World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Bang Kho Laem District
Bang Kho Laem is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by Sathon, Yan Nawa, across the Chao Phraya River, Rat Burana, Thon Buri and Khlong San districts. Bang Kho Laem was a part of amphoe Ban Thawai in Phra Pradaeng Province. Ban Thawai was reassigned to Phra Nakhon Province, renamed amphoe Yan Nawa; when Phra Nakhon and Thon Buri were combined into a single province in 1972, the names of administrative units in the newly combined capital were changed from amphoe and tambon to district and sub-district. Thus, amphoe Yan Nawa became khet Yan Nawa. Due to population increases, on 18 April 1989, Yan Nawa Branch 2 was established as a second administrative unit within the Yan Nawa District, overseeing three sub-districts: Bang Kho Laem, Wat Phraya Krai, Bang Khlo, it became a separate district on 9 November 1989, called Bang Kho Laem. The district is divided into three sub-districts. Important streets in the district include: Rama III Road Charoen Krung Road Charoen Rat Road Ratchadaphisek Road Mahaisawan Road Chan Road Sathu Pradit Road Si Rat Express WaySecondary streets in the district include: Sut Prasoet Road Chalaem Nimit Road Charoen Krung 85 and Sut Prasoet 9 Charoen Krung 107, Charoen Rat 7, Charoen Rat 10 Charoen Rat 5, Charoen Rat 5 Yaek 4, Charoen Rat 7 Yaek 7, Charoen Rat 8 Chan 43 Sathu Pradit 12 Charoen Rat 7 Yaek 35 Asiatique is a famous open-air night shopping mall in Bangkok.
Shrewsbury International School is in the district. BMA website with tourist landmarks of Bang Kho Laem Bang Kho Laem district office
Bang Khen District
Bang Khen is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. It is bounded by other Bangkok districts: Sai Mai, Khlong Sam Wa, Khan Na Yao, Bueng Kum, Lat Phrao, Lak Si, Don Mueang. Bang Khen was established as an amphoe of Phra Nakhon Province in 1897; the district occupied. Farms dominated its landscape. In October 1933, the district was a battleground in the "Boworadet rebellion" contested by the army of Prince Boworadet and government troops. In 1972, Thonburi and Phra Nakhon Provinces were called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon. Administrative units within the capital were renamed "districts" and "sub-district", replacing "amphoe" and "tambon" respectively. Bang Khen became a district in the newly combined province. At that time it had eight sub-districts. Bang Khen was once a large district, but has been reduced in size after several modifications to district boundaries. In 1989, western and southwestern portions were split off to create Don Mueang District and Chatuchak District respectively. In 1997, a northern portion of Bang Khen was split off to create Sai Mai District, but in the same reorganization Bang Khen received Moo 8-10 of Chorakhe Bua Sub-district from Lat Phrao District.
As of 2018 the Thai Army's 11th Infantry Division occupies 3,000 rai of land in Bang Khen. Wat Phra Si Mahathat Wora Maha Wiharn Temple of Holy Relics Constitution Defense Monument at Lak Si Circle Sathira Dhammasathan Buddhist Retreat Center Ying Charoen Market or Saphan Mai Market; the original name of Saphan Mai was Saphan Sukoranakhaseni Lumphini Boxing Stadium Muay Thai arena moved from Pathum Wan in 2014 Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Rattanakosin Somphot Bangkhen School, Bangkhen District non-formal and informal Education, Krirk University The district is divided into two sub-districts: Anusawari and Tha Raeng. The Bang Khen district council has eight members. Elections were last held on 30 April 2006; the Thai Rak Thai Party won all eight seats. BMA website with the tourist landmarks of Bang Khen Bang Khen district office Map of Bang Khen District
Phra Phutthabat District
Phra Phutthabat is a district in Saraburi Province, Thailand. The district is named after the Phra Phutthabat Temple. Another well-known temple in the district is Wat Tham Krabok, both as a Hmong refugee camp and as for its drug rehabilitation program. Neighboring districts are Mueang Lopburi and Phattana Nikhom of Lopburi Province, Chaloem Phra Kiat, Sao Hai, Ban Mo, Nong Don. Phra Phuttabat is divided into nine sub-districts. Amphoe.com
Bang Na District
Bang Na is one of the fifty districts of Bangkok, Thailand. Its neighbors, clockwise from the north, are the Phra Khanong and Prawet Districts of Bangkok and Bang Phli, Mueang Samut Prakan, Phra Pradaeng Districts of Samut Prakan Province. Bang Na was once a sub-district of Phra Khanong, it became a separate district on 6 March 1998. The district has two sub-districts. Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre is a major exhibition center. Among its hosted events is the annual Bangkok International Motor Show. During major exhibitions, trams are provided for transportation between BITEC and On Nut Bangkok Skytrain station. Several temples are in the district: Wat Bang Na Nai, Wat Bang Na Nok, Wat Si Iam, Wat Phong Phloi Witthayaram. CentralPlaza Bangna Central City Bangna, is one of the first shopping malls in Bang Na. Unlike most shopping centres in Thailand, it has a theme water theme park on upper floors. Royal Dragon Restaurant or Mang Korn Lung held the Guinness Book record as the world's largest restaurant from 1992 to 2008.
