Castration is any action, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy, chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization. Surgical castration in animals is called neutering; the term "castration" is sometimes used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. Estrogen levels drop precipitously following oophorectomy, long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body; the term "castration" may be sometimes used to refer to emasculation where both the testicles and the penis are removed together. In some cultures, in some translations, no distinction is made between the two; this can cause confusion. Castration of non-human animals is intended to favor a desired development of the animal or of its habits, as an anaphrodisiac or to prevent overpopulation; as above, see neutering for more information on castration of non-human animals.
Castration was used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia and East Asia. After battles in some cases, winners castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men — eunuchs – were admitted to special social classes and were used to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the harem. Castration figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as Judaism, were opposed to the practice; the Leviticus Holiness code, for example excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from sacrifice. Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of Chinese history, most notably in the Later Han, late Tang and late Ming dynasties. There are similar. In ancient times, castration involved the total removal of all the male genitalia; this involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the Byzantine Empire, was seen as the same as a death sentence.
Removal of only the testicles had much less risk. Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer. Testosterone-depletion treatment is used to slow down the cancer reduce sex drive or interest in those with sexual drives, obsessions, or behaviors, or any combination of those that may be considered deviant. Castration has been used in the United States for sex offenders. Trans women undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment surgery, either before or during other procedures, it may be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery. Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies, it was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans during their invasions of Sicily and Italy.
In the medieval kingdom of Georgia, the pretender Demna was castrated by his uncle George III of Georgia to ensure the supremacy of George's branch of the family. Another victim of castration was the medieval French philosopher, scholar and monk Pierre Abélard, he was castrated by relatives of Héloïse. Bishop Wimund, a 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was castrated. In medieval England those found guilty of high treason were hanged and quartered, which included emasculation or removal of the genitalia. In ancient Greek mythology, Cronus castrated his father, after the latter imprisoned the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires. William Wallace, the Scottish resistance leader, was castrated as part of his execution, for resistance to English rule. Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were "punished" by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests.
However, the Deetman Commission had rejected it as the person who reported the incident admitted it was speculative. Voluntary castration for homosexuality was state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures. Chemical castration is used as part of sentencing in criminal cases. In 1952, Alan Turing—the father of computer science and the inventor of the Turing machine—was criminally prosecuted for homosexual acts and chose chemical castration as an alternative to a period of imprisonment. In Spain, a law against castration was used to deny sex-reassignment surgery to transgender people until the Penal Code was reformed in 1983. According to legend, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun and Yu in China, in 2281 BCE castration was passed into law as a punishment, which remained so until the reign of Gaozu of Tang. However, it was still practiced after his reign. According to historians, it was incorporated into Chinese law during the Zhou Dynasty.
It was one of the five ph
Dairy cattle are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made. Dairy cows are of the species Bos taurus. There was little distinction between dairy cattle and beef cattle, with the same stock being used for both meat and milk production. Today, the bovine industry is more specialized and most dairy cattle have been bred to produce large volumes of milk. Dairy cows may be found either in herds or dairy farms where dairy farmers own, care for, collect milk from them, or on commercial farms. Herd sizes vary around the world depending on social structure; the United States has 9 million cows with an average herd size of 120 cows. The number of small herds is falling with the 3,100 herds with over 500 cows producing 51% of U. S. milk in 2007. The United Kingdom dairy herd overall has nearly 1.5 million cows, with about 100 head reported on an average farm. In New Zealand, the average herd has more than 375 cows, while in Australia, there are 220 cows in the average herd.
The United States dairy herd produced 84.2 billion kilograms of milk in 2007, up from 52.9 billion kilograms in 1950, yet there were only about 9 million cows on U. S. dairy farms—about 13 million fewer than there were in 1950. The top breed of dairy cow within Canada's national herd category is Holstein, taking up 93% of the dairy cow population, have an annual production rate of 10,257 kilograms of milk per cow that contains 3.9% butter fat and 3.2% protein. Dairy farming, like many other livestock raring, can be split into intensive and extensive management systems. Intensive systems focus towards maximum production per cow in the herd; this involve formulating their diet to provide ideal nutrition and housing the cows in a confinement system such as free stall or tie stall. These cows are housed indoors throughout their lactation and may be put to pasture during their 60-day dry period before ideally calving again. Free stall style barns involve cattle loosely housed where they can have free access to feed and stalls but are moved to another part of the barn to be milked multiple times a day.
