Manihot esculenta called cassava, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca. Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people, it is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as either bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests and thieves; the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, around 15 to 30 cm long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis; the flesh can be yellowish. Cassava roots are rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and tryptophan. Wild populations of M. esculenta subspecies flabellifolia, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was first domesticated no more than 10,000 years BP.
Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site; the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high food potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is portrayed in indigenous art; the Moche people depicted yuca in their ceramics. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious, they much preferred foods from Spain wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, meat, considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
"Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used. The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish, Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as Havana, Santiago and Baracoa carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage; the Spanish needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water and large amounts of cassava bread. Sailors complained. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as as regular bread. Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. Maize and cassava are now important staple foods.
Cassava has become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia and Vietnam. Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics" but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial bread tree, the breadfruit or the African breadfruit. In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total. Other major growers were Thailand and Indonesia. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be grown on marginal soils, gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm to 5 m annually, to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline; these conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and So
Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela. Venezuelans speak Spanish; the majority of Venezuelans are the result of a mixture of Europeans and Amerindians. 51.6% of the population are Mestizos of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry, 43.6% of Venezuelans identify as European or Middle Eastern. An additional 3.6 % identify as Black/African-descendants. Writing was not used in pre-Columbian times, a historical stage where various groups began to move throughout the Americas, thus making it difficult to find evidence of the people who began to populate this land. However, archaeological excavations show evidence of certain periods that were taking place on the continent. Venezuela was first settled by humans 16,000 years ago, due to migration flows from other indigenous cultures of America, from the south to the Amazon, from the west through Los Andes and north by the Caribbean Sea. There are four periods of diversity that develop in the current Venezuela, which entering a new period, it did not mean the end of the previous.
The first migrations to the continent were from East Asia to 15,000 years. C; these early migrants came at first to be located in North America moving to the territory of present Venezuela. Now for their offspring, it was clear verify the Asian features on their faces that will adapt to the climate and lifestyle. During this period, various mammals were disappearing by climatic changes beginning to take place from 5000 years ago, so the population in the mainland, starts to move towards the coast and spread to some nearby islands, trying to find new feeding alternatives. On August 2, 1498, Christopher Columbus, the Spanish colonizers ships, landed for the first time in American mainland and did so in the current Venezuelan territory. With the rapid colonization process despite small local indigenous rebellions, the Spaniards manage to conquer the territory, beginning during this period the most significant crossbreeding process that will define the social profile of the country. With the passage of time, the introduction of the African continent, a third race, the Africans, started to integrate into the population, creating heterogeneity in the faces of the society of the time.
During colonial centuries in Venezuela began to settle the "peninsular whites", coming directly from the Iberian Peninsula and which were those who held positions in the crown, representing only 15% of the population. Another group of whites who were born in Venezuela were called "Creole", representing 20% of the population: they were from the Canary Islands and they worked in petty trade; the other two smaller groups were the original inhabitants and indigenous blacks brought from Africa: they were about 5% of the population. Soon the original groups started to have interbreedings and this created a process of "fusion" between the different racial groups: The "brown" were descendants of the unions between Whites and Blacks and by the 18th century were the largest racial and social group being more than 60% of the population; this process is responsible for the majority of Venezuelans who are of mixed race. The country has a diverse population that reflects its rich history and the people that have lived here since antiquity to the present.
The historic amalgam of different principal groups form the basis of the current demographics of Venezuela: the European immigrants, the Amerindian peoples, Asian, Middle Eastern and other recent immigrants. Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed by the mixed population, but the remaining 500,000 represent more than 85 different cultures. European immigrants were Spanish colonists, but another large and growing number are descendants of Europeans who migrated to the region in mid-twentieth century during the oil growth in the country. Small numbers are descendants of French and Polish, as they emigrated during World War II and the Cold War. Black Africans were brought as slaves coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century. Other immigrant populations are Asian and Middle East Lebanon and the Arab world, some Jews from southern Spain and Central European nations, East Asians like Chinese and Japanese, Haitians, Peruvians, Uruguayans, Chileans and Colombians, this being the greatest social impact due to a large number of displaced individuals who entered the Venezuelan territory during the armed conflict in that country.
