The Sinhalese are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka. They constitute number greater than 16.2 million. The Sinhalese identity is based on historical heritage and religion; the Sinhalese people speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language, are predominantly Theravada Buddhists, although a small percentage of Sinhalese follow branches of Christianity. The Sinhalese are found in North Central, Central and West Sri Lanka. According to the 5th century epic poem Mahavamsa, the Dipavamsa, a 3rd–5th century treatise written in Pali by Buddhist monks of the Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese are descendants of settlers who came to the island in 543 BCE from Sinhapura, in India, led by Prince Vijaya. From the Sanskrit word Sinhala, meaning "of lions"; the Mahavamsa records the origin of the Sinhalese people and related historical events. It traces the historical origin of the Sinhalese people back to the first king of Sri Lanka, the son of Sinhabahu (Sanskrit meaning'Sinha' +'bahu', the ruler of Sinhapura.
According to the Mahavamsa, Sinhabahu was the son of princess Suppadevi of the Vanga, who copulated with the king of the beast, a lion, gave birth to a daughter called Sinhasivali and to a son, whose hands and feet were like the paws of a lion and who had the strength of a lion. King Vijaya, lineage of Sinhabahu, according to the Mahavamsa and other historical sources, arrived to the island of Tambapanni, gave origin to the lion people, Sinhalese; the story of the arrival of Prince Vijaya to Sri Lanka, the origin of the Sinhalese people is depicted in the Ajanta caves, in a mural of cave number 17. Early recorded history of the Sinhalese is chronicled in two documents, the Mahavamsa, written in Pāli around the 4th century CE, the much Culavamsa; these are ancient sources which cover the histories of the powerful ancient Sinhalese kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa which lasted for 1500 years. The Mahavamsa describes the existence of fields of rice and reservoirs, indicating a well-developed agrarian society.
Prince Vijaya and his 700 followers left Suppāraka, landed on the island at a site believed to be in the district of Chilaw, near modern-day Mannar, founded the Kingdom of Tambapanni. It is recorded. Vijaya claimed soon the whole island come under this name. Tambapanni was inhabited and governed by Yakkhas, having their capital at Sirīsavatthu and their queen Kuveni. According to the Samyutta Commentary, Tambapanni was one hundred leagues in extent. After landing in Tambapanni Vijaya met Kuveni the queen of the Yakkhas, disguised as a beautiful woman but was a'yakkini' named Sesapathi. At the end of his reign, having trouble choosing a successor, sent a letter to the city of his ancestors, Sinhapura, in order to invite his brother Sumitta to take over the throne. However, Vijaya had died before the letter had reached its destination, so the elected minister of the people Upatissa, the Chief government minister or prime minister and leading chief among the Sinhalese became regent and acted as regent for a year.
After his coronation, held in the Kingdom of Tambapanni, he left it, building another one, bearing his own name. While he was king, Upatissa established the new capital Upatissa, in which the kingdom was moved to from the Kingdom of Tambapanni; when Vijaya's letter arrived, Sumitta had succeeded his father as king of his country, so he sent his son Panduvasdeva to rule Upatissa Nuwara. Upatissa Nuwara was eight miles further north of the Kingdom of Tambapanni, it was named after the regent king Upatissa, the prime minister of Vijaya, was founded in 505 BC after the death of Vijaya and the end of the Kingdom of Tambapanni. In 377 BC, King Pandukabhaya moved the capital to Anuradhapura and developed it into a prosperous city. Anuradhapura was named after the minister who first established the village and after a grandfather of Pandukabhaya who lived there; the name was derived from the city's establishment on the auspicious asterism called Anura. Anuradhapura was the capital of all the monarchs.
Rulers such as Dutthagamani and Dhatusena are noted for defeating the South Indians and regaining control of the kingdom. Other rulers who are notable for military achievements include Gajabahu I, who launched an invasion against the invaders, Sena II, who sent his armies to assist a Pandyan prince. During the Middle Ages Sri Lanka was well known for its agricultural prosperity under the Parakramabahu in Polonnaruwa during which period the island was famous around the world as the rice mill of the east. In the 13th century the country's administrative provinces were divided into three independent kingdoms: Kingdom of Sitawaka, Kingdom of Kotte and the Kandyan kingdom; the invasion by Magha in the 13th century led to migrations by the Sinhalese to areas not under his control. This migration was followed by a period of conflict among the Sinhalese chiefs who tried to exert political supremacy. Parakramabahu VI in the 15th century was the only Sinhalese king during this time who could bring back the unity of the whole island.