In a tie stall system, the milking units are brought to the cows during each milking. These cattle are tethered within their stalls with free access to feed are provided. In extensive systems, cattle are outside on pasture for most of their lives; these cattle are lower in milk production and are herded multiple times daily to be milked. The systems used depends on the climate and available land of the region of which the farm is situated. To maintain lactation, a dairy cow must produce calves. Depending on market conditions, the cow may be bred with a "dairy bull" or a "beef bull." Female calves with dairy breeding may be kept as replacement cows for the dairy herd. If a replacement cow turns out to be a substandard producer of milk, she goes to market and can be slaughtered for beef. Male calves can either be used as a breeding bull or sold and used for veal or beef. Dairy farmers begin breeding or artificially inseminating heifers around 13 months of age. A cow's gestation period is nine months.
Newborn calves are removed from their mothers usually within three days, as the mother/calf bond intensifies over time and delayed separation can cause extreme stress on both cow and calf. Domestic cows can live to 20 years. In 2014 9.5% of the cattle slaughtered in the U. S. were culled dairy cows: cows. These animals may be sold due to reproductive problems or common diseases of milk cows such as mastitis and lameness. Most heifers are kept on farm to be raised as a replacement heifer, a female, bred and enters the production cycle. Market calves are sold at two weeks of age and bull calves may fetch a premium over heifers due to their size, either current or potential. Calves may be sold for veal, or for one of several types of beef production, depending on available local crops and markets; such bull calves may be castrated if turnout onto pastures is envisaged, to make them less aggressive. Purebred bulls from elite cows may be put into progeny testing schemes to find out whether they might become superior sires for breeding.
Such animals can become valuable. Most dairy farms separate calves from their mothers within a day of birth to reduce transmission of disease and simplify management of milking cows. Studies have been done allowing calves to remain with their mothers for 1, 4, 7 or 14 days after birth. Cows whose calves were removed longer than one day after birth showed increased searching and vocalizations. However, calves allowed to remain with their mothers for longer periods showed weight gains at three times the rate of early removals as well as more searching behavior and better social relationships with other calves. After separation, some young dairy calves subsist on commercial milk replacer, a feed based on dried milk powder. Milk replacer is an economical alternative to feeding whole milk because it is cheaper, can be bought at varying fat and protein percentages, is less contaminated than whole milk when handled properly; some farms feed calves milk from the cows in the herd instead of using replacer.
A day-old calf consumes around 5 liters of milk per day. Cattle are social animals.
Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA uses livestock to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods. Livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming".
Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
This can mean semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only domesticated or of disputed status; these populations may be in the process of domestication. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall.
Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter. In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cove
Docking is the intentional removal of part of an animal's tail or, ears. The term cropping is more used in reference to the cropping of ears, while docking more commonly—but not exclusively—refers to the tail; the term tailing is commonly used. The term arises because the living flesh of the tail, from which the animal's tail hairs grow is known as the dock. Many breeds of sheep have their tails docked to reduce the buildup of faeces which can encourage fly strike. Used for this purpose is mulesing. Docking makes it easier to view a grown ewe's udders to detect potential problems. While tail docking is an effective preventive method in some cases, if it is not carried out it may result in other problems such as ill thrift or rectal prolapse. In lambs, tail docking at the distal end of the caudal folds tends to minimize docking effects on incidence of rectal prolapse. Docking at that length has been recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association. In the UK the law states that for sheep docked tails should at a minimum cover the anus in male lambs, the vulva in female lambs.
These minimum lengths are recommended in CanadaDepending on the animal and the culture, docking may be done by cutting, searing, or constriction methods, i.e. rubber ring elastration. The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association indicates that pain, recovery time and complications associated with docking of livestock will be minimized by docking when animals are under one week of age. However, docking of lambs within 24 hours of birth is not recommended, as it may interfere with ingestion of colostrum and/or formation of the maternal bond. In the UK the law requires that docking on sheep using constriction methods must be performed within the first week of the animal's life; the UK Farm Animal Welfare Council has noted that this limitation can be problematic in management of hill flocks where normal practice is to handle lambs as little as possible during the first week "to avoid mis-mothering, mis-adventure and injury." As with other domesticated animals there is a long history of docking the tails of dogs.
