The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates. It provides a protective cavity for the brain; the skull is composed of two parts: the mandible. In the human, these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone; the skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears and mouth. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds. In some animals such as horned ungulates, the skull has a defensive function by providing the mount for the horns; the English word "skull" is derived from Old Norse "skulle", while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον.
The skull is made up of a number of fused flat bones, contains many foramina, fossae and several cavities or sinuses. In zoology there are openings in the skull called fenestrae. For details and the constituent bones, see Neurocranium and Facial skeleton The human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton, it forms a cavity for the brain. Like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury; the skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin—the neurocranium and the facial skeleton. The neurocranium forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem; the upper areas of the cranial bones form the calvaria. The membranous viscerocranium includes the mandible; the facial skeleton is formed by the bones supporting the face Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial joints formed by bony ossification, with Sharpey's fibres permitting some flexibility.
Sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as sutural bones. Most these are found in the course of the lambdoid suture; the human skull is considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones and fourteen facial skeleton bones. In the neurocranium these are the occipital bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid and frontal bones; the bones of the facial skeleton are the vomer, two inferior nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, two lacrimal bones. Some sources count the maxilla as having two bones; some of these bones—the occipital, frontal, in the neurocranium, the nasal and vomer, in the facial skeleton are flat bones. The skull contains sinuses, air-filled cavities known as paranasal sinuses, numerous foramina; the sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium. Their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and moistening of the air drawn into the nasal cavity.
The foramina are openings in the skull. The largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels; the many processes of the skull include the zygomatic processes. The skull is a complex structure; the skull roof bones, comprising the bones of the facial skeleton and the sides and roof of the neurocranium, are dermal bones formed by intramembranous ossification, though the temporal bones are formed by endochondral ossification. The endocranium, the bones supporting the brain are formed by endochondral ossification, thus frontal and parietal bones are purely membranous. The geometry of the skull base and its fossae, the anterior and posterior cranial fossae changes rapidly; the anterior cranial fossa changes during the first trimester of pregnancy and skull defects can develop during this time. At birth, the human skull is made up of 44 separate bony elements. During development, many of these bony elements fuse together into solid bone.
The bones of the roof of the skull are separated by regions of dense connective tissue called fontanelles. There are six fontanelles: one anterior, one posterior, two sphenoid, two mastoid. At birth these regions are fibrous and moveable, necessary for birth and growth; this growth can put a large amount of tension on the "obstetrical hinge", where the squamous and lateral parts of the occipital bone meet. A possible complication of this tension is rupture of the great cerebral vein; as growth and ossification progress, the connective tissue of the fontanelles is invaded and replaced by bone creating sutures. The five sutures are the two squamous sutures, one coronal, one lambdoid, one sagittal suture; the posterior fontanelle closes by eight weeks, but the anterior fontanel can remain open up to eighteen months. The anterior fontanelle is located at the junction of the parietal bones. Careful observation will show that you can count a baby's heart
Kolar The Golden city of India, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of Kolar District and is known for production of Milk, which surpassed Denmark, gold mining. Kolar is popularly known as the land of silk, milk and gold; the city is the location of the Kolaramma temple. Kolaramma is considered as goddess of city of Kolar. Kolar has APMC market Which is 2nd largest in Largest in South India. Kolar is leading India in production of Mango, Tomato,Milk which are exported to various other nations like UK, USA, UAE. List of tourist attractions in Kolar district It has many colleges in which vidya jyothi pu college is the leading college. Kolar is located at 13.13°N 78.13°E / 13.13. With an average elevation of 849 metres, it is located at a distance of about 70 kilometres from Bengaluru and 50 km from Bangalore International Airport 32 kilometres from Kolar Gold Fields. The city is located on the southern maidan region of Karnataka; the Ammerallikere, a tank, forms its eastern boundary.