Trade increased during this period, as Sri Lanka began to trade Cinnamon and a large number of Muslim traders were bought into the island. In the 15th century a Kandyan
Solomon Dias Bandaranaike
Sir Solomon Dias Abeywickrema Jayatilleke Senewiratna Rajakumaruna Kadukeralu Bandaranaike, was a Ceylonese colonial-era headmen. He was appointed as Head Mudaliyar and the aide-de-camp to the British Governor of Ceylon, therefore he was one of the most powerful personalities in British colonial Ceylon. Solomon Dias Bandaranaike was born on 22 May 1862, the son of the Anglican Gate Mudaliyar Don Christoffel Henricus Dias Abeywickrema Jayatilake Seneviratne Bandaranaike, Mudaliyar of the Governor's Gate and Mudaliyar of Siyane Korale East and Anna Florentina Philipsz, his grandfathers were Don Solomon Dias Bandaranayake, Mudaliyar of Siyane Korale East and Phillipsz Gysbertus Panditaratne, Mohandiram of the Governor’s Gate. He was educated at Mount Lavinia in Colombo, he was appointed a Muhandiram of the Governor's Gate in 1882 by Prince Albert, Duke of Clarence during his royal visit to Ceylon, following the death of his father in 1887 he succeeded him to the post of Mudaliyar of the Siyane Korale East.
Eight years Governor Sir Arthur Havelock appointed him to the post of Maha Mudali following the death of Head Mudaliyar Conrad "Peter" Petrus Dias Wijewardena Bandaranaike, his uncle. This was the highest position available to a native Ceylonese in British Ceylon in 1895 and traveled to England as Ceylon's official representative at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1896, he was the youngest to hold the position at the age of thirty three and would hold it for thirty three years until his retirement in 1928. Sir Solomon was a wealthy land owner with large estates. Apart from his town house in Colombo, he built a stately house, Horagolla Walauwa, converted his fathers walauwa in Horagolla to his stables, Horagolla Stables, he was the first Ceylonese to own a house in the hill station of Nuwara Eliya, an exclusive holiday destination for the British. Bandaranaike having received the honor appointment to the office of Head Mudaliyar, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace by the Governor and received permission from the Governor to add Rajakumaruna to his name.
For his service to the British Empire was marked by his appointment as Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1902 and Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, after travelling to England as Ceylon's official representative at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Attending the Coronation of King Edward VII, he received the King Edward VII Coronation Medal, he was a Fellow of the Imperial Institute. A keen horse breeder, he was the Life President of the Colombo Turf Club, which erected a statue during his life time in front of the Turf Club in Colombo which stands to this day, he was collector of antiquities, he donated Sir Henry Blake’s collection of palm leaf manuscripts to the Colombo National Museum. He was a life-member of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. In April 1898, he married Daisy Ezline Obeyesekere, daughter of Solomon Christoffel Obeyesekere, a member of the Legislative Council of Ceylon, his son, Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike, became the 4th Prime Minister of Ceylon after independence, his granddaughter, Chandrika Kumaratunga, became both Prime Minister and President of Sri Lanka.
His grandson, Anura Bandaranaike, became Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka. List of political families in Sri Lanka Horagolla Walauwa Bandaranaike family Bandaranaike, Sir Solomon Dias. Remembered yesterdays, being the reminiscences of Maha Mudaliyar Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranaike, K. C. M. G. J. Murray; the Bandaranaike Ancestry MYTHS AND SCHOLARS - PART V
S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike
Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike referred to as S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, was the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon and founder of the Left wing and Sinhalese nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party. SWRD Bandaranaike became the prime minister of Ceylon in 1956 and carried out left wing reforms such as nationalizing bus services and introducing legalization to prohibit caste based discrimination. Bandaranaike is remembered for removing British naval and air bases in Sri Lanka and establishing diplomatic missions with a number of communist states; when the Suez Crisis occurred Bandaranaike stood by Egypt and supported its right to nationalize the Suez Canal Company going against Israel and the UK in the UN. His effort to resolve the Suez Crisis, pleased the Arab Countries, thus Sri Lanka was appointed as a member of the Suez Advisory Board. Bandaranaike served as the prime minister till he was assassinated by a Buddhist monk named Ven Talduwe Somarama in 1959 over the signing of the Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact.
