Midwest hip hop
Midwest hip hop is a regional genre of hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. In contrast with its East Coast, West Coast and Southern counterparts, Midwest hip hop has few constants in style or production. Midwest hip hop's first dose of national popularity came in the early to mid-90s with the fast-paced rappers known as Choppers, such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, Eminem. However, while the artists mentioned above became the first to introduce Midwest hip hop that rivaled the popularity of West and East Coast styles, subsequent acts have since risen to national prominence such as Nelly, D12, Chief Keef, Kanye West, Kid Cudi, Big Sean, Juice Wrld, Metro Boomin, Chance the Rapper but they share few similarities. Other notable midwest rappers and producers include: Brother Ali, Lupe Fiasco, Royce Da 5'9, J Dilla, Mac Lethal, Ramey Dawoud, Obie Trice, up and comers Freddie Gibbs and Manny Phesto, it is because these lack of constants between acts from different cities that it can be difficult to define a "typical" Midwest sound.
One characteristic of Midwest hip hop is that tempos range from 90 to 180 beats per minute, whereas the tempos in East Coast, West Coast, Southern hip hop do not exceed 120 bpm. Detroit hip hop began to gain traction the late 1980s with artists like D The Great, Detroit's Most Wanted, Suavey Spy, Mike Fresh, Ace Lee, Eveready Crew, Esham, J to The D, Silveree. Slum Village emerged from the hip hop scene in Detroit in the mid-1990s, their first album, Vol. 1 came out in 1997. The producer was J Dilla, who produced for notable hip-hop acts from around the country, including The Pharcyde, A Tribe Called Quest, he would become one of the most sought-after producers in hip-hop, with many of his beats being used posthumously after his death in 2006. A popular place for rap battles in Detroit is the Hip Hop Shop, located on W 7 Mile. Despite Detroit being over 85% African American, many of the most famous white rappers, including Eminem, Insane Clown Posse, Kid Rock and Twiztid are from the Detroit area.
Trick Trick is known and recognized as an important figure in Detroit's underground hip hop scene. In the mid-1990s, Eminem gained notoriety in Detroit as a battle rapper, released an album during the early stages of his underground career. Infinite was sold out of the trunk of his car, it struggled to create a buzz despite his success in the battling scene. Angry but determined, Eminem developed his style and recorded The Slim Shady EP, released in 1997; when Em traveled to Los Angeles to compete in the 1997 Rap Olympics, he placed in 2nd, his EP got into the hands of Dr. Dre, who wanted to sign him, he signed to Dr. Dre's Aftermath Entertainment, in 1999 he released his major-label debut album The Slim Shady LP; the album reached #2 on the Billboard 200 charts and began Eminem's period of commercial success lasting from 1999 until the present. Eminem has become the best-selling hip hop artist of all time and the best-selling artist of the 2000s, thereby making him one of the most significant artists to emerge from the Midwest hip hop scene.
Eminem founded the label imprint Shady Records in 1999. He was a member of the Detroit rap group D12 and signed them to his label, they would go on to release two successful albums in the early 2000s. Rapper Proof was part of the group. Alongside his success with D12, he released two solo albums, I Miss The Hip Hop Shop and Searching for Jerry Garcia. On April 11, 2006, he was fatally shot in a gunfight at a Detroit nightclub. Fellow D12 member Bizarre from Detroit, would go on to a solo career as well, having released three solo albums as of 2018. Mr. Porter was a member of D12, has had a significant solo career as a producer, producing solo instrumental projects as well as songs for notable artists such as 50 Cent, Snoop Dogg and Eminem. Eminem signed Detroit rapper Obie Trice to Shady Records. Trice released his debut album Cheers on the label, followed by Second Round's on Me. In 2008, Trice left the label to found his own Black Market Entertainment, on which he would release two further albums.
In 2011, Trice met with Michigan State Senator Virgil Smith, Jr. in order to discuss potential initiatives to help develop the youth talent of Detroit. Royce da 5'9" is another successful Detroit rapper, he began as an underground rapper, featured on Eminem's album The Slim Shady LP in 1999. In 2002 he released Rock City. In addition to his solo career, Royce is known for his membership in the hip hop supergroup Slaughterhouse from 2008 to 2018, in collaboration with DJ Premier as PRhyme. Royce and Eminem work as a duo under the moniker Bad Meets Evil, in 2011 released the EP Hell: The Sequel, which reached #1 on the Billboard 200. Blade Icewood gained respect as one of Detroit's premier rappers, but was gunned down and murdered in 2005, after his first shooting which left him paralyzed from his chest down, he had a beef for some time with the Eastside Chedda Boyz, a hip hop group from Detroit's east neighborhoods. There was a dispute over the name Chedda Boyz because Blade Icewood claimed that name originated on the west side of the city.
