A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective; this can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, manage conflict, solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, rugby, water polo, lacrosse, cricket and the various forms of football and hockey. Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players interact directly and between them to achieve an objective; the objective involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years; some types of sports have different rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.
For example, rowing, dragon boat racing, track and field among others can be considered team sports. In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will work towards assisting one a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position; this process is known as team orders and although accepted was banned in Formula One between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season. Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but fans and national economies.
All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support. Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years - as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa. Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC; these ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping and javelin throw. In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling. In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC.
The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius, the mythological first King of Elis in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is traced to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place. Before the start of the races gods were invoked by offerings of fruits and vegetables; the winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel and celery sticks were offered as a trophy. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money. However, the practice of offering celery sticks is still in vogue in the 100 m sprint in the Olympics; the present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event; the 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race called diaulos in Greek. Seven team sports are on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members.
A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was a club touring side and the French players were drawn from expatriates living in Paris. Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only. All Olympic team sports include competitions for both women. Team sports portal Major professional sports teams of the United States and Canada Footnotes BibliographyBaofu, Peter; the Future of Post-Human Sports: Towards a New Theory of Training and Winning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-6993-5. Barber, Gary. Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & Ideas for Children and Teachers. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4122-3847-2. Filppu, The Benefits of Team Sports, retrieved 13 November 2010 Dyer, William.
Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco, Ca.: Jossey-Bass. ISBN
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Roller Hockey Intercontinental Cup
The Intercontinental Cup is a roller hockey competition organized by World Skate and contested between the World Skate Africa, World Skate Asia and World Skate Oceania, World Skate Europe and World Skate America champions clubs in title. The Intercontinental Cup was established in 1985 and was organized by FIRS. In 2006, the then-CIRH tried to establish a World Club Championship, but that competition was discontinued in favor of the Intercontinental Cup. In 2017, the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports merged with the International Skateboarding Federation to form World Skate, which organized the 2017 Intercontinental Cup played in a Final Four format by the 2016 and 2017 CERH European League champions and Reus, the 2016 and 2017 CSP South American Club Championship/CPP Pan-American Club Championship winners, Andes Talleres and Concepción, with Benfica facing Andes Talleres and Reus facing Concepción. In 2018, the World Skate created the women's tournament, played in a Final Four formats by the two finalists of Europe and America.
World Competitions at RinkHockey.net
Sandvikens AIK is the bandy department of Sandvikens AIK and is based at Göransson Arena in Sandviken. They play in a black outfit. Sandvikens AIK was founded on 16 March 1901. Named IK Stjärnan, they were the home for the white-collar workers, while IK Kronan was the home for blue-collar workers. Sandvikens AIK took up bandy in 1922 and took their first Swedish title in 1945; as of 22 January 2018 Swedish National Champions:Winners: 1945, 1946, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2011, 2012, 2014 Runners-up: 1940, 1941, 1950, 1971, 1977, 1980, 1990, 1996, 1998, 2005, 2008, 2013, 2015, 2017 Swedish Cup Champions:Winners: 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2017 World Cup: Winners: 1974, 2002, 2017 Runners-up: 1975, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1994, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2011, 2015 Champions Cup:Winners: 2005 European Cup:Winners: 1997 Victory: 22–2 vs. Katrineholms SK Loss: 2–12 vs. Västerås SK Highest attendance: 5,880 vs. Vetlanda BK Most goals scored: 623, Magnus Muhrén
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War; the current champion is France. The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which takes place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase, called the World Cup Finals. After this, 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host nation, compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month; the 21 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight national teams. Brazil have won five times, they are the only team to have played in every tournament; the other World Cup winners are Italy, with four titles each.
The World Cup is the most prestigious association football tournament in the world, as well as the most viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding the Olympic Games. Brazil, Italy and Mexico have each hosted twice, while Uruguay, Sweden, England, Spain, the United States and South Korea, South Africa and Russia have each hosted once. Qatar are planned as hosts of the 2022 finals, 2026 will be jointly hosted by Canada, the United States and Mexico, which will give Mexico the distinction of being the first country to have hosted games in three finals; the world's first international football match was a challenge match played in Glasgow in 1872 between Scotland and England, which ended in a 0–0 draw. The first international tournament, the inaugural British Home Championship, took place in 1884; as football grew in popularity in other parts of the world at the start of the 20th century, it was held as a demonstration sport with no medals awarded at the 1900 and 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1906 Intercalated Games.
After FIFA was founded in 1904, it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906. These were early days for international football, the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure. At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, football became an official competition. Planned by The Football Association, England's football governing body, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. Great Britain won the gold medals, they repeated the feat at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between amateur teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909; the Lipton tournament was a championship between individual clubs from different nations, each one of which represented an entire nation. The competition is sometimes described as The First World Cup, featured the most prestigious professional club sides from Italy and Switzerland, but the FA of England refused to be associated with the competition and declined the offer to send a professional team.
Lipton invited an amateur side from County Durham, to represent England instead. West Auckland won the tournament and returned in 1911 to defend their title. In 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a "world football championship for amateurs", took responsibility for managing the event; this paved the way for the world's first intercontinental football competition, at the 1920 Summer Olympics, contested by Egypt and 13 European teams, won by Belgium. Uruguay won the next two Olympic football tournaments in 1924 and 1928; those were the first two open world championships, as 1924 was the start of FIFA's professional era. Due to the success of the Olympic football tournaments, FIFA, with President Jules Rimet as the driving force, again started looking at staging its own international tournament outside of the Olympics. On 28 May 1928, the FIFA Congress in Amsterdam decided to stage a world championship itself. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, FIFA named Uruguay as the host country of the inaugural World Cup tournament.