Bandaranaike was born in Colombo, Ceylon, to the wealthy Sinhalese Anglican Christian Bandaranaike family, who had become one of the elite native families under the British administration. His father was Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranaike the Maha Mudaliyar, while his mother was Daisy Ezline Obeyesekere, daughter of Sir Solomon Christoffel Obeyesekere, a member of the Legislative Council of Ceylon. Sir Solomon named his only son after West Ridgeway, the Governor of Ceylon at the time, his godfather, he had Anna Florentina. He was tutored at home at the Horagolla Walauwa in Attanagalla by an English tutor, for a short time attended S. Thomas' College, boarded at the Warden Rev. William Arthur Stone's residence, he passed the Cambridge senior examination with distinctions in English, Latin and French gaining the second in order of Merit in the British Empire that year. He entered Oxford, he read for Philosophy and Economics and graduated with honors in modern greats in 1923. At Oxford, he was the President of the Majlis Society.
In 1924, he was called to bar as a Barrister in the Inner Temple. After his return from Britain, Bandaranaike became active in local politics, he got elected as the Chairman of the Nittambuwa Village Committee in his family seat. He became Secretary of the Ceylon National Congress in 1926, in December the same year was elected from the Maradana Ward to the Colombo Municipal Council, defeating the trade unionist A. E. Goonesinha. Following the implementation of the Donoughmore Constitution, the State Council of Ceylon was established as the first legislator in the island with its members elected through universal suffrage. Bandaranaike contest and was elected unopposed from Veyangoda at the 1931 election to the first State Council and was elected to the executive committee for local administration, chaired by Charles Batuwantudawe, he stated in the council that the committee system introduced in the new constitution was satisfactory at the time. In 1936, he was re-elected unopposed from Veyangoda in the 1936 election to the second State Council.
In its first meeting, he was elected as Minister of Local Administration. As Minister, he was chairmen of the executive committee on local administration, of which he had been a member in the previous term and was a member of the Board of Ministers. In order to promote Sinhalese culture and community interests, Bandaranaike founded the Sinhala Maha Sabha in 1936, he introduced the Free Lanka Bill in the State Council in 1945 In 1947, when Leader of the House, D. S. Senanayake presented the Soulbury Constitution to the State Council, Bandaranaike seconded the motion stating that he does so as the Sinhala Maha Sabha was the largest party in the State Council. With Ceylon heading for self-rule under dominion status, D. S. Senanayake invited Bandaranaike to combine his Sinhala Maha Sabha with other smaller parties into the United National Party which Senanayake was forming to contest for the 1947 election under the new Soulbury Constitution. Bandaranaike accepted the invitation, formally dissolving the Sinhala Maha Sabha and merging with the UNP.
He contested for the newly formed House of Representatives in the 1947 election from the UNP from Attanagalla, winning with a good majority. In September 1947, D. S. Senanayake appointed him to his cabinet as the first Minister of Health and Local Government of Ceylon and he was elected as the Leader of the House; this made Bandaranaike the most senior member of the cabinet, after the Prime Minister. In fact, Senanayake had Sir Oliver Goonetilleke discuss with Bandaranaike as leader of the Sinhala Maha Sabha, the draft agreements for independence. However, he did not object and the agreements signed with the Britain government making way for Ceylon to gain self-rule; as leader of the house, he delivered the address of thanks at the ceremonial opening of parliament on 4 February 1948, which marked Ceylon's independence from Britain. During the next few years, he supported legislation proposed by the government as leader of the house; this included the Ceylon Citizenship Act No. 18 of 1948 and the Indian and Pakistani Residents Act No.3 of 1949 which deprived citizenship to Indian Tamils.
He initiated several projects for the improvement of health as minister of health, including the expansion of hospitals and uplifting ayurveda medicine. He attended the Third
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Felix Dias Bandaranaike
Felix Dias Bandaranaike was a Sri Lankan politician who served as Cabinet Minister of Finance, Parliamentary Secretary for the Prime Minister and Defence and External Affairs and Cabinet Minister of Justice in the cabinet of Prime Minister Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, he was a popular person about the anti-corruption campaign and known as the "virtual leader of the state" during the SLFP governments after the death of Prime minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, he was active in defeating two major coups against the government, one is 1962 attempted military coup and JVP's 1971 JVP Insurrection. The son of Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike II, Judge of the Supreme Court and Freda Dias Abeysinghe and half brother of Prof. Michael Dias Bandaranaike who held the Chair of Jurisprudence at the University of Cambridge, he was the nephew of Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, he was an outstanding scholar at Royal College, Colombo, at the University of Ceylon and at the Colombo Law College, carrying away most of the prestigious prizes.