To the north is the Kodikannur tank, the main source of water supply to the city. The nearest railway junction is Kolar. Kolar is having good road transportation, it is situated on the Bengaluru - Chennai National Highway-75. Kolar is The gateway for Tirumala Via National Highway 75 The Western Gangas sovereignty lasted from about 350 to 550 CE ruled from Kolar as their Capital City; the founder of the Western Ganga dynasty was Konganivarman Madhava, who built Kolar as his capital around 350 and ruled for about twenty years. He succeeded by his son Madhava I. Kolar, the headquarters of the Kolar district, was earlier known as Kuvalalapura known as Kolahala Pura. Kolar is said to be associated with the epic age, which recalls many legends associated with Avani in Mulbagal Taluk, called Avani Kshetra, it was once known as Avantika - a sacred place in Kolar district in Karnataka State. It was famous for its religious establishments from ancient times, it was once known as Aavanya, under the Ganga prince Madhava Muttarasa, who governed several districts.
In about A. D 890, its earliest grant relates that Tribhuvana Kartara Deva, who held the title of Kali Yuga Rudra, ruled over the Avaniya Thana for 40 years. During this period he constructed two large tanks. Maharshi Valmiki, author of the epic Ramayana, lived here; the legend goes further to establish that Seetha Devi, after being sent to exile, gave birth to her twins Lava and Kusha at Avani. The Avani continued to survive as a religious establishment from the 9th to 11th centuries. There are temples dedicated to Lord Rama; the hill to the west of Kolar, called the Shatasringa Parvata or'Hundred-Peaked Mountain' is'Antharagange', associated with the story of Parasurama and his fight with King Kartaviryarjuna over Surabhi, the divine cow. As the story goes, King Kartavirya Arjuna and his army visited Jamadagni, Parasurama's father, when the king demanded the magical cow from Jamadagni; when Jamadagni refused, the King sent his soldiers to take the cow, but Parashurama killed the entire army and the king with his axe.
In return, the princes beheaded Jamadagni. Thus, Parasurama took an oath to behead the entire Kshatriya race, said to have taken place on the hills, it is said that the'kolahala' on the death of Kartaviryarjuna gave its name to the town, which become Kolar. Kannada is the main languages spoken in the district of Kolar. Telugu is spoken. Gangas built the temple of Sri Uttameshwara temple in Uttanur Mulbagal Talluk. Old City of Kolar comprises the following Areas: 1. Udayagiri Nagar 2. Kurberpet 3. Kumbarpet 4. Kanakanapalya 5. Jayanagar 6. P. C. Halli 7. S. G. Layout 8. Dharmarayanagar 9. Big Bazaar 10. P. C. Extension 11. Kilaripet 12. Dr. Ambedkar Nagar 13. Old Extension 14. New Extension 15. Ammavaripet 16. Palasandram Layout 17. Gowripet 18. Autonagar 19. Harohalli 20. Mahalakshmi Layout 21. Gandhinagar 22. Gulpet 23. Shanthi Nagar 24. Chowdeshwari Nagar 25. Khushal Nagar 26. Nyamath 27. Noor Nagar 28. Gangammana Palya 29. RTO Nagar 30. Kataripalya 31. Karanjikatte 32. Shahinsha Nagar 33. Shahid Nagar 34. Sarige Nagar 35. Fort 36.
Muneshwara Nagar 37. Antaragange 38. Cottonpet 39. Keelukote 40. Khutub Gowri Mohalla 41. Kuvempu Nagar 42. Vibhutipura 43. Devangapet 44. Shukur Ulla Sha Makan 45. Tekal Road 46. Sahakar Nagar 47. Rahmath Nagar 48. Dargha shahi mohalla 49. Ammavarpet 50. Bi Dragah Mohalla 51. BEML Layout/ C. Byregowda Nagar Udayagiri Nagar Antaragange is one of the tourist attractions Of Kolar, it is known as "Dakshina Kashi Kshetra". In the temple is a pond which gets a continuous flow of underground water from the mouth of a Basava. There is a narrow path to the top of the mountain. There are seven villages on this mountain, including Therhalli, papanayakana halli, Kenchegowdana Halli and several others. On the occasion of full moon day, the cultural association called AADIMA arranges, cultural activities. Which is attended by many notable artistes of Kannada drama industry; the mountain consists of granite rocks and lot of caves around. Antaragange is 71 Kilometers away from State capital Bangalore. You can scale the heights of this mountain or hill by your own feet or Govt. of Karnataka laid a road to provide transportation facility to villagers who lives in the villages of hill and for the tourists.
