singh Bahadur after initiating him into the Khalsa. Armed with the blessing and authority of Guru Gobind Singh, he came to Khanda in Sonipat and assembled a fighting force and led the struggle against the Mughal Empire. Guru Gobind Singh appointed five Sikhs to assist him, his first major action was the sacking of the Mughal provincial capital, Samana, in November 1709. After establishing his authority in Punjab, Banda Singh Bahadur abolished the zamindari system, granted property rights to the tillers of the land, he was captured by the Mughals and tortured to death in 1715-1716. Banda Singh was born at Rajouri. According to Hakim Rai's Ahwāl-i-Lachhmaṇ Dās urf Bandā Sāhib, his father Ram Dev was a farmer belonging to the Sodhi sub-caste of the Khatris.
After a meeting with Guru Gobind Singh on 3 September 1708, he became a Sikh. The Guru Gobind ordered him to go to Khanda and fight the Mughals with the help of the Sikh army in Battle of Sonipat. In 1709 he defeated Mughals in the Battle of Samana and captured the Mughal city of Samana, killing about 10,000 Mohammedans. Samana minted coins. With this treasury the Sikhs became financially stable; the Sikhs soon took over Sadhora. The Sikhs captured the Cis-Sutlej areas of Punjab, including Malerkotla and Nahan. On 12 May 1710 in the Battle of Chappar Chiri the Sikhs killed Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind and Dewan Suchanand, who were responsible for the martyrdom of the two youngest sons of Guru Gobind Singh. Two days the Sikhs captured Sirhind. Banda Singh was now in control of territory from the Sutlej to the Yamuna and ordered that ownership of the land be given to the farmers, to let them live in dignity and self-respect. Banda Singh Bahadur developed the village of Mukhlisgarh, made it his capital.
He renamed it to Lohgarh where he issued his own mint. The coin described Lohgarh: "Struck in the City of Peace, illustrating the beauty of civic life, the ornament of the blessed throne", he established a state in Punjab for half a year. Banda Singh sent Sikhs to the Uttar Pradesh and Sikhs took over Saharanpur, Jalalabad and other nearby areas, bringing relief to the repressed population. In the regions of Jalandhar and Amritsar, the Sikhs started fighting for the rights of the people. Banda Singh Bahadur captured Rahon after defeating Mughals in the Battle of Rahon. Sikhs used their newly established power to remove corrupt officials and replace them with honest ones. Banda Singh Bahadur is known to have halted the Zamindari system in the time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land, it seems that all classes of government officers were addicted to extortion and corruption and the whole system of regulatory and order was subverted. Local tradition recalls that the people from the neighborhood of Sadaura came to Banda Singh complaining of the iniquities practices by their land lords.
Banda Singh ordered Baj Singh to open fire on them. The people were astonished at the strange reply to their representation, asked him what he meant, he told them that they deserved no better treatment when being thousands in number they still allowed themselves to be cowed down by a handful of Zamindars. He defeated the Shaikhs in the Battle of Sadhaura; the rule of the Sikhs over the entire Punjab east of Lahore obstructed the communication between Delhi and Lahore, the capital of Punjab, this worried Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah He gave up his plan to subdue rebels in Rajasthan and marched towards Punjab. The entire Imperial force was organized to kill Banda Singh Bahadur. All the generals were directed to join the Emperor's army. To ensure that there were no Sikh agents in the army camps, an order was issued on 29 August 1710 to all Hindus to shave off their beards. Banda Singh was in Uttar Pradesh when the Moghal army under the orders of Munim Khan marched to Sirhind and before the return of Banda Singh, they had taken Sirhind and the areas around it.
The Sikhs therefore moved to Lohgarh for their final battle. The Sikhs defeated the army but reinforcements were called and they laid siege on the fort with 60,000 troops. Gulab Singh seated himself in his place. Banda Singh went to a secret place in the hills and Chamba forests; the failure of the army to kill or catch Banda Singh shocked Emperor, Bahadur Shah and On 10 December 1710 he ordered that wherever a Sikh was found, he should be murdered. The Emperor became mentally disturbed and died on 18 February 1712. Banda Singh Bahadur wrote Hukamnamas to the Sikhs to join him at once. In 1712, the Sikhs gathered near Kiratpur Sahib and defeated Raja Ajmer Chand, responsible for organizing all the Hill Rajas against Guru Gobind Singh and instigating battles with him. After Bhim Chand's dead the other Hill Rajas accepted their subordinate status and paid revenues to Banda Singh. While Bahadur Shah's four sons were killing themselves for the throne of the Mughal Emperor, Banda Singh Bahadur recaptured Sadhaura and Lohgarh.