After graduating he started his practice as a lawyer. Felix Dias Bandaranaike married Elizabeth Muthulakshmi Jayasundera, she is a graduate of the University of Ceylon and became a member of the Inner Temple and had a daughter named Christine. The family lived in the historic Maha Nuge Gardens in Colombo. Following the assassination of S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Felix entered politics to help his uncle's party, he was elected to parliament from the electorate of Dompe. In 1960 he became the youngest Cabinet Minister of Finance in the Commonwealth, at the age of 29 holding the post for twelve years in two governments. During this time he was the Parliamentary Secretary for Defence and External Affairs, he played an important role in stopping the 1962 military coup, rounding up the coup leaders and personally interrogating them. He took many drastic steps to bring to leaders to bar, when the current law of the country was found inadequate to try the leaders he had the new Criminal Law Special Provision Act of 1962 drafted and passed by parliament.
Due to problems in implementing rice subsidies he resigned from the post of minister. He was made Minister of Justice in 1970 when the SLFP won a major election victory gaining an overwhelming majority in parliament; the following year he played a major role in guiding the country though the 1971 JVP Insurrection. He was made Minister of Finance as well. A stout loyalist of Sirimavo Bandaranaike, he supported her in having the government extended by two more years the six years it was elected for. After the major defeat of the SLFP in the 1977 elections, he was deprived of his civic rights. Felix filed a court case in the 1980s against the State Film Corporation was released a film entitled "Sagarayak Meda" for public exhibition, defamatory of him. Felix filed several cases to prevent the abuse of power by the Government led by President Junius Richard Jayawardena. On 10 February 1978 the UNP government passed the Special Presidential Commissions of Inquiry Law No. 7 of 1978 to inquire into matters relating to alleged corruption during the 1970 – 1977 period.
Felix challenged the power of the Special Presidential Commission appointed to inquire against him. Thereafter the Parliament passed the Special Presidential Commissions of Inquiry Act No. 4 of 1978 to enable the Commission to re-inquire into the allegations. Thereafter, Two Supreme Court Judges and One Court of Appeal Judge was appointed to inquire into the allegations including those against Felix. Appearing in person and arguing on the basis that one Judge, K. C. E. de Alwis was unfit to hear cases due to his financial involvement with a person being investigated A. H. M. Fowzie; the Supreme Court held. In this landmark case, it was held by Samarakoon CJ. that "Right‑minded people would not be unjustified if they look askance at other decisions of the 1st respondent. It might undermine that faith in the Commission itself, necessary to command respect for its recommendations; this must be avoided, whatever the cost" reiterating emphatically the need to maintain judicial integrity and impartiality at all costs.
He was diagnosed with cancer and left active politics. He died on 26 June 1985. List of political families in Sri Lanka Attempted military coup in Ceylon, 1962 Sri Lanka: Third World Democracy by James Jupp The Bandaranaike Ancestry Bandaranaike Mudaliyar Jacobus Dias Wijewardena Family Tree Felix in Parliament and at Parliamentary Conferences A bold and outstanding politician Excerpts from the book FDB Official Website of Sri Lanka Freedom Party About Felix Dias – Sinhala News Paper "Lankadeepa" on July 31, 2008
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005. The country's only female president to date, she is the daughter of two former prime ministers and was the leader of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party until the end of 2005. In 2015 she was appointed as the chairperson of office for national reconciliation. Chandrika Bandaranaike was born on June 29, 1945 at Wentworth in Guidford Crescent, Colombo to Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike and Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike; the family moved the year to a mansion at Rosmead Place, Colombo purchased by her paternal grandfather. Her father S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike was an Oxford educated barrister, the Minister of Local Administration at the time of her birth. A nationalist and left wing politician, who had by the time build up a strong following known as the Sinhala Maha Sabha, he was the only son of Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranike, the Maha Mudaliyar, the chief Ceylonese representative and advisor to the Governor of Ceylon.