MC Breed, from Flint, is most known for his songs "Ain't No Future in Yo Frontin'" and "Gotta Get Mine" featuring Tupac Shakur. He was on life support for two days in September 2008 after he collapsed during a game of pick-up basketball due to kidney failure, it is unclear if prior
The Star (Bangladesh)
The Star is a weekly current affairs magazine published as a supplement to The Daily Star, Bangladesh's largest circulated English newspaper. The magazine is seen to promote liberal and secular values in the country, keeping line with the ideals of the Bangladesh Liberation War. Aasha Mehreen Amin serves as editor of the magazine, Ahmede Hussain is its Assistant Editor. Http://www.thedailystar.net/the-star
New school hip hop
The new school of hip hop was a movement in hip hop music starting 1983–84 with the early records of Run–D. M. C. and LL Cool J. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominantly from New York City; the new school was characterized in form by drum machine led minimalism tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, street b-boy attitude; these elements contrasted with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, rendered them old school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more gain radio play, more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. More inclusively, golden age hip hop is a phrase framing the late 1980s in mainstream hip hop, said to be characterized by its diversity, quality and influence, associated with Public Enemy, KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Eric B.
& Rakim, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, the Jungle Brothers due to their themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, their experimental music, their eclectic sampling. This same period is sometimes referred to as "mid-school" or a "middle school" in hip hop, the phrase covering acts such as Gang Starr, The UMC's, Main Source, Lord Finesse, EPMD, Just Ice, True Mathematics, Mantronix; the innovations of Run-D. M. C. MC Shan and LL Cool J, new school producers such as Larry Smith, Rick Rubin of Def Jam, were advanced on by the Beastie Boys, Marley Marl and his Juice Crew MCs, Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim. Hip-hop production became denser and beats faster, as the drum machine was augmented with the sampler technology. Rakim took lyrics about the art of rapping to new heights, while KRS-One and Chuck D pushed "message rap" towards black activism. Native Tongues artists' inclusive, sample-crowded music accompanied their positivity and playful energy.
With the eventual commercial dominance of West Coast gangsta rap the emergence of the relaxed sounds of G-funk by the early nineties, the East Coast new school/golden age can be said to have ended, with hardcore rappers such as the Wu-Tang Clan and gangsta rappers such as Nas and The Notorious B. I. G. Coming to dominate the East Coast scene; the terms "old school" and "new school" have fallen more and more into the common vernacular as synonyms for "old" and "new" and are applied in this conversational way to hip hop, to the confusion and occasional exasperation of writers who use the terms historically. The phrase "leader of the new school", coined in hip hop by Chuck D in 1988, given further currency by the group with the exact name Leaders of the New School, remains popular, it has been applied to artists ranging from Jay-Z to Lupe Fiasco. Elements of new school had existed in some form in the popular culture since hip-hop's birth; the first MC's rapped over DJs swapping back and forth between two copies of the same record playing the same drum break, or playing instrumental portions or versions of a broad range of records.
This part of the culture was initiated by Kool DJ Herc in 1972 using breaks from James Brown, The Incredible Bongo Band and English rock group Babe Ruth in his block parties. Brown's music—"extensive vamps" in which his voice was "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts", "with rhythm-section patterns... West African polyrhythms"—was a keynote of hip hop's early days. By 1975, Grandmaster Flash and Afrika Bambaataa had taken up Kool Herc's breakbeat style of DJing, each with their own accompanying rappers. Flash was associated with an important break known as "The Bells"—a cut-up of the intro to Bob James's jazz cover of Paul Simon's "Take Me To The Mardi Gras"—while Bambaataa delighted in springing occasional rock music breaks from records like "Mary, Mary", "Honky Tonk Women", "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" and Grand Funk Railroad's "Inside Looking Out" on unsuspecting b-boys; the earliest hip-hop records replaced the DJ with a live band playing funk and disco influenced tunes, or "interpolating" the tunes themselves, as in "Rapper's Delight" and "King Tim III".