It is understood to date at least to the Roman Empire. The most popular reason for docking dog breeds is to prevent injury to working dogs. In hunting dogs, the tail is docked to prevent it from getting cut up as the dog wags its tail in the brush; this is sometimes considered a form of animal cruelty. This has led to the practice being outlawed and made illegal throughout many countries, in some of which dogs are no longer bred for work, or used as working animals. For example, in United Kingdom tail docking was undertaken by dog breeders. However, in 1991, the UK government amended the Veterinary Surgeons Act, prohibiting the docking of dogs' tails by lay persons from 1 July 1993. Only veterinary surgeons were, by law, allowed to dock. However, following the passage of the law, the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in November 1992, ruled docking to be unethical, "unless for therapeutic or acceptable prophylactic reasons"; the requirement in which the Royal College considers prophylactic docking to be acceptable are so strict as to make the routine docking of puppies by veterinary surgeons difficult.
Vets who continue to dock risk disciplinary action, can be removed from the professional register. Those found guilty of unlawful docking would face a fine of up to £20,000, up to 51 weeks imprisonment or both, they can only dock the tail of "working" dogs - e.g. hunting dogs that work in areas thick in brambles and heavy vegetation where the dog's tail can get caught and cause injury to the dog. Docking was banned in England and Wales by the Animal Welfare Act 2006 and in Scotland by the Animal Health and Welfare Act 2006. In 1987 the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals, established by Council of Europe, prohibited docking for non-medical reasons, though signatory countries are free to opt out of this provision, half of them have done so. Norway banned the practice in 1987. Other countries where docking is banned include the United Kingdom. Most docking was done for practical purposes. For example, a draft horse used for hauling large loads might have had its tail docked to prevent it from becoming entangled in tow ropes, farm machinery, or harness.
In modern use, the term does not refer to tail amputation as it does with some dog breeds. However docking was performed on some horses as foals; the practice has been banned in some nations, but is still seen on some show and working draft horses in some places, is practiced at some PMU operations. In modern times, the term "docked" or "docking" in reference to the tail of a horse refers to the practice of cutting the hair of the tail skirt short, just past the end of the natural dock of the tail. In particular, the tail is cut short to keep it from being tangled in a harness. Tail docking of dairy cows is prevalent in some regions; some anecdotal reports have suggested that such docking may reduce occurrence of mastitis. However, a study examining such issues found no significant effect of docking on SCC or mastitis frequency or on four measures of cow cleanliness. Although it has been suggested that leptospirosis among dairy farm workers might be reduced by docking cows' tails, a study found that milkers' leptospiral titers were not related to tail dockin
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of'extension' now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture, agricultural marketing and business studies. Extension practitioners can be found throughout the world working for government agencies, they are represented by several professional organizations and extension journals. Agricultural extension agencies in developing countries receive large amounts of support from international development organizations such as the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Modern extension began in Dublin, Ireland in 1847 with Lord Clarendon's itinerant instructors during the great famine, it expanded in Germany in the 1850s, through the itinerant agricultural teachers Wanderlehrer and in the USA via the cooperative extension system authorized by the Smith-Lever Act in 1914.
The term was adopted in the United States of America, while in Britain it was replaced with "advisory service" in the 20th century. A number of other terms are used in different parts of the world to describe the same or similar concept: Arabic: Al-Ershad Dutch: Voorlichting German: Beratung French: Vulgarisation Spanish: Capacitación Thai, Lao: Song-Suem Persian: Tarvij & Gostaresh - ترویج و گسترشIn the US, an extension agent is a university employee who develops and delivers educational programs to assist people in economic and community development, family issues and environment. Another program area provided by extension agents is youth activities. Many extension agents work for cooperative extension service programs at land-grant universities, they are sometimes referred to as county agents, or extension educators. Confused with Extension agents, Extension specialists are subject matter experts employed as scientists and university professors in various departments in the land-grant university system.
Subjects range from agriculture, life sciences, engineering, food safety, pest management, veterinary medicine, various other allied disciplines. These subject matter specialists work with agents to support programs within the cooperative extension system; the examples given below are taken from a number of books on extension published over a period of more than 50 years: 1949: The central task of extension is to help rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the daily routines of farming and family and community living. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. 1966: Extension personnel have the task of bringing scientific knowledge to farm families in the farms and homes. The object of the task is to improve the efficiency of agriculture. 1973: Extension is a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their standard of living and lifting social and educational standards.
1974: Extension involves the conscious use of communication of information to help people form sound opinions and make good decisions. 1982: Agricultural Extension: Assistance to farmers to help them identify and analyze their production problems and become aware of the opportunities for improvement. 1988: Extension is a professional communication intervention deployed by an institution to induce change in voluntary behaviors with a presumed public or collective utility. 1997: Extension is the organized exchange of information and the deliberate transfer of skills. 1999: The essence of agricultural extension is to facilitate interplay and nurture synergies within a total information system involving agricultural research, agricultural education and a vast complex of information-providing businesses. 2004: Extension is a series of embedded communicative interventions that are meant, among other goals, to develop and/or induce innovations which help to resolve problematic situations. 2006: Extension is the process of enabling change in individuals and industries involved in the primary industry sector and in natural resource management.
