A passband is the range of frequencies or wavelengths that can pass through a filter. For example, a radio receiver contains a filter to select the frequency of the desired radio signal out of all the radio waves picked up by its antenna. The passband of a receiver is the range of frequencies it can receive, a bandpass-filtered signal, is known as a bandpass signal, in contrast to a baseband signal. In telecommunications and acoustics, a passband is the portion of the spectrum that is transmitted by some filtering device. In other words, it is a band of frequencies which passes through some filter or set of filters, the accompanying figure shows a schematic of a waveform being filtered by a bandpass filter consisting of a highpass and a lowpass filter. Radio receivers generally include a tunable band-pass filter with a passband that is enough to accommodate the bandwidth of the radio signal transmitted by a single station. There are two categories of digital communication transmission methods and passband.
In baseband transmission, line coding is utilized, resulting in a train or pulse amplitude modulated signal. This is typically used over non-filtered wires such as fiber optical cables and short-range copper links, for example, V.29, V.35, IEEE802.3, SONET/SDH. In passband transmission, digital methods are employed so that only a limited frequency range is used in some bandpass filtered channel. Passband transmission is utilized in wireless communication and in bandpass filtered channels such as POTS lines. It allows for frequency-division multiplexing, the digital bit stream is converted first into an equivalent baseband signal, and to a RF signal. On the receiver side a demodulator is used to detect the signal, a combined equipment for modulation and demodulation is called a modem. In general, there is a relationship between the width of a filters passband and the time required for the filter to respond to new inputs. This is a consequence of the mathematics of Fourier analysis, the limiting frequencies of a passband are defined as those at which the relative intensity or power decreases to a specified fraction of the maximum intensity or power.
This decrease in power is often specified to be the half-power points, the difference between the limiting frequencies is called the bandwidth, and is expressed in hertz. The related term bandpass is an adjective that describes a type of filter or filtering process, it is confused with passband. The two words are both words that follow the English rules of formation, the primary meaning is the latter part of the compound
Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems with inputs, and how their behavior is modified by feedback. The usual objective of control theory is to control a system, often called the plant, so its output follows a control signal, called the reference. To do this a controller is designed, which monitors the output, the difference between actual and desired output, called the error signal, is applied as feedback to the input of the system, to bring the actual output closer to the reference. Some topics studied in control theory are stability and observability, extensive use is usually made of a diagrammatic style known as the block diagram. Although a major application of theory is in control systems engineering. As the general theory of systems, control theory is useful wherever feedback occurs. A few examples are in physiology, climate modeling, machine design, navigation, neural networks, predator–prey interaction, gene expression, Control systems may be thought of as having four functions, compare and correct.
These four functions are completed by five elements, transducer, controller, the measuring function is completed by the detector and transmitter. In practical applications these three elements are contained in one unit. A standard example of a unit is a resistance thermometer. Older controller units have been mechanical, as in a governor or a carburetor. The correct function is completed with a control element. The final control element changes an input or output in the system that affects the manipulated or controlled variable. Fundamentally, there are two types of loops, open loop control and closed loop control. In open loop control, the action from the controller is independent of the process output. A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so heat is applied for a constant time. In closed loop control, the action from the controller is dependent on the process output. A closed loop controller therefore has a loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same as the Reference input or set point
When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form, Radio systems need a transmitter to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation. Radio systems need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, an antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected, the electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, a radio communication system sends signals by radio. The term radio is derived from the Latin word radius, meaning spoke of a wheel, beam of light, this invention would not be widely adopted. The switch to radio in place of wireless took place slowly and unevenly in the English-speaking world, the United States Navy would play a role.
Although its translation of the 1906 Berlin Convention used the terms wireless telegraph and wireless telegram, the term started to become preferred by the general public in the 1920s with the introduction of broadcasting. Radio systems used for communication have the following elements, with more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialised for different communications purposes. Each system contains a transmitter, This consists of a source of electrical energy, the transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle such as amplitude, phase. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker. It was the used for the first audio radio transmissions.
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. FM has the capture effect whereby a receiver only receives the strongest signal, Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at Very high frequency radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music, analog TV sound is broadcast using FM. Angle modulation alters the phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both. Electronic filters can be, passive or active analog or digital high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, see the article on linear filters for details on their design and analysis. The oldest forms of filters are passive analog linear filters. These are known as RC and RL single-pole filters respectively, more complex multipole LC filters have existed for many years, and their operation is well understood. Hybrid filters are possible, typically involving a combination of analog amplifiers with mechanical resonators or delay lines. Other devices such as CCD delay lines have used as discrete-time filters. With the availability of digital processing, active digital filters have become common. Passive implementations of filters are based on combinations of resistors and capacitors. These types are known as passive filters, because they do not depend upon an external power supply and/or they do not contain active components such as transistors.