In the hill you can find a Dargah also. Kolar was jagir part of Great Maratha warior Shahaji Raje and Shivaji brother Sambhaji and kolar was part of chhatrapati shivaji swarajya territory in karnatka region. Ant
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
Belgaum is a district in the state of Karnataka, India. The city of Belgaum is the district headquarters in North Karnataka, it houses the second legislative building. According to the 2011 Census of India, it has a population of 4,778,439 of which 24.03% live in urban areas, making it the second most populous district in Karnataka, after Bangalore. The district has an area of 13,415 square kilometers, is bounded on the west and north by Maharashtra state, on the northeast by Bijapur District, on the east by Bagalkote District, on the southeast by Gadaga District, on the south by Dharawad District and Uttara Kannada districts, on the southwest by the state of Goa. Belgaum is the Divisional Headquarters of North Karnataka The ancient name of the town of Belgaum was Venugrama, meaning Bamboo Village, it is called as Malnad Pradesh. The most ancient place in the district is Halsi, it appears that from the middle of the 6th century to about 760 the area was held by the Chalukyas, who were succeeded by the Rashtrakutas.
After the break-up of the Rashtrakuta power a portion of it survived in the Rattas, who from 1210 onward made Venugrama their capital. Inscriptions give evidence of a long struggle between the Rattas and the Kadambas of Goa, who succeeded in the latter years of the 12th century in acquiring and holding part of the district. By 1208, the Kadambas had been overthrown by the Rattas, who in their turn succumbed to the Yadavas of Devagiri in 1250. After the overthrow of the Yadavas by the Delhi Sultanate, Belgaum was for a short time under the rule of the latter. In 1347 the northern part was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate, which in 1473 took the town of Belgaum and conquered the southern part also; when Aurangzeb overthrew the Bijapura sultans in 1686, Belgaum passed to the Mughals. In 1776 the country was overrun by Hyder Ali of Mysore, but was taken by the Madhavrao Peshwa with British assistance. In 1818 it was handed over to the British East India Company, was made part of the district of Dharwar.
In 1836 this was divided into the northern district becoming Belgaum. Yadur is situated beside Krishna river, there is famous veerbhadra temple. Many devotees visit this place from Maharashtra. Hooli is one of the oldest villages in Belgaum district. There are many Chalukya temples in the village and the'Panchaligeswara temple is famous. Kittur in Belgaum district is a place of historical importance. Rani Chennamma of Kittur is known for her resistance to British rule; the British had a sizable infantry post here, having realised the military importance of its geographic location. It is one of the reasons for Belgaum's sobriquet The Cradle of Infantry. Development of a rail network for the movement of resources and troops was one of the means employed by both the British East India Company and the British to exert control over India. Belgaum's railway station, the Mahatma Gandhi Railway Station was established by the British. A signboard declaring the sobriquet can be seen hung on Platform 1 at the station.
Belgaum district was incorporated into the newly formed Mysore state with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, which reorganized India's states along linguistic lines since the majority of the people in the district spoke Kannada. Because of that linguistic disparity, the case is now in the Supreme Court of India. Administration of Belgaum District has been divided into 14 taluks. Athani taluk is the largest with an area of 1,997.70 km2 and Raybag taluk is the smallest with an area of 958.8 km2. The district comprises six police sub-divisions. Apart from the Belgaum City Corporation, there are 17 municipalities, 20 towns, 485 gram panchayats, 1,138 inhabited villages and 26 non-inhabited villages. Belgaum is the headquarters of the Belgaum Revenue Division. According to the 2011 census Belgaum district has a population of 4,778,439 equal to the nation of Singapore or the US state of Alabama; this gives it a ranking of 25th in India. The district has a population density of 356 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 13.38%. Belgaum has a sex ratio of 969 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 73.94%. S. Ballesh - Shehnai artist Hemant Birje - Actor Phadeppa Dareppa Chaugule - India's first Olympic marathon runner Kittur Chennamma - Indian freedom fighter Shirasangi Lingaraj Desai - Provincial ruler Kumar Gandharva - Indian classical singer Balappa Hukkeri- Singer Kaka Kalelkar - Indian independence activist Chandrashekhara Kambara - Poet Atul Kulkarni - Actor Belawadi Mallamma - Warrior queen Ronit More - Cricketer plays for Chennai Super Kings Renukamma Murugodu - Actress Bandu Patil- Indian hockey player Sangolli Rayanna - Indian Freedom fighter Acharya Vidyasagar - Jain Digambara monk Official Website of Belgaum district
Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick, but in some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, the term is used to refer to any kind of earth construction. Most adobe buildings rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, is used throughout the world. Adobe bricks are rectangular prisms small enough that they can air dry individually without cracking, they can be subsequently assembled, with the application of adobe mud to bond the individual bricks into a structure. There is no standard size, in different regions. In some areas a popular size measured 8 by 4 by 12 inches weighing about 25 pounds; the maximum sizes can reach up to 100 pounds. In dry climates, adobe structures are durable, account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. Adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be susceptible to earthquake damage if they are not somehow reinforced.
