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Lumen method

In lighting design, the lumen method, is a simplified method to calculate the light level in a room. The method is a series of calculations that uses horizontal illuminance criteria to establish a uniform luminaire layout in a space. In its simplest form, the lumen method is the total number of lumens available in a room divided by the area of the room. In order to perform this calculation, many factors, lamp lumen data and other quantities must be gathered. Despite the scientific impression of the lumen method equations, there are inaccuracies and assumptions built into the method. Therefore, the lumen method should not be used as a standalone, final solution. Light loss factors are the factors; the most important factors to be considered are: Lamp Lumen Depreciation: Lamp lumen depreciation values reflect the overall performance of a lamp over its life. LLD = Those values can be found from the lamp manufacturer data Ballast Factor: Compares the ratio of light output of a lamp working by a specific ballast to the light output of the same lamp working by a standard reference ballast.

The BF is given in the ballast manufacturer data. Luminaire Dirt Depreciation: It is the light loss prior to cleaning dust. LDD is estimated from tables in IESNA Lighting handbook. Room Surface Dirt Depreciation: This value accounts for dirt or dust that accumulates on all of the room surfaces — on the upper walls and ceiling. RSDD is estimated from handbook tables; the product of all these factors is the light loss factor, used in the Average Illuminance equation. A step-by-step guide is given in the IESNA Lighting Handbook; the lumen method in brief consists of calculation of the "cavity ratios" of the upper and lower volumes of the space to be lighted. The lower cavity is from the floor to the working height, the upper cavity is from the lower edge of the luminaires to the ceiling, the middle cavity is the volume between these planes; the effective reflectance of ceiling and walls are estimated from tabular data. A coefficient of utilization, representing the fraction of light, directed to the working plane, is supplied by manufacturers for each luminaire design for the various calculated room cavity ratios.

Some of the light produced by the lamps is lost due to non-ideal lamp operating conditions, dirt on the luminaires, dirt on the room surfaces. A light loss factor is calculated based on tabulated empirical factors. Given the usual lighting problem of obtaining an average lighting level at the working plane, the number of luminaires can be calculated based on the effective amount of useful light that each luminaire has been calculated to emit. Since the zonal cavity method only gives an average lighting level, manufacturers tabulate recommended spacing to mounting height ratios that must not be exceeded if uniform illumination is desired; the lumen method can be manipulated to solve for a particular variable. This is valuable. “Number of luminaires” is important because this number can be used to estimate costs and layout the spacing of luminaires in a computer lighting calculation program. The CU value should be obtained by the manufacturer of the luminaire, to be evaluated. In order to determine the CU on the manufacturer’s table, a room cavity ratio must be used.

The reflectance of the ceiling and floor must be known. RCR = 5 x x / Lumens per lamp should be obtained from the lamp manufacturer. Light loss factors can be calculated using methods in the IESNA handbook. Sometimes, individual companies have their own rule of thumb for Light Loss Factors; the ballast factor can be obtained from the ballast manufacturer

Laurence Oliphant (Jacobite)

Laurence Oliphant was a Jacobite army officer who belonged to a branch settled at Findo Gask in Perthshire, Scotland. He took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, both he and his son Laurence were concerned in the rising of 1745. Oliphant senior served as Governor of Perth during the advance to Derby and both were present at the battles of Falkirk and Culloden; the Laird of Gask and his son were among the Jacobites who regrouped at Ruthven Barracks after the defeat at Culloden. After the remnant of the Jacobite army dispersed, they went into hiding in the Angus Glens for seven months before taking ship from Arbroath for Amsterdam on 5 November 1746, from there to Sweden. From there they travelled to France where they lived at Corbeil, near Versailles. On 14 July 1760 Oliphant was created Lord Oliphant in the Jacobite peerage, he returned to Scotland in 1763 and spent the last years of his life on his Gask estate. He died in 1767. In 1723 Oliphant married Amelia Murray, a daughter of William Murray, second Lord Nairne.