It was the soft, futuristic funk tied to disco that ruled hip hop's early days on record, to the exclusion of the hard James Brown beats so beloved of the first b-boys. Figures such as Flash and Bambaataa were involved in some early instances of moving the sound away from that of a live band, as in Flash's DJ track "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", innovating popular new sounds and subgenres, as in the synthesizer-laden electro of Bambaataa's "Planet Rock". Though the rawer elements present in live shows did not make it past the recording studio. Bambaataa's first records, for instance, two versions of "Zulu Nation Throwdown", were recorded with just drums and rhymes; when Bambaataa heard the released records, a complete live band had been added. Something closer to his intentions can be heard on a portion of Death Mix, a low-quality bootleg of a Zulu Nation night at James Monroe High School in the Bronx, released without his permission on Winley Records in 1983.
On the bootleg Live Convention'82, Grand Wizard Theodore c
Hip hop fashion
Hip hop fashion known as big fashion, is a distinctive style of dress originating from African American and other inner city youth on the scene of New York City followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, the San Francisco Bay Area, Memphis, Atlanta, St. Louis and others; each city has contributed various elements to the overall style seen worldwide today. Hip hop fashion complements the attitudes of hip hop culture in general. Hip hop fashion has changed during its history, today it is a prominent part of popular fashion across the whole world and for all ethnicities. In the late 1970s, sportswear and fashion brands were established, such as Le Coq Sportif, Kangol and Pro-Keds, attached themselves to the emerging hip hop scene. During the 1980s, hip hop icons wore clothing items such as brightly colored name-brand tracksuits and leather bomber jackets, Clarks shoes, Britishers a.k.a. British Walkers, sneakers. Popular haircuts ranged from the early-1980s Jheri curl to the early-1990s hi-top fade popularized by Will Smith and Christopher "Kid" Reid of Kid'n Play, among others.
Another trend in hip hop clothing was pioneered by Dapper Dan in the early 1980s with the adaptation and brandishing of high-net-worth fashion house brands such as Louis Vuitton and Gucci and logos in custom-designed tracksuits and mink coats. Popular accessories included large eyeglasses, Kangol bucket hats, name belts, multiple rings. Heavy gold jewelry was popular in the 1980s. In general, men's jewelry focused on women's jewelry on large gold earrings. Performers such as Kurtis Blow and Big Daddy Kane helped popularize gold necklaces and other such jewelry, female rappers such as Roxanne Shanté and the group Salt-N-Pepa helped popularize oversized gold door-knocker earrings; the heavy jewelry was suggestive of prestige and wealth, some have connected the style to Africanism. MC Schoolly D, for instance, claimed that wearing gold "is not something, born and raised in America; this goes back to Africa... the artists in the rap field are battling. We're the head warriors. We got to stand up and say we're winning battles, this is how we're doing it."1980s hip hop fashion is remembered as one of the most important elements of old school hip hop, is celebrated in nostalgic hip hop songs such as Ahmad's 1994 single "Back in the Day", Missy Elliott's 2002 single of the same name.
According to Gwendolyn O'Neal, the author of African American Aesthetics of Dress, "while an African-American aesthetic of dress is neither African nor American, it is shaped by unique ‘cultural’ experiences resulting from being of African descent and living in America." The rapper Jay-Z echoed this in a Black Book Magazine interview. It is not because of conspicuous consumption that the hip hop lifestyle brought in these high end fashion products. Preppy looks caught on with 80s youth in the first wave of hip hop influence. “This group of black yuppy wannabes or ‘buppies’ rocked to 80s hip hop music and wore styles from Polo, The Timberland and Tommy Hilfiger... were drawn to Hilfiger because of its all-American, WASP-y, country club feeling—it was exclusive and aspirational”. The immense popularity of the brand Tommy Hilfiger among the hip hop subculture community led to the brand's global expansion; as music played a significant role in the way people dressed during the 90's, many celebrities were known as fashion icons rappers.
Legendary rapper, was not only known for his resonating lyrics, but his timeless style. He was seen as a trend setter during that period and bandanas paired with baggy overalls or Red Wings jersey was known to be his classic style. In return, he made bandanas into an iconic headwear accessory. Today, his fashion influences has taught society to be more acceptable towards different styles as well as inspired fashion designers from all over the world to be innovative towards their designs. Furthermore, Snoop Dogg's strong charisma and his laid-back approach to his rhymes complemented his flannel and sweatshirts with Chucks; when he revamped his style to a cleaner cut of suited and booted look, his Doberman-like facial features and slender frame were masked by his charisma and chic vibe. He has since influenced people that with pride comes with confidence, the key of feeling comfortable and looking good in your individual fashion style. Moreover, hip hop has adopted and transformed traditional or “old world” luxury symbols and made them modern-day, “cool” commodities.