Farrukh Siyar, the next Moghal Emperor, appointed Abdus Samad Khan as the governor of Lahore and Zakaria Khan, Abdus Samad Khan's son, the Faujdar of Jammu. In 1713 the
Banda is a term to designate a style of Mexican music and the musical ensemble in which wind instruments of brass and percussion, are performed. Bandas play a wide variety of songs, including rancheras, cumbias and boleros; the history of banda music in Mexico dates from the middle of the 19th century with the arrival of piston metal instruments, when the communities tried to imitate the military bands. The first bands were formed in Central Mexico. In each village of the different territories there are certain types of wind bands, whether traditional, private or municipal. There are brass instruments in the state of Oaxaca; the repertoire of the bands of Morelos, Oaxaca and Michoacán covered gustos, vinuetes, funeral pieces, danzones, corridos, paso dobles, rancheras and foxes. The traditional bands that play Yucatecan jaranas use the following instruments: clarinet, tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, trombone, drum drum, bass drum, cymbals, güiro; the traditional Oaxacan bands use a large number of saxophones and clarinets, fewer trumpets and slide trombones, the bass drum and cymbals are played separately.
One of the oldest bands recorded in Mexico is the Banda de Tlayacapan of the state of Morelos, founded in 1870, being one of the first to play la danza del Chinelo. The traditional Zacatecan tamborazo band does not use tuba, being the tambora the instrument that takes the low tone. Bandas play a large variety of genres, most Rancheras, Corridos, among others. Modern Bandas, have turned to record romantic ballads, leaving polkas and other danceable genres behind; the most popular song played by Bandas is "El Sinaloense", a song written by Severiano Briseño in 1944. "El Sinaloense" has been recorded in both vocal and instrumental versions. The song has become so popular. Other tunes that are recorded by Bandas include "Arriba Pichátaro", "Juan Colorado", "El niño perdido", "Que me entierren con la banda", "Palo verde", among others; the history of banda music in Mexico dates from the middle of the 19th century with the arrival of piston metal instruments, when the communities tried to imitate the military bands.
In each village of the different territories there are certain types of wind bands, whether traditional, private or municipal. Banda music was established in the 1880s in the state of Sinaloa, when it exploded into popularity in the 1890s throughout Mexico, its roots come from the overlapping of Mexican music with German polka music. At the time, many German Mexicans lived in the states of Sinaloa, Chihuahua and Nuevo León; this influenced northern Mexican music. Immigrants from northern Mexico brought the music to the United States. Popular in the southwest United States in Texas and Arizona, banda has followed the movement of Mexican immigrants to the Midwest United States and the rest of the country. Mexicans who came in contact with Latin-based Jazz of Chicanos or Mexicans born and raised in the United States adopted jazz-like sounds in banda to further enrich the music type. Throughout the 20th century, Banda music was traditionally confined to the states of Sinaloa and Zacatecas, whereas Mariachi and other Regional Mexican genres enjoyed more popularity in the rest of the country.
However, in the 1990s Banda music started to become popular throughout the country becoming the dominant Regional Mexican genre in the XXI century. La Banda El Recodo, Banda Machos, Banda Maguey, La Arrolladora Banda El Limón, La Original Banda El Limón, Banda Sinaloense MS De Sergio Lizarraga, La Septima Banda, Banda Cuisillos, Banda Jerez, Banda Los Recoditos and La Adictiva Banda San Jose De Mesillas are some of the most famous bandas. Famous soloists include Valentín Elizalde, Julio Preciado, Lupillo Rivera, Sergio Vega, Roberto Tapia, Espinoza Paz and Julión Álvarez. While not known as a banda singer, Juan Gabriel recorded in the genre. Despite banda being a male-dominated genre, there are a few female soloist banda-singers such as Graciela Beltran, Carmen Jara, Diana Reyes, Beatriz Adriana, Yolanda Pérez and Ninel Conde. Examples of females soloist who have recorded in the genre while not known as banda singers include, Ana Gabriel, Alicia Villareal, Ana Barbara. There's a handful all-female bandas such as Banda Las Soñadoras and Banda Las Tapatias, both from Guadalajara, Jalisco.