His descendants include Carolina, Baroness Nairne and from his sister are descended Laurence Oliphant the author, MP and diplomat and Thomas Oliphant and author of "Deck the Halls with Boughs of Holly"

Eileen Buckholtz

Eileen Buckholtz, née Garber was a United States novelist from 1982 to 1997. She wrote under her married name in collaboration with Ruth Glick, in collaboration with her under the pseudonyms of Amanda Lee and Rebecca York until 1997. Eileen Garber was born in 1949, she married Howard Buckholtz, they had two sons and David. She lives in United States. Eileen worked in the Department of Defense from 1970 to 2001, her first published novel was, Love is Elected as Alyssa Howard, a collaborative effort with Ruth Glick, Louise Titchener, Carolyn Males, they wrote other novel. She continued writing Young Adult's novels with Ruth Glick, romance novels under the pseudonyms of Amanda Lee and Rebecca York until 1997, when she decided to stop writing. Since 1994, Eileen has been designing websites and serves as President of Technology Concepts, Inc. 1982 - Romantic Times Nominee for Best Romance, Love is Elected 1987 - Romantic Times Lifetime Achievement Award for Romantic Suspense Series, The Peregrine Connection 1992 - Romance Writers of America RITA Award finalist for Best Romantic Suspense Novel, Bayou Moon 1993-1994, Romantic Times Nominee for Best Series Romance, Tangled Vows 1995-1996 - Romantic Times Career Achievement Award winner for Series Romantic Mystery 1995-1996 - Romantic Times Career Achievement Award Nominee for Series Storyteller of the Year 1996 - Washington Romance Writers Outstanding Achievement Award 1997 - Romance Writers of America RITA Award finalist for Best Romantic Suspense Novel, For Your Eyes Only Love is Elected Southern Persuasion 10.

Mission of the Secret Spy Squad 1. Space Attack 5. Mindbenders 7. Doom Stalker 1. Captain Kid and the Pirates 4; the Cats of Castle Mountain Saber Dance Breathless Smoke Screen Desperado The Golden Hawk On Edge Risky Venture Roller Coaster The Big Score Night Stalker Kids' Computer I. Q. Book ABPC: Kids´ Guide to the IBM Personal Computer End of Illusion Love in Good Measure More Than Promises Logical choice Great expectations A place in your heart Silver Creek Challenge Talons of the Falcon Flight of the Raven In Search of the Dove Life Line Shattered Vows Whispers in the Night Only Skin Deep Trial by Fire Hopscotch Cradle and All What Child Is This? Midnight Kiss Tangled Vows Till Death Us Do Part Prince of Time Face to Face For Your Eyes Only Father and Child Remington and Juliet... continued writing by Ruth Glick Life Line Bayou Moon Tangled Vows Postmark Needlepoint

Stephen Lanza

Stephen Lanza is a retired United States Army lieutenant general who served as commanding general, I Corps at Joint Base Lewis–McChord from February 6, 2014 to April 3, 2017, when he transferred authority to Lieutenant General Gary J. Volesky, he retired from active service on June 2, 2017. Lanza was commissioned into the Field Artillery in 1980, after graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, he is a graduate of the United States Army Command and General Staff College and the School for Advanced Military Studies at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He has a bachelor of science degree from the United States Military Academy, a Master of Science in Administration from Central Michigan University and a Master of Science in National Security and Strategic Studies from the National War College at Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington D. C, he has served as a National Security Fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts. Lanza has commanded soldiers at all levels including the 7th Infantry Division.

Lanza's senior staff assignments include the aide-de-camp to the Commander in Chief, United States Army Europe/Commander, NATO Peace Stabilization Force. S. Army Europe and Seventh Army, Germany. S. Army Europe and Seventh Army, Germany. C, his operational deployment experience includes Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Saudi Arabia. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document ""

Jim Brown (Western Australian politician)

James McMillan Brown is a former Australian politician who served in both houses of the Parliament of Western Australia, representing the Labor Party. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly from 1971 to 1974, served in the Legislative Council from 1980 to 1992. Brown was born to Susan Marion and William McMillan Brown, his family moved to Perth. In April 1945, after turning 18, he enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force, although the imminent end of the war meant his time in the military was short-lived. Brown played high-level Australian rules football as a youth, appearing in three senior games for South Fremantle during the 1949 WANFL season, he moved to the country in 1950 running a store in Muntadgin with his brother, running a service station and Massey Ferguson dealership in Merredin. Brown first ran for parliament at the 1968 state election, he was preselected to replace Lionel Kelly in the seat of Merredin-Yilgarn, but lost to the Liberal Party's Jack Stewart. Brown recontested the seat at the 1971 election, winning 52.7 percent of the two-party-preferred vote.

However, he held it only until the next election in 1974, when he was defeated by the National Alliance's Hendy Cowan. Brown re-entered parliament at the 1980 state election, winning election to the Legislative Council's South-East Province, he was re-elected in 1986, at the 1989 election transferred to the new five-member Agricultural Region. Brown was elected chairman of committees in the Legislative Council in August 1989, held the position until his retirement from parliament in March 1992. Members of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly Members of the Western Australian Legislative Council