Inductors block high-frequency signals and conduct low-frequency signals, while capacitors do the reverse, the inductors and capacitors are the reactive elements of the filter. The number of elements determines the order of the filter, in this context, an LC tuned circuit being used in a band-pass or band-stop filter is considered a single element even though it consists of two components. At high frequencies, sometimes the inductors consist of single loops or strips of metal. These inductive or capacitive pieces of metal are called stubs, the simplest passive filters, RC and RL filters, include only one reactive element, except hybrid LC filter which is characterized by inductance and capacitance integrated in one element. An L filter consists of two elements, one in series and one in parallel. Three-element filters can have a T or π topology and in either geometries, the components can be chosen symmetric or not, depending on the required frequency characteristics. The high-pass T filter in the illustration, has a low impedance at high frequencies.
That means that it can be inserted in a line, resulting in the high frequencies being passed. Likewise, for the illustrated low-pass π filter, the circuit can be connected to a line, transmitting low frequencies
Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation or amplitude modulation to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. Modulation of a sine waveform transforms a narrow frequency range baseband message signal into a passband signal, a modulator is a device that performs modulation. A demodulator is a device that performs demodulation, the inverse of modulation, a modem can perform both operations. The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog bandpass channel, in music synthesizers, modulation may be used to synthesise waveforms with an extensive overtone spectrum using a small number of oscillators. In this case the carrier frequency is typically in the order or much lower than the modulating waveform. In analog modulation, the modulation is applied continuously in response to the information signal. Where an AM carrier carries a variable phase f. TM is f In digital modulation, a carrier signal is modulated by a discrete signal. Digital modulation methods can be considered as digital-to-analog conversion, and the corresponding demodulation or detection as analog-to-digital conversion, the changes in the carrier signal are chosen from a finite number of M alternative symbols. A simple example, A telephone line is designed for transferring audible sounds, for example tones, computers may however communicate over a telephone line by means of modems, which are representing the digital bits by tones, called symbols.
If there are four symbols, the first symbol may represent the bit sequence 00, the second 01, the third 10. If the modem plays a melody consisting of 1000 tones per second, since each tone represents a message consisting of two digital bits in this example, the bit rate is twice the symbol rate, i. e.2000 bits per second. This is similar to the used by dialup modems as opposed to DSL modems. According to one definition of digital signal, the signal is a digital signal. According to another definition, the modulation is a form of digital-to-analog conversion, most textbooks would consider digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission, very few would consider it as analog transmission. The most fundamental digital modulation techniques are based on keying, PSK, FSK, a finite number of frequencies are used. ASK, a number of amplitudes are used. QAM, a number of at least two phases and at least two amplitudes are used
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share.
Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.
The Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837
A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders to one or several receivers. A channel has a capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium and these pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media and broadcast. Cable or wire line media use physical wires of cables to transmit data, twisted-pair wire and coaxial cables are made of copper, and fiber-optic cable is made of glass. In information theory, a channel refers to a theoretical channel model with certain error characteristics, in this more general view, a storage device is a kind of channel, which can be sent to and received from. Examples of communications include, A connection between initiating and terminating nodes of a circuit. A single path provided by a transmission medium via either physical separation, such as by multipair cable or electrical separation, a path for conveying electrical or electromagnetic signals, usually distinguished from other parallel paths.
A storage which can communicate a message over time as well as space The portion of a medium, such as a track or band. A buffer from which messages can be put and got, see Actor model and process calculi for discussion on the use of channels. In a communications system, the physical or logical link that connects a data source to a data sink, a specific radio frequency, pair or band of frequencies, usually named with a letter, number, or codeword, and often allocated by international agreement. Examples, Marine VHF radio uses some 88 channels in the VHF band for two-way FM voice communication, Channel 16, for example, is 156.800 MHz. In the US, seven additional channels, WX1 - WX7, are allocated for weather broadcasts, television channels such as North American TV Channel 2 =55.25 MHz, Channel 13 =211.25 MHz. Each channel is 6 MHz wide, besides these physical channels, television has virtual channels. Wi-Fi consists of unlicensed channels 1-13 from 2412 MHz to 2484 MHz in 5 MHz steps, the radio channel between an amateur radio repeater and a ham uses two frequencies often 600 kHz apart.