It is not known when the first extension activities took place. It is known, that Chinese officials were creating agricultural policies, documenting practical knowledge, disseminating advice to farmers at least 2,000 years ago. For example, in 800 BC, the minister responsible for agriculture under one of the Zhou dynasty emperors organized the teaching of crop rotation and drainage to farmers; the minister leased equipment to farmers, built grain stores and supplied free food during times of famine. The birth of the modern extension service has been attributed to events that took place in Ireland in the middle of the 19th century. Between 1845–51 the Irish potato crop was destroyed by fungal diseases and a severe famine occurred; the British Government arranged for "practical instructors" to travel to rural areas and teach small farmers how to cultivate alternative crops. This scheme attracted the attention of government officials in Germany, who organized their own system of traveling instructors.
By the end of the 19th century, the idea had spread to Denmark, Netherlands and France. The term "university extension" was first used by the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford in 1867 to describe teac
Adjustable gastric band
A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band called a lap-band, A band, or LAGB, is an inflatable silicone device placed around the top portion of the stomach to treat obesity, intended to decrease food consumption. Adjustable gastric band surgery is an example of bariatric surgery designed for obese patients with a body mass index of 40 or greater—or between 35 and 40 in cases of patients with certain comorbidities that are known to improve with weight loss, such as sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, GERD, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome, among others. In February 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration expanded approval of adjustable gastric bands to patients with a BMI between 30 and 40 and one weight-related medical condition, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. However, an adjustable gastric band may be used only after other methods such as diet and exercise have been tried; the inflatable band is placed around the upper part of the stomach to create a smaller stomach pouch.
This slows and limits the amount of food that can be consumed at one time, thus giving the opportunity for the sense of satiety to be met with the release of peptide YY. It does not decrease gastric emptying time; the individual achieves sustained weight loss by choosing healthy food options, limiting food intake and volume, reducing appetite, progress of food from the top portion of the stomach to the lower portion digestion. According to the American Society for Metabolic Bariatric Surgery, bariatric surgery is not an easy option for obesity sufferers, it is a drastic step, carries the usual pain and risks of any major gastrointestinal surgical operation. However, gastric banding is the least invasive surgery of its kind and is reversible, with another "keyhole" operation. Gastric banding is performed using laparoscopic surgery and results in a shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, smaller scars, less pain than open surgical procedures; because no part of the stomach is stapled or removed, the patient's intestines are not re-routed, he or she can continue to absorb nutrients from food normally.
Gastric bands are made of biocompatible materials, so they are able to stay in the patient’s body without causing harm. However, not all patients are suitable for laparoscopy. Patients who are obese, who have had previous abdominal surgery, or have complicating medical problems may require the open approach; the surgical insertion of an adjustable gastric band is referred to as a lap band procedure or band placement. First, a small incision is made near the belly button. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the abdomen to create a work space for the surgeon. A small laparoscopic camera is placed through the incision into the abdomen; the camera sends a picture of the abdominal cavity to a video monitor. It gives the surgeon a good view of the key structures in the abdominal cavity. A few additional small incisions are made in the abdomen; the surgeon watches the video monitor and works through these small incisions using instruments with long handles to complete the procedure. The surgeon creates a small, circular tunnel behind the stomach, inserts the gastric band through the tunnel, locks the band around the stomach.
Clinical studies of laparoscopic bariatric surgery patients found that they felt better, spent more time doing recreational and physical activities, benefited from enhanced productivity and economic opportunities, had more self-confidence than they did prior to surgery. The placement of the band creates a small pouch at the top of the stomach; this pouch holds ½ cup of food, whereas the typical stomach holds about 6 cups of food. The pouch fills with food and the band slows the passage of food from the pouch to the lower part of the stomach; as the upper part of the stomach registers as full, the message to the brain is that the entire stomach is full, this sensation helps the person to be hungry less feel full more and for a longer period of time, eat smaller portions, lose weight over time. As patients lose weight, their bands will need adjustments, or "fills", to ensure comfort and effectiveness; the gastric band is adjusted by introducing a saline solution into a small access port placed just under the skin.