Jenni Rivera, the highest earning solo banda singer of all-time has been attributed to bringing a female perspective to what had been a male-dominated genre. An upcoming solo artist has emerged by the name of Andrea Ferrera, she has shown to be successful selling out stadiums across both The United States and Mexico; the 2010s wave of popularity of the tuba in Southern California has been credited to its presence in banda music. As of 2017 El Salvador started having their own Banda music. A typical banda is made up of brass and percussion instruments; the most notable instrument is the tambora, a type of bass drum with a head made from animal hide, with a cymbal on top. Bandas were called "tamboras", named after this drum; the tambora is played in a strong and embellished manner, which provides the drive for the rest of the band. The percussion section includes the tarola, a snare with timbales which would resemble the tom-toms on a regular drumset and cymbals. Banda el Recodo, one of the most famous bandas, features three trumpets, four clarinets, three valve trombones or slide trombones, two E♭ alto horns, one
Banda is a town in Sindhudurg district in Maharashtra, near the Goa-Maharashtra border. Banda is the last town in Mahrashtra state on Mumbai-Goa national highway, on the bak of the Terekhol river; the main languages spoken here are Marathi and Konkani. Many people have a knowledge of Portuguese. God Shree Bandeshwar and Goddess Shree Bhumika are the main temples in the village, as well as temples of Lord Vitthal, Hanuman. Banda is named after a Jagrit Swayambhu Shivalinga. In ancient times, Banda was known as Adilabad in the reign of Adilshahi. Evidences of his reign can still be seen in the form of Redeghumat and other ancient constructions in and around the town. Adil was defeated by the Portuguese. During the time of Shivaji, the name Adilabad changed to Banda after the deity Lord Bandeshwar; the more than 300 years old Temple of Lord Bandeshwar is being renovated. There are 12 Shivalingas inside the Garbhgriha of the temple. There are temples for other deities such as Bhumika, Vetal and Maharingan around the main Bandeshwar temple.
Jatra is celebrated in December every year. Trade and agriculture are two main occupations of this town. Production and processing of cashew nuts and betel nuts are emerging as major occupations; because of huge production of cashews in the surrounding villages, Banda has become a major market for the whole Sindhudurga district. The Terekhol river bridge was constructed in 1961 by the government of Maharashtra for transportation between Goa and Maharashtra state; the bridge was the only connecting bridge or link between Goa and Maharashtra until 1999. Mumbai-Goa national highway passes through Banda. Malvan Vengurla Savantwadi Kudal Kankavli Amboli
The Banda people are an ethnic group of the Central African Republic. They are found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan, they were affected by slave raids of the 19th century and slave trading out of Africa. Under French colonial rule, most converted to Christianity but retained elements of their traditional religious systems and values. Estimated to be around 1.3 million people at the turn of the 21st century, they constitute one of the largest ethnic groups in the Central African Republic, traditionally found in the northeastern part of the country. The Banda people speak languages belonging to the Niger-Congo family, known as Banda or Ubangian languages; the Banda languages have variations. The Banda people were affected by slave raids from the north from Wadai and Darfur, in the early 19th century, by Khartoumers led by al-Zubayr; these sold the Banda people into slavery. Many migrated west along the Ubangi River. According to Ann Brower Stahl, a professor of Anthropology specializing in Africa studies, the medieval towns of Banda people such as Begho were a source of slaves between 1400 and 1600 CE, with slaves going to Islamic North Africa, the primary trade being in women and children before 1500 CE.