Rapper LL Cool J wore a Kangol hat back in the 1980s, when few Americans knew anything about the European hat maker, but its association with hip hop would invigorate the brand. In 2003, London-based Kangol acknowledged the popularity given its sixty-year-old brand by a young LL Cool J in 1983. Black nationalism was influential in rap during the late 1980s, fashions and hairstyles reflected traditional African influences. Blousy pants were popular among dance-oriented rappers like M. C. Hammer. Fezzes, kufis decorated with the Kemetic ankh, Kente cloth hats, Africa chains and Black Nationalist colors of red and green became popular as well, promoted by artists such as Queen Latifah, KRS-One, Public Enemy, X-C
Bristol underground scene
The Bristol underground scene, referred to in Bristol as Bristol massive, is the culture associated with drum and bass, graffiti art that has existed in Bristol from the early 1990s to the present. The city of Bristol has spawned various musicians and artists, is typified by its urban culture. While the city is most associated with a group of artists having emerged during the 1990s the Bristol Sound, the city maintains an active and diverse underground urban scene; the city has been associated with the music genre trip hop. Salon magazine has said that trip hop was spawned in "the bohemian, multi-ethnic city of Bristol, where restlessly inventive DJs had spent years assembling samples of various sounds that were floating around: groove-heavy acid jazz, neo-psychedelia, techno disco music, the brainy art rap"; the Bristol scene is characterised by a strong relationship between music and art graffiti art. A founding member of the band Massive Attack, Robert Del Naja a graffiti artist, local graffiti artist Banksy, have gone on to produce album covers and artworks.
Inkie, collaborator alongside Banksy took part in Bristol's counter-culture scene. The Bristol sound was the name given to a number of bands and producers from Bristol, in the late eighties and early 1990s; these bands spawned the musical genre trip-hop, though many of them shunned its name when other British and international bands imitated the style, preferred not to distinguish it from traditional hip hop. The Bristol sound has been described as "possessing a darkness, uplifting, a joyful melancholy"; as a whole, the Bristol Sound was characterised by a slow, spaced-out hip hop sound that a number of artists in the early and mid 1990s made synonymous with the city. These artists include Massive Attack and Tricky and others such as Way Out West, Smith & Mighty, Up, Bustle and Out, Monk & Canatella, Roni Size, The Wild Bunch. Many graffiti artists work in Bristol. One of the most notable is Banksy, an anonymous, English graffiti artist who designed album covers for bands like Blur and Monk & Canatella.
Banksy is a world-renowned artist, having produced art work worldwide in places like Barcelona, New York, London, San Francisco and the West Bank. He uses his original street art form to promote alternative aspects of politics from those displayed by the mainstream media; some believe that his graffiti helps to provide a voice for those living in urban environments that could not otherwise express themselves, that his work is something which improves the aesthetic quality of urban surroundings. Others disagree, asserting that his work is vandalism. There has long been an interplay between art scenes in Bristol. Robert Del Naja of the internationally successful band Massive Attack was a graffiti artist, "indeed, his first live gig was as a DJ accompanying artwork he had produced in a gallery in Bristol". Bristol has long been a multicultural city. In the 1950s and 1960s there were waves of immigration that made Bristol one of the most racially diverse cities in the UK; this mix included greater access to new strands of music such as reggae.
Other Parts of the city were mixed with areas like Ashley Down and Bishopston, attracting huge waves of Italian and South American immigrants who were to work in the industrial section just north of the city after the war. The immigrants put their stamp on the city through their late night drinking clubs, where like St Paul's police would tend to turn a blind eye; the Bristol underground scene was characterised by a darkness. Bands like Portishead and Massive Attack are known for using sparse instrumentation: a prominent bass line, vocals with what are melancholic lyrics, sometimes other effects associated with hip-hop, such as samples and scratching. Banksy tends to use few colours, concentrating on black and white with sharp outlines, covering topics such as war and inequality. Separately to this, some writers have talked of an undercurrent of darkness within the city due to its history. An article in 2008 in The Telegraph stated that: "Racial matters have always carried a historical resonance in Bristol, a city made affluent on the profits of tobacco and slave-trading.