Cases where adobe structures were damaged during earthquakes include the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, the 2003 Bam earthquake, the 2010 Chile earthquake. Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common throughout the world Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States and the Andes for several thousand years. Puebloan peoples built their adobe structures with handsful or basketsful of adobe, until the Spanish introduced them to making bricks. Adobe bricks were used in Spain from Iron Ages, its wide use can be attributed to its simplicity of design and manufacture, economics. A distinction is sometimes made between the smaller adobes, which are about the size of ordinary baked bricks, the larger adobines, some of which may be one to two yards long; the word adobe has existed for around 4000 years with little change in either pronunciation or meaning. The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian word ɟbt "mud brick". Middle Egyptian evolved into Late Egyptian, Demotic or "pre-Coptic", to Coptic, where it appeared as τωωβε tōʾpə.
This was adopted into Arabic as الطوب aṭ-ṭawbu or aṭ-ṭūbu, with the definite article al- attached. Tuba, This was assimilated into the Old Spanish language as adobe via Mozarabic. English borrowed the word from Spanish in the early 18th century, still referring to mudbrick construction. In more modern English usage, the term "adobe" has come to include a style of architecture popular in the desert climates of North America in New Mexico, regardless of the construction method. An adobe brick is a composite material made of earth mixed with water and an organic material such as straw or dung; the soil composition contains sand and clay. Straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing the brick to dry evenly, thereby preventing cracking due to uneven shrinkage rates through the brick. Dung offers the same advantage; the most desirable soil texture for producing the mud of adobe is 15% clay, 10–30% silt, 55–75% fine sand. Another source quotes 15–25% clay and the remainder sand and coarser particles up to cobbles 50 to 250 mm, with no deleterious effect.
Modern adobe is stabilized with Portland cement up to 10 % by weight. No more than half the clay content should be expansive clays, with the remainder non-expansive illite or kaolinite. Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the brick, resulting in cracking, while too much kaolinite will make a weak brick; the soils of the Southwest United States, where such construction has been used, are an adequate composition. Adobe walls are load bearing, i.e. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure, hence the adobe must have sufficient compressive strength. In the United States, most building codes call for a minimum compressive strength of 300 lbf/in2 for the adobe block. Adobe construction should be designed so as to avoid lateral structural loads that would cause bending loads; the building codes require the building sustain a 1 g lateral acceleration earthquake load. Such an acceleration will cause lateral loads on the walls, resulting in shear and bending and inducing tensile stresses.