For example, a repeater that transmits on 146.94 MHz typically listens for a ham transmitting on 146.34 MHz, all of these communications channels share the property that they transfer information. The information is carried through the channel by a signal, a channel can be modelled physically by trying to calculate the physical processes which modify the transmitted signal. For example, in wireless communications the channel can be modelled by calculating the reflection off every object in the environment, a sequence of random numbers might be added in to simulate external interference and/or electronic noise in the receiver. Statistical and physical modelling can be combined, for example, in wireless communications the channel is often modelled by a random attenuation of the transmitted signal, followed by additive noise
Spectroscopy /spɛkˈtrɒskəpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data is represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopy and spectrography are terms used to refer to the measurement of radiation intensity as a function of wavelength and are used to describe experimental spectroscopic methods. Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs or spectral analyzers, daily observations of color can be related to spectroscopy. Neon lighting is an application of atomic spectroscopy. Neon and other noble gases have characteristic emission frequencies, neon lamps use collision of electrons with the gas to excite these emissions.
Inks and paints include chemical compounds selected for their characteristics in order to generate specific colors. A commonly encountered molecular spectrum is that of nitrogen dioxide, gaseous nitrogen dioxide has a characteristic red absorption feature, and this gives air polluted with nitrogen dioxide a reddish-brown color. Rayleigh scattering is a spectroscopic scattering phenomenon that accounts for the color of the sky, Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra. As a result, these spectra can be used to detect and quantify information about the atoms, Spectroscopy is used in astronomy and remote sensing on earth. The measured spectra are used to determine the composition and physical properties of astronomical objects. One of the concepts in spectroscopy is a resonance and its corresponding resonant frequency. Resonances were first characterized in mechanical systems such as pendulums, mechanical systems that vibrate or oscillate will experience large amplitude oscillations when they are driven at their resonant frequency. A plot of amplitude vs. excitation frequency will have a peak centered at the resonance frequency and this plot is one type of spectrum, with the peak often referred to as a spectral line, and most spectral lines have a similar appearance.
In quantum mechanical systems, the resonance is a coupling of two quantum mechanical stationary states of one system, such as an atom, via an oscillatory source of energy such as a photon. The coupling of the two states is strongest when the energy of the matches the energy difference between the two states. The energy of a photon is related to its frequency by E = h ν where h is Plancks constant, spectra of atoms and molecules often consist of a series of spectral lines, each one representing a resonance between two different quantum states
Electronics is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements, the science of electronics is considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible, until 1950 this field was called radio technology because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes. Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control and this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a circuit board. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits, some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc.
Components are often categorized as active or passive, vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components. They were almost solely responsible for the revolution of the first half of the Twentieth Century. They took electronics from parlor tricks and gave us radio, phonographs, long distance telephony and they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid state devices have all but completely taken over, vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors, thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and components can be divided into two groups and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types, most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits.
Analog circuits use a range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a circuit can be defined as anything from a single component, analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, one rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance and this type of circuit is usually called mixed signal rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation, an example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon. The IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing states that the signal includes audio, speech, communication, sonar, radar. Typically, signals are provided by a sensor, and often the form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer. For example, a microphone converts a signal to a voltage waveform. The formal study of the content of signals is the field of information theory. The information in a signal is accompanied by noise. The term noise usually means an undesirable random disturbance, but is extended to include unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal. The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity, the separation of desired signals from a background is the field of signal recovery, one branch of which is estimation theory, a probabilistic approach to suppressing random disturbances.
Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering have led the way in the design and implementation of systems involving transmission, definitions specific to sub-fields are common. For example, in theory, a signal is a codified message, that is. In the context of signal processing, arbitrary binary data streams are not considered as signals, in a communication system, a transmitter encodes a message to a signal, which is carried to a receiver by the communications channel. For example, the words Mary had a little lamb might be the message spoken into a telephone, the telephone transmitter converts the sounds into an electrical voltage signal. The signal is transmitted to the telephone by wires, at the receiver it is reconverted into sounds. In telephone networks, for example common-channel signaling, refers to number and other digital control information rather than the actual voice signal. Signals can be categorized in various ways, the most common distinction is between discrete and continuous spaces that the functions are defined over, for example discrete and continuous time domains.
Discrete-time signals are often referred to as series in other fields. Continuous-time signals are often referred to as continuous signals even when the functions are not continuous. A second important distinction is between discrete-valued and continuous-valued, particularly in digital signal processing a digital signal is sometimes defined as a sequence of discrete values, that may or may not be derived from an underlying continuous-valued physical process