By the 16th century, slaves from the Banda regions were in use as production labor in Sudanese Islamic states, this trade in slaves remained steady in the centuries that followed. Dennis Cordell, a professor of History specializing on Africa, places the slave raiding and trade practices earlier to the 11th- and 12th-century raids in southern Libya to Lake Chad area, which he states thereafter expanded south into the Banda people's region; the killing and carrying away of the Banda people by slave raiders from regions that are now part of Chad, South Sudan and southeastern Central African Republic led to their depopulation, a situation further worsened when European colonialists gave weapons to the slave-raiding states. In the late 19th century, they were raided by "slave hunters" from the south by armies of the Zande states now part of Congo and South Sudan, led by Arab traders who had set up Zariba; the slave raiding of the Banda people was suppressed when the French Ubangi-Shari colony was established in this region.
According to American history professor Richard Bradshaw, the Banda people along with their neighbors, the Gbaya people, lived a peaceful life before the 19th century, after which Kevin Shillington states "African slave traders and European colonialists introduced unprecedented violence and economic exploitation into their lives". Greek social anthropology professor G. P. Makris states that the Banda people, along with the Nuba and Gumuz ethnic groups, were a major victim of slave trading by Turco-Egyptians, Banda is a synonym for slave or bondman in the Persian language; the Banda are a patrilineal ethnic group, who traditionally have lived in the Savannas north of the Congo, in dispersed home groups guided by a headman. They sustain themselves by hunting, gathering wild foods and growing crops. During times of crisis, to resist slave raids and to respond to wars, the Banda selected war chiefs. After the crisis was over, they relieved their warriors of their powers; the ethnic group is locally famous for craftsmanship carved wooden objects used for rituals and general utility, as well as their large animal-shaped slit drums.
These drums, now attributed by various names such as Banda-Yangere, were used by the Banda people for musical celebrations and as tools for transmitting messages. In contemporary times, the Banda people are settled farmers in the Savannas. Cotton and cassava farming was promoted among the Banda people by the French colonial officials, while Christian missionaries won many converts during the French rule. Most Banda people are now Catholic. However, they have retained many of their traditional beliefs alongside those of Christianity, such as making sacrificial offerings to ancestral spirits for seasonal success for crops; the Banda people have their rites of passage, such as Semali which recognizes the crossing into adulthood. At weddings, dowries in the form of bridewealth have traditionally included iron implements for the family. Polygyny was practiced among the Banda people, but this practice has declined in modern times. Slavery in Africa Arab slave trade Atlantic slave trade Dar al Kuti List of ethnic groups of Africa Ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Banda District (Ghana)
The Banda District is one of the Forty-six new districts and municipalities created in the year 2012 in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Its capital is Banda Ahenkro. Banda District was carved from Tain and forms part of the new districts and municipalities created in the year 2012 and were inaugurated at their various locations on 28 June 2012; the Late President, H. E. J. E. A Mills, by an Executive Instrument created 46 new Districts. All the inaugurated and confirmed MMDAs established are operational with immediate effect hence bringing the total number of MMDAs to 216; the district has a population size of 45,000 as at 2010 with males being 21,000 and females being 24,000. The population has been increasing over the years with a growth rate of 2.6%.: Banda District, Thursday, 28 June 2012. GhanaDistricts.com
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia. Adivasi make up 8.6% of India's population, or 104 million people, according to the 2011 census, a large percentage of the Nepalese population. They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India and Nepal and a minority group of the Sri Lankan society called Vedda; the same term Adivasi is used for the ethnic minorities of Bangladesh and the native Tharu people of Nepal. The word is used in the same sense in Nepal, as is another word, although the political context differed under the Shah and Rana dynasties. Adivasi societies are prominent in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, some north-eastern states, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Many smaller tribal groups are quite sensitive to ecological degradation caused by modernisation. Both commercial forestry and intensive agriculture have proved destructive to the forests that had endured swidden agriculture for many centuries.