Street names such as Blackboy Hill and Whiteladies Road remain as reminders." However, common knowledge that both Whiteladies Road and Blackboy Hill had connections with the slave trade is untrue. "It's a double-edged thing. There are the beautiful Georgian terraces that we love, but they were built on the profits of slavery. It's our shady past, Bristolians are a bit self-effacing, a bit ashamed of it and are quite keen to layer new associations on top of it. There's always been a defiant, subversive streak in Bristol, Banksy's work is much in that tradition."There has been a slight undercurrent of tension, both in the politics, creatively with artists and musicians in the merger of black and white culture. During the 1950s the Bristol Evening Post carried what many today would consider racist articles, warning of the dangers of black bus drivers. By definition the underground scene tends to be apart from the mainstream and this is reflected in the politics of some of the artists and musicians associated with it.
Robert Del Naja, one of the most influential artists and musicians of this scene has declared his opposition to the Iraq War for example. Del Naja and Banksy have both submitted art works to the War Paint exhibition which showcases anti-war art work. Bristol has a well-established tradition of print media, now best exem
The Five-Percent Nation, sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths or the Five Percenters, is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, by Clarence Edward Smith, a former member of the Nation of Islam who took the name Clarence 13X, came to be known as Allah the Father. Allah the Father, a former student of Malcolm X, left the NOI after a dispute with Elijah Muhammad over Elijah's teaching that the white man was the devil, yet not teaching that the black man was God. Allah the Father rejected the assertion that Nation's light-skinned founder, Wallace Fard Muhammad, was Allah and instead taught that the black man was himself God personified. Members of the group call themselves Allah's Five Percenters, which reflects their concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, those elites and their agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the New York City areas of Harlem and Brooklyn were named after notable Islamic cities by members of the organization.
Other areas include Detroit, New Jersey, Queens, Connecticut, St. Louis, New Rochelle, Dallas; the Nation of Gods and Earths teaches that black people are the original people of the planet Earth, therefore they are the fathers and mothers of civilization. The Nation teaches that Supreme Mathematics and Supreme Alphabet, a set of principles created by Allah the Father, is the key to understanding humankind's relationship to the universe; the Nation does not believe in a God but instead teaches that the Asiatic Blackman is God and his proper name is Allah, the Arabic word for "God". The Nation of Gods and Earths was founded by Allah the Father after he left the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Seven in Harlem, New York. Multiple stories exist as to why the father and the NOI parted ways: some have him refusing to give up gambling; the story states that Allah the Father was disciplined by the NOI and excommunicated in 1963, but another version of events says that he left on his own free will along with Abu Shahid, who agreed with Allah's questioning of Wallace Fard Muhammad.
That same year Allah met James Howell, a sea merchant, who would become known as Justice, Allah's closest associate until his death. Allah the Father proselytized the streets of Harlem to teach others his views based on his interpretation of NOI teachings. After failing to reach elder adults whom he saw as set in their ways, he found success with street youth. On October 10, 1964, this young group formed the First Nine Born of what became known as the Five Percent Nation, or the Nation of Gods and Earths. Allah the Father taught his Black male students. Allah taught them. In Supreme Mathematics, the Black man is symbolized as "Knowledge." The Black women who came into Allah's growing movement to study along with the males were taught they were symbolic of the planet Earth, because women produce and sustain human existence as does the Earth. Female Five Percenters are referred to as "Wisdom." The Nation of Gods and Earths Supreme Wisdom states: "Wisdom is the Original Woman because life is continued through her cipher."
The NGE does not consider itself a religion—its position is that it makes no sense to be religious or to worship or deify anyone or anything outside of oneself because adherents, are the highest power in the known universe, both collectively and individually. Allah the Father developed a curriculum of eight lessons that included the Supreme Alphabets and Mathematics, which he devised, as well as lessons from developed by the Nation of Islam's Elijah Muhammad and Wallace Fard Muhammad; the eight lessons were taught in the order which follows: Supreme Mathematics Supreme Alphabets Student Enrollment English Lesson C-1 Lost-Found Muslim Lesson #1 Lost Found Muslim Lesson #2 Actual Facts Solar Facts Each Five Percenter was required to "master" each lesson and was expected to be able to "think and reason by forming profound relationships between the lessons and significant experiences within life." Five Percenters were required to share what they had learned with others, thereby recruit new members.