To withstand such loads, the codes call for a tensile modulus of rupture strength of at least 50 lbf/in2 for the finished block. In addition to being an inexpensive material with a small resource cost, adobe can serve as a significant heat reservoir due to the thermal properties inherent in the massive walls typical in adobe construction. In climates typified by hot days and cool nights, the high thermal mass of adobe mediates the high and low temperatures of the day, moderating the temperature of the living space; the massive walls require a large and long input of heat from the sun and from the surrounding air before they warm through to the interior. After the sun sets and the temperature drops, the warm wall will continue to transfer heat to the interior for several hou
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Chitradurga is a city and the headquarters of Chitradurga district, located on the valley of the Vedavati river in the southern part of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 200 km from the state capital Bengaluru. Chitradurga gets its name from Chitrakaldurga, an umbrella-shaped lofty hill found here. Chitradurga was known by the names Chitradurg, Chittaldurg. Chittaldrug was the official name used during the British rule. Known as Farkhabad during Tippu sultan rule. Chitradurga features bold rock hills and picturesque valleys, huge towering boulders in numerous shapes, it is known as the "stone fortress". According to the epic Mahabharatha, it is not confirmed about this story that a man-eating Rakshasa named Hidimba and his sister Hidimbi lived on the hill. Hidimba was a source of terror to everyone; when the Pandavas came with their mother Kunti in the course of their exile, Bhima had a duel with Hidimba in which Hidimba was killed. Thereafter Bhima married. Legend has it the boulders were part of the arsenal used during that duel.
In fact, the boulders on which major part of the city rests belong to the oldest rock formation in the country. Timmana Nayaka, a chieftain under the Vijayanagar Empire, rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga as a reward from the Vijayanagara ruler, for his excellence in military services; this was the beginning of the rule of the Nayakas of Chitradurga. His son Obana Nayaka is known by the name Madakari Nayaka. Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully; as he had no heirs to succeed him, his adopted son, the apparent heir was enthroned but was killed in few months by the Dalavayis. Chikkanna Nayaka, the brother of Madakari Nayaka II sat on the throne, his brother succeeded him with the title Madakari Nayaka III in 1686; the unwillingness of Dalawayis to accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives, Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. He is known as the greatest of the Nayaka rulers.
The subjects of Chitradurga did not experience a good reign of the successive rulers as they ruled on the throne for brief periods. The Hiri Madakari Nayaka IV, Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, Madakari Nayaka V ruled this area but there is not much to mention of their rule. During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the town of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. A chance sighting of a woman entering the Chitradurga fort through an opening in the rocks led to a clever plan by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers through the hole; the guard on duty near that hole had gone home for lunch. The wife of that guard, Obavva was passing by the hole to collect water, when she noticed soldiers emerging out of this opening. Obavva was not perturbed, she was carrying with her an Onake. She killed Hyder Ali's soldiers one by one as they attempted to enter the fort through the opening and moved the dead. Over a short period of time hundreds of soldiers fell, without raising any suspicion. Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was shocked to see Obavva standing with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of dead bodies of the enemy around her.
Together both wife and husband beat up most of the soldiers. But as both of them were about to finish off all the soldiers of Hyder Ali, Obavva dies; the opening in the rocks still remains as a historical witness for the story, beside The Tanniru doni the well which Obavva was making her way to, when she found the soldieres of Hyder Ali. Though her brave attempt saved the fort on that occasion, Madakari Nayaka could not repel Hyder Ali's attack in 1779. In the ensuing battle, the fort of Chitradurga was lost to Hyder Ali. Obavva, like Kittur Rani Chennamma remains a legend to the women of Karnataka. Chitradurga is located at 14.23°N 76.4°E / 14.23. It has an average elevation of 732 metres. Chitradurga city is well connected to Bengaluru, Mangaluru, Hubballi, Bellary, Tumakuru, Belagavi...etc. by Bus through KSRTC. Both NH-48 & NH-13 meets at Chitradurga City. Chitradurga city is well connected to Bengaluru, Delhi, Hospet, Tumakuru...etc through Railways. Mardihalli Pillow lavas national geo-monument at Mardihalli village near Hiriyur has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism.
The climate here is considered to be a local steppe climate. During the year, there is little rainfall in Chitradurga; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BSh. The temperature here averages 25.3 °C. The rainfall here averages 576 mm; as of 2011 India census, Chitradurga had a population of 1,25,170. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Chitradurga has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Chitradurga city is administered by the Chitradurga city municipal council. Chitradurga situated in a hilly region is known to experience wind currents throughout the year making it a suitable place to set up wind mills and wind farms. There are several Wind-Power based power plants located around Chitradurga and most of the hills are embellished with wind mills which can be seen while entering the city; these wind farms have a total installed capacity of 49.7 MW and comprise a