Adivasis in central part of India have been victims of the Salwa Judum campaign by the Government against the Naxalite insurgency. The word Adivasi means the first inhabitants or the Indigenous People, a phrase recognised by the Supreme Court of India Although terms such as atavika, vanavāsi, or girijan are used for the tribes of India, adivāsi carries the specific meaning of being the original and autochthonous inhabitants of a given region, it is a modern Sanskrit word coined for that purpose in the 1930s, from ādi'beginning, origin' and vāsin'dweller', thus meaning ‘original inhabitant’. Over time, unlike the terms "aborigines" or "tribes", the word "adivasi" has developed a connotation of past autonomy disrupted during the British colonial period in India and not yet having been restored. In India, opposition to usage of the term is varied. Critics argue that the "original inhabitant" contention is based on the fact that they have no land and are therefore asking for a land reform; the adivasis argue that they have been oppressed by the "superior group" and that they require and demand a reward, more land reform.
Adivasi issues are not related to land reforms but to the historical rights to the forests that were alienated during the colonial period and India made a law to'undo the historical injustice' committed to the AdivasisIn Northeast India, the term adivāsi applies only to the Tea-tribes imported from Central India during colonial times. A substantial list of Scheduled Tribes in India are recognised as tribal under the Constitution of India. Tribal people constitute 8.6% of the nation's total population, over 104 million people according to the 2011 census. One concentration lives in a belt along the Himalayas stretching through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand in the west, to Assam, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland in the northeast. In the northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland, more than 90% of the population is tribal. However, in the remaining northeast states of Assam, Manipur and Tripura, tribal peoples form between 20 and 30% of the population.
Other tribal peoples, including the Santhals, Munda, Ho live in Jharkhand and West Bengal. Central Indian states have the country's largest tribes, taken as a whole 75% of the total tribal population live there, although the tribal population there accounts for only around 10% of the region's total population. Smaller numbers of tribal people are found in Odisha in eastern India. About one percent of the populations of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are tribal, whereas about six percent in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are members of tribes; the term'Scheduled Tribes' first appeared in the Constitution of India. Article 366 defined scheduled tribes as "such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this constitution". Article 342, reproduced below, prescribes procedure to be followed in the matter of specification of scheduled tribes. Hindu Marriage Act is not applicable to the members of the Scheduled Tribe as per Section 2 of the Hindu Marriage Act.
If that be so, the directions issued by the Family Court under Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act is not applicable to the appellant." The tribal people observe their festivals, which have no direct conflict with any religion, they conduct marriage among them according to their tribal custom. They have their own way of life to maintain all privileges in matters connected with marriage and succession, according to their customary tribal faith. Art. 15 - Special provisions for advancement of other backward classes. 29 - Protection of Interests of Minorities. 46 - The State shall promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation, Art. 350 - Right to conserve distinct Language, Script or Culture. 350 - Instruction in Mother Tongue. Art. 23 - Prohibition of traffic in human beings and beggar and other similar form of forced labour Art.
24 - Forbidding Child Labour. Art.244 - Clause Provisions of Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration
Banda is an unincorporated rural community in Dufferin County, Canada. Located in Mulmur Township, Banda has been associated with both Mulmur Township and Nottawasaga Township, because it is located on the boundary between both townships. Duff Lott and his grandson John were early settlers, arriving in the spring of 1845. A log schoolhouse, S. S. No. 6, was built in 1857, a post office opened in 1860. The name "Banda" was selected by the first postmaster, John Clemenger, after looking at a map of the East Indies where the Banda Islands and Banda Sea are located; that same year, the population of Banda had reached 50. During the 1860s, Banda was noted as having a wagon shop, blacksmith, carpenter and stores. Christ Church Banda was established north of the settlement in 1865; the extant church and cemetery are today called Banda Anglican Christ Church. Banda Methodist Church was established west of the settlement in 1867, in 1869, John Clemenger donated land for a cemetery there; the church has been removed, though the cemetery remains.
Prior to the 1890s, a presbyterian church was established. Banda became known in the region for its cattle fairs. Orange Lodge No. 426 established in Banda around 1870. The lodge had a fife-and-drum band; the Wilcox Inn and operated by Joseph Wilcox, opened in Banda during the 1880s. The hotel moved to Stayner. By 1890, Banda was receiving daily mail, a stagecoach stopped daily; the cost of the stagecoach was 25 cents. The settlement was described in 1908 as a "good dairying and fruit district", when its population had decreased to 30; the post office closed in 1915, the school closed in 1965. Banda was described in 1977 as "a tiny crossroads community"