The FBI opened a file on the Five Percenters in 1965, the height of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements in America. In “Disturbance by Group Called ‘Five Percenters,’” the FBI refers to the organization as a “loosely knight group of Negro youth gangs.... These particular gangs emanate from New York City Public School Number 120, a junior high school...” The FBI file stated that the organization’s name meant, “The five percent of the Muslims who smoke and drink.” 1965 New York newspaper articles referred to the Five Percenters to as a “gang,” “hoodlums,” and “terror group.” Allah the Father and the Five Percenters "had a reputation for being unreachable, anti-white criminals." With the goal of preventing New York from having a race riot or uprising, New York Mayor John V. Lindsay sent Barry Gottehrer, the head of the mayor's Urban Task Force, to meet with the organization the FBI
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture. Any song, not being commercialized is considered underground. Underground music may tend to express common ideas, such as high regard for sincerity and intimacy, freedom of creative expression as opposed to the formulaic composition of commercial music, appreciation of artistic individuality as opposed to conformity to current mainstream trends. Apart from the underground rock scenes in the pre-Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet Union, or the modern anti-Islamic metal scene of theocratic states in the Arabian Peninsula few types of underground music are hidden, although performances and recordings may be difficult for outsiders to find; some underground rock bands never got non-mainstream roots. They are radical, aggressive 60s bands such as The Velvet Underground, The Stooges, MC5, 70s bands like The Sex Pistols, The Damned, The Clash, 80s hardcore punk bands like Discharge; some underground styles became mainstream, commercialized pop styles, as did for example, the underground hip hop style of the early 1980s.
In the 2000s, the increasing availability of the Internet and digital music technologies has made underground music easier to distribute using streaming audio and podcasts. Some experts in cultural studies now argue that "there is no underground" because the Internet has made what was underground music accessible to everyone at the click of a mouse. One expert, Martin Raymond, of London-based company The Future Laboratory, commented in an article in The Independent, saying trends in music and politics are:... now transmitted laterally and collaboratively via the internet. You once had a series of gatekeepers in the adoption of a trend: the innovator, the early adopter, the late adopter, the early mainstream, the late mainstream, the conservative, but now it goes straight from the innovator to the mainstream. In effect, this means a boy band could be influenced by a obscure 1960s garage rock, early 1980s post punk, noise rock acts like Pussy Galore or composers of avant-garde classical music such as John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen, while maintaining recognizability as a boy band.
The term "underground music" has been applied to various artistic movements, for instance the psychedelic music movement of the mid-1960s, but the term has in more recent decades come to be defined by any musicians who tend to avoid the trappings of the mainstream commercial music industry otherwise it tells only truth through the music. Frank Zappa attempted to define "underground" by noting that the "mainstream comes to you, but you have to go to the underground." In the 1960s, the term "underground" was associated with the hippie counterculture and psychedelic drugs, applied to journalism and film as well as music, as they sought to communicate psychedelic experiences and Free love ideals. In modern popular music, the term "underground" refers to performers or bands ranging from artists that do DIY guerrilla concerts and self-recorded shows to those that are signed to small independent labels. In some musical styles, the term "underground" is used to assert that the content of the music is illegal or controversial, as in the case of early 1990s death metal bands in the US such as Cannibal Corpse for their gory cover art and lyrical themes.
Black metal is an underground form of music and its Norwegian scene are notorious for their association with church burnings, the occult and their Anti-Christian views. All of extreme metal is considered underground music for its extreme nature. Shlomo Sher's "philosophy for artists" argues that there are three common misconceptions about the "underground": that it refers to the rave/electronica scene. Instead, Sher claims that "underground music" is linked by shared values, such as a valuing of grassroots "reality" over music with "pre-wrapped marketing glossing it up". In a Counterpunch magazine article, Twiin argues that "Underground music is free media", because by working "independently, you can say anything in your music" and be free of corporate censorship; the genre of post-punk is considered a "catchall category for underground, indie, or lo-fi guitar rock" bands which "initially avoided major record labels in the pursuit of artistic freedom, out of an'us against them' stance towards the corporate rock world", spreading "west over college station airwaves, small clubs and independent record stores."
Underground music of this type is promoted through word-of-mouth or by community radio DJs. In the early underground scenes, such as the Grateful Dead jam band fan scenes or the 1970s punk scenes, crude home-made tapes were traded or sold from the stage or from the trunk of a car. In the 2000s, underground music podcasts. A music underground can refer to the culture of underground music in a city and its accompanying performance venues; the Kitchen is an example of what was an important New York City underground music venue in the 1960s and 1970s. CBGB is another famous New York City underground music venue claiming to be "Home of Underground Rock since 1973". Many gen