Her mother Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, was the daughter of Barnes Ratwatte Dissawa, Rate Mahatmaya of Balangoda during British colonial rule, a descended from Ratwatte Dissawa, Dissawa of Matale, a signatory on behalf of the Sinhalese to the Kandyan Convention of 1815. Young Chandrika grew up in comfort of the wealthy Bandaranaike family at their mansion at Rosmead Place in Colombo and at their family seat of Horagolla Walauwa, her father's constituency, her early years saw her father's rising political career as he became the first Cabinet Minister of Health and Local Government when Ceylon gained its independence in 1948 and his dramatic departure from the governing party to form his own party, the Sri Lanka Freedom Party with his follows of the Sinhala Maha Sabha in 1951. Contesting the elections that followed and strengthening the SLFP in the periods between elections; as prime minister he initiated several controversial legislation that struct racial discords in the island and he was assassinated in 1959, when Chandrika was fourteen.
Following the assassination Bandaranaike's grieving widow took over the leadership of the SLFP and led it to an election victory making her the first female prime minister in the world, in 1960. Therefore, Chandrika was involved in politics from an young age along with her siblings as she was the second of three children in the family, her elder sister Sunethra Bandaranaike became a socialite and her younger brother Anura Bandaranaike joined active politics, going on to become a cabinet minister and Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka. Chandrika was educated at the St Bridget's Convent and enrolled at the Roman Catholic Aquinas University College, Colombo to study for a law degree. However, in 1967, she left Aquinas without completing her law studies to France on a scholarship from the Institute of French Studies. There she spent one year at the Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence following a course in the French language and culture. In 1968, she went on to study at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris graduating with a diploma in political science in 1970, thereafter enrolling in a PhD program in development economics, at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, where she studied from 1970 to 1973 She is fluent in Sinhala and French.
She returned to Ceylon in 1972, where her mother had became prime minister for a second time in 1970 and launched a wide-ranging programme of socialist reform and faced a violent communist insurrection in 1971. After returning she enrolled in and became active in the SLFP, founded by her father and now led by her mother. In 1974, she became an executive committee member of its Women's League, she was appointed as an Additional Principal Director in the Land Reforms Commission which acquired nearly 228,000 hectares of private land to the state under the Land Reform Law, which imposed a ceiling of twenty hectares on owned land. Leaving the LRC in 1976, she became the chairman of the Janawasa Commission, which established collective farms from land acquired by the LRC. Following the defeat of her mother's SLFP government in the 1977 general election, she left government service and acted as a consultant to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations till 1979. In 1978, she married Vijaya Kumaratunga a leading actor.
She supported his election campaign in the by-election in Mahara in 1983, where he lost in the recount. She left the SLFP in 1984, when Vijaya Kumaratunga formed his own party the Sri Lanka Mahajana Pakshaya supporting his political activities against the policies of the mainstream parties, she served as the Vice President of the SLMP. This resulted in her falling out with her brother who were leading the SLFP at the time. On 16 February 1988, Vijaya Kumaratunga was assassinated in front of his home in Narahenpita by gunmen in the presence of his wife. Chandrika Kumaratunga took over the leadership of her husband's party, formed the United Socialist Alliance with the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, the Nava Sama Samaja Party. Although it was well organized, it lacked votes. Fearing for her life, she soon fled the country in 1988. There she worked for World Institute for Development Economics Research at the United Nations University. During her absence the SLMP had split into two factions during this time and had ousted her from its leadership.
Following the end of the
Kala Keerthi Dharmasiri Bandaranayake is a Sri Lankan film director and playwright. Bandaranyake's debut Hansa Vilak in 1980 dealt with facets of a society at odds with itself, his other films like Thunveni Yamaya, Suddilage Kathaawa, Bawa Duka and Bawa Karma followed similar themes. Bawa Duka and Bawa Karma challenged the repressive dogma of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Common arcs in Bandaranayake's films follow the conflicted lives of men and women, transformation of private lives into public affairs, the unpleasant reality of marriage and society and the dark side of human desire. Dharmasiri Bandaranayake is an acclaimed dramatist. Eka Adhipathi, Dhawala Bheeshana and Trojan Kanthavo have all dealt with current issues of national and political importance, he is an artist who attempts to connect the sociopolitical environment with the civil society through art. In 1999, Bandaranyake first staged the play Trojan Kanthawo which adapted Euripides' Greek drama The Trojan Women for a Sinhala and Tamil audience.
It is meant as an anti-war statement and proved to be controversial with the Sri Lankan government despite critical acclaim. Bandaranayake received several death threats in 2001 after he made plans to stage the play in predominantly Tamil areas. Dharmasiri Bandaranayake in Sinhala Cinema Database