It is an outdoor seafood restaurant 1.6 hectares in size. Waiters roller-skate to serve food from the kitchen to the tables; the Sukhumvit Line of the BTS Skytrain runs through the area along Sukhumvit Road. The extension into Bang Na, the one of largest highways in the world opened in August 2011 with three stations: Udom Suk, Bang Na, Bearing; the Bang Na station is about 500 m from BITEC. Sukhumvit Road and Bang Na-Trat Highway are two major highways linking Bangkok to eastern Thailand. On top of Bang Na-Trad Highway is the 55 km Buraphawithi Tollway reaching Chonburi Province. Suvarnabhumi Airport can be accessed from the south via Bang Na-Trad and Buraphawithi as an alternative to the Bangkok-Chonburi Highway from the north; the International Community School, the Bangkok Patana School, Glory Singapore International School are in the Bang Na District. Official website of the district BMA website with the tourist landmarks of Bang Na
Rama VII Bridge
Rama VII Bridge is a bridge over the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, in Thailand, connecting the Bang Sue District and Bang Phlat District. The roadway is with 3 lanes in each direction; the bridge was named in honour of King Prajadhipok. Bureau of Maintenance and Traffic Safety, Thailand. "RAMA VII BRIDGE". Retrieved 2008-01-06
Chatuchak is one of the 50 districts of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by seven other districts: Lak Si, Bang Khen, Lat Phrao, Huai Khwang, Din Daeng, Phaya Thai, Bang Sue. Chatuchak was part of Bang Khen District, it became a separate district in 1989. The name of the district came from its two major landmarks, Chatuchak Park and Chatuchak Weekend Market; the district is divided into five sub-districts. The Department of National Parks and Plant Conservation has its headquarters in the district. Klong Prem Central Prison known as "Lard Yao Prison", is located in the district; the most well-known site in the district is the Chatuchak Weekend Market, the largest market in Thailand. Northwest of the weekend market is another market, Chatuchak Plaza selling clothes and many other products. Across the Kamphang Phet Road is Or Tor Kor Market belonging to The Marketing Organization for Farmers, offering fresh agriculture product and food. Just north of the market along Kamphang Phet Road is the garden products.
Other markets in the area include: Ratchayothin night market, a night market next to Major Cineplex Ratchayothin. Ratchadaphisek night market, a large night market at Ratchada/Ladprao intersection. Adjoining the Chatuchak Weekend Market to the north is the Chatuchak Park complex, covering 1.13 km² of a former State Railway of Thailand golf course consisting of Chatuchak Park, Queen Sirikit Park, Wachirabenchathat Park. Chatuchak Park is the first park in the complex opened in December 1980. On Phahonyothin Road next to the Mo Chit BTS Station, it is the most accessible park of the three. Included in this park is the Train Museum. Queen Sirikit Park is a botanical garden built to honor the queen's 60th birthday in 1992, it was formally opened in December 1996. Plants collected in the garden include hibiscus and palms. Within the park compound is the Children's Museum; the park is behind Chatuchak Weekend Market parking lot. The Wachirabenchathat Park is the newest park of the complex, it was called State Railway Public Park but was renamed in July 2002 in honor of Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn's 50th birthday.
It contains the tallest fountain in Thailand. Elephant Tower is one of the most distinctive building in Bangkok. Shaped like an elephant, it consists of three towers joined together at the top, it includes condominiums and office space. On Vibhavadhi Road opposite Kasetsart University is the Museum of Contemporary Art. Thawan Duchanee, one of the artists highlighted, is considered one of the most famous modern day artists of Thailand. Central Plaza Lat Phrao is the biggest shopping center in the district, consisting of Central Department Store, Bangkok Convention Centre and many retail shops. Other shopping centers in Chatuchak districk includes Major Cineplex Ratchayothin featuring a 14-screen multiplex cinema, Union Mall, an 8-storey shopping mall for youngsters. Kasetsart University is one of the top university in Thailand, it was focused on agricultural sciences, but now expanded to cover many fields including business and engineering. The university is located on a large block bounded by Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Ngamwongwan Road and Phahonyothin Road.
Saint John's University and Saint John's International School. Sripatum University. Private university adjacent to 11th Royal Infantry Regiment; the district is crossed by the Blue Line of the Bangkok MRT with four stations - Kamphaeng Phet, Chatuchak Park, Phahon Yothin and Lat Phrao. Bang Sue MRT Station is just outside Chatuchak district. Chatuchak District is the northern end-point of the Sukhumvit Line of the BTS Skytrain at Mo Chit station; the Northern Bus Terminal is in the district, with the bus connection to all northern provinces starting there. The district council for Chatuchak has eight members. Elections were last held on 30 April 2006; the results were: Thai Rak Thai Party - Eight seats Thai Airways and Bangkok Airways have their head offices in Chatuchak. Chatuchak district office