According to the critic D'Ambrosio and other academics, about 51.6% of Venezuelans are mestizos, 45% are white, 2% are black and 1% Indians. Notably, according to these scholars, is the fact that there are no pure blacks in Venezuela, including those with the darkest skin, found in the area of Barlovento. Most of which being limited to black Venezuelans who descend from recent immigrants; the same is said for both white Venezuelans and indigenous Venezuelans. In addition, according to a genetic autosomal DNA study conducted in 2008 by the University of Brasilia, the composition of the population of Venezuela is: 60.60% European, 23% of Native American contribution and 16% of Africa's contribution. The population of 28 million people made Venezuela the sixth-mo
Basket weaving is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or three dimensional artifacts, such as mats or containers. Craftspeople and artists specialized in making baskets are referred to as basket makers and basket weavers. Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials—anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, oak, forsythia, stems, animal hair, grasses and fine wooden splints. Indigenous peoples are renowned for their basket-weaving techniques; these baskets may be traded for goods but may be used for religious ceremonies. Classified into four types, according to Catherine Erdly: "Coiled" basketry using grasses and pine needles "Plaiting" basketry using materials that are wide and braidlike: palms, yucca or New Zealand flax "Twining" basketry using materials from roots and tree bark. Twining refers to a weaving technique where two or more flexible weaving elements cross each other as they weave through the stiffer radial spokes.
"Wicker" and "Splint" basketry using reed, willow and ash Weaving with rattan core is one of the more popular techniques being practiced, because it is available. It is pliable, when woven it is sturdy. While traditional materials like oak and willow might be hard to come by, reed is plentiful and can be cut into any size or shape that might be needed for a pattern; this includes flat reed, used for most square baskets. The type of baskets that reed is used for are most referred to as "wicker" baskets, though another popular type of weaving known as "twining" is a technique used in most wicker baskets. Wicker baskets are used to store grain. Many types of plants can be used to create baskets: dog rose, blackberry briars once the thorns have been scraped off and many other creepers. Willow was used for the ease with which it could be grown and harvested. Willow baskets were referred to as wickerwork in England. Water hyacinth is also being used as a base material in some areas where the plant has become a serious pest.
For example, a group in Ibadan led by Achenyo Idachaba have been creating handicrafts in Nigeria. The parts of a basket are the base, the side walls, the rim. A basket may have a lid, handle, or embellishments. Most baskets begin with a base; the base can either be woven with wooden. A wooden base can come in many shapes to make a wide variety of shapes of baskets; the "static" pieces of the work are laid down first. In a round basket, they are referred to as "spokes"; the "weavers" are used to fill in the sides of a basket. A wide variety of patterns can be made by changing the size, colour, or placement of a certain style of weave. To achieve a multi-coloured effect, aboriginal artists first dye the twine and weave the twines together in complex patterns. While basket weaving is one of the widest spread crafts in the history of any human civilization, it is hard to say just how old the craft is, because natural materials like wood and animal remains decay and constantly. So without proper preservation, much of the history of basket making has been lost and is speculated upon.
The oldest known baskets have been carbon dated to between 10,000 and 12,000 years old, earlier than any established dates for archaeological finds of pottery, were discovered in Faiyum in upper Egypt. Other baskets have been discovered in the Middle East. However, baskets survive, as they are made from perishable materials; the most common evidence of a knowledge of basketry is an imprint of the weave on fragments of clay pots, formed by packing clay on the walls of the basket and firing. During the Industrial Revolution, baskets were used for packing and deliveries. Wicker furniture became fashionable in Victorian society. During the World Wars, thousands of baskets were used for transporting messenger pigeons. There were observational balloon baskets, baskets for shell cases and airborne pannier baskets used