A specialized non-coring needle is used to prevent leakage. There are many port designs, they may be placed in varying positions based on the surgeon’s preference, but are always attached to the muscle wall in and around the diaphragm. Adjustable gastric bands hold between 12 cc of saline solution, depending on their design; when the band is inflated with saline solution, it places pressure around the outside of the stomach. This decreases the size of the passage between the pouch created from the upper part of the stomach and the lower stomach and further restricts the movement of food. Over the course of several visits to the doctor, the band is filled until the optimal restriction has been achieved – neither so loose that hunger is not controlled, nor so tight that food cannot move through the digestive system; the number of adjustments required is an individual experience and cannot be predicted. In the U. S. market, two types of adjustable gastric bands have been approved by the FDA: Realize Band and Lap-Band.
The Lap-Band System obtained FDA approval in 2001. The device has undergone modification over the years; the latest models, the Lap-Band AP-L and Lap-Band AP-S, feature a standardized injection port sutured into the s
A draft horse, draught horse or dray horse, less called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor. There are a number of breeds, with varying characteristics, but all share common traits of strength, a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers. Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, draft horse showing, logging and other uses, they are commonly used for crossbreeding to light riding breeds such as the Thoroughbred, for the purpose of creating sport horses of warmblood type. While most draft horses are used for driving, they can be ridden and some of the lighter draft breeds are capable performers under saddle. Draft horses are recognizable by their tall stature and muscular build. In general, they tend to have a more upright shoulder, producing more upright movement and conformation, well-suited for pulling.
They tend to have broad, short backs with powerful hindquarters, again best suited for the purpose of pulling. Additionally, the draft breeds have heavy bone, a good deal of feathering on their lower legs. Many have a straight profile or "Roman nose". Draft breeds range from 16 to 19 hands high and from 1,400 to 2,000 lb. Draft horses crossbred on light riding horses adds height and weight to the ensuing offspring, may increase the power and "scope" of the animal's movement; the largest horse in recorded history was a Shire named Sampson, born in 1846. He stood 21.2 hands high, his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms. At over 19 hands, a Shire gelding named Goliath was the Guinness Book of World Records record holder for the world's tallest horse until his death in 2001. Humans needed them to perform a variety of duties. One type of horse-powered work was the hauling of heavy loads, plowing fields, other tasks that required pulling ability. A heavy, patient, well-muscled animal was desired for this work.
Conversely, a light, more energetic horse was needed for rapid transport. Thus, to the extent possible, a certain amount of selective breeding was used to develop different types of horse for different types of work, it is a common misunderstanding that the Destrier that carried the armoured knight of the Middle Ages had the size and conformation of a modern draft horse, some of these Medieval war horses may have provided some bloodlines for some of the modern draft breeds. The reality was that the high-spirited, quick-moving Destrier was closer to the size and temperament of a modern Andalusian or Friesian. There were working farm horses of more phlegmatic temperaments used for pulling military wagons or performing ordinary farm work which provided bloodlines of the modern draft horse. Records indicate that medieval drafts were not as large as those today. Of the modern draft breeds, the Percheron has the closest ties to the medieval war horse. By the 19th century, horses weighing more than 1,600 pounds that moved at a quick pace were in demand.
Tall stature, muscular backs, powerful hindquarters made the draft horse a source of “horsepower” for farming, hauling freight and moving passengers. The railroads increased demand for working horses, as a growing economy still needed transport over the'last mile' between the goods yard or station and the final customer. In the 20th century, draft horses were used for practical work, including over half a million used during World War I to support the military effort, until motor vehicles became an affordable and reliable substitute. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, thousands of draft horses were imported from Western Europe into the United States. Percherons came from Belgians from Belgium, Shires from England, Clydesdales from Scotland. Many American draft registries were founded in the late 19th century; the Percheron, with 40,000 broodmares registered as of 1915, was America's most numerous draft breed at the turn of the 20th century. A breed developed in the U. S. was the American Cream Draft.
Beginning in the late 19th century, with increasing mechanization in the 20th century following World War I in the US and after World War II in Europe, the popularity of the internal combustion engine, the tractor, reduced the need for the draft horse. Many were sold to slaughter for horsemeat and a number of breeds went into significant decline. Today draft horses are most seen at shows, pulling competition and entered in competitions called "heavy horse" trials, or as exhibition animals pulling large wagons. However, they are still seen on some smaller farms in the Europe, they are popular with groups such as Amish and Mennonite farmers, as well as those individuals who wish to farm with a renewable source of power. They are sometimes used during forestry management to remove logs from dense woodland where there is insufficient space for mechanized techniques. Crossbred draft horses played a significant role in the development of a number of warmblood breeds, popular today in international FEI competition up to the Olympic Equestrian level.
Small areas still exist where draft horses are used as transportation, d