The national associations of selected nations were invited to send a team, but the choice of Uruguay as a venue for the competition meant a long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean for European sides. Indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition. Rimet persuaded teams from Belgium, France and Yugoslavia to make the trip. In total, 13 nations took part: seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America; the first two World Cup matches took place on 13 July 1930, were won by France and the USA, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0 respectively. The first goal in World Cup history was scored by Lucien Laurent o
FIFA Women's World Cup
The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991, when the inaugural tournament called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China. Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase; the tournament proper, alternatively called the World Cup Finals, is contested at venues within the host nation over a period of about one month. The seven FIFA Women's World Cup; the current champion is the United States, after winning their third title in the 2015 tournament. In 1971 an unofficial tournament was held in Mexico. In 1988 – 58 years after the first Men's FIFA World Cup tournament in 1930 and 17 years after the FA ban on women's football was eliminated in 1971 – FIFA hosted an invitational in China as a test to see if a global women's World Cup was feasible.
Twelve national teams took part in the competition – four from UEFA, three from AFC, two from CONCACAF and one each from CONMEBOL, CAF and OFC. The tournament saw European champion Norway defeat Sweden 1–0 in the final to win the tournament, while Brazil clinched third place by beating the hosts in a penalty shootout; the competition was deemed a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup, to take place in 1991 again in China. Again, twelve teams competed, this time culminating in the United States beating Norway in the final 2-1. In the 1999 edition, one of the most famous moments of the tournament was American defender Brandi Chastain's victory celebration after scoring the Cup-winning penalty kick against China, she took off her jersey and waved it over her head, showing her muscular torso and sports bra as she celebrated. The 1999 final in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California had an attendance of 90,185, a world record for a women's sporting event; the 1999 and 2003 Women's World Cups were both held in the United States.
As compensation, China retained its automatic qualification to the 2003 tournament as host nation, was automatically chosen to host the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. Germany hosted the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, as decided by vote in October 2007. In March 2011, FIFA awarded Canada the right to host the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup; the 2015 edition saw the field expand from 16 to 24 teams. During the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, both Formiga of Brazil and Homare Sawa of Japan made a record of appearing in six World Cups, a feat that had never been achieved before by either female or male players. Christie Rampone is the oldest player to play in a Women's World Cup match, at the age of 40 years. In March 2015, FIFA awarded France the right to host the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup over South Korea; the tournament will begin on 7 June 2019 and the final will be played on 7 July 2019. Designer: William Sawaya, Sawaya & Moroni, Italy Year of original design: 1998 Height: 47cm Weight: 4.6kg Material: bronze, gold-plated.
It was designed by William Sawaya and hand-crafted by Milanese specialists Sawaya & Moroni for the 1999 tournament, in the form of a spiral band, enclosing a football at the top, that aims to capture the athleticism and elegance of international women's football. In the 2010s, it was fitted with a cone-shaped base. Underneath the base, the name of each of the tournament's previous winners is engraved; the Official Trophy is nearly 18 inches tall and is made of sterling silver clad in 23-karat yellow and white gold, with an estimated value in 2015 of $30,000. By contrast, the men's World Cup trophy is fabricated in 18-karat gold and has a precious metal value of $150,000. However, a new Winner's Trophy is constructed for each women's champion to take home, while there is only one original men's trophy. Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones, are organised by their respective confederations: Confederation of African Football, Asian Football Confederation, Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football, South American Football Confederation CONMEBOL, Oceania Football Confederation, Union of European Football Associations.
For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of berths awarded to each of the continental zones, based on the relative strength of the confederations' teams. The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth in the finals. Since the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, the number of finalists increased from 16 to 24; the final tournament has featured between twelve and twenty-four national teams competing over about one month in the host nation. There are two stages: the group stage followed by the knockout stage. In the group stage, teams are drawn into groups of four teams each; each group plays a round-robin tournament, in which each team is scheduled for three matches against other teams in the same group. The last round of matches of each group is scheduled at the same time to preserve fairness among all four teams. In the 2015 24-team format, the two teams finishing first an
Bandy World Cup
Bandy World Cup is played in Sweden in the beginning of the bandy season every year, in autumn. The teams which should participate is decided based on their results in the whole of the last bandy season; the World Cup is not played by national teams but is for bandy clubs from around the world, should therefore not be confused with the Bandy World Championship. It is considered to be "the world championship for clubs"; the tournament has been dominated by Russian teams. The Bandy World Cup was held every year in Ljusdal in Sweden from 1974 to 2008, in the start of the bandy season in autumn. From 2009 it has been played indoors in Sandviken; the outdoor ices were too unpredictable because of the weather this time of the year, so for the 2009 cup the Federation of International Bandy demanded the cup should be played indoors. It was first decided to move the cup temporarily to Sandviken for two years, but when Ljusdal still had no indoor arena, a contract was made between FIB and Sandviken to host the cup in Sandviken up to and including 2013.
If there is an indoor arena in Ljusdal in 2014, Ljusdal may apply to arrange the cup again. The tournament was first held in 1974 and has been called the World Cup since 1980; the full name of the cup has changed over the years because of different sponsors. The first two years it was called DAF-cupen Dex-cupen 1976–1979 and Dex World Cup 1980–1983. 1984–1985 it was called World Cup Ljusdal. 1986 SJ became sponsors, so it was SJ World Cup 1986–1998. Ljusdal World Cup until 2001 and since 2002 it has been known as the Bandy World Cup, in 2005 additionally as Polar Bandy World Cup, since 2006 as ExTe World Cup Bandy. There is a Bandy World Cup Women for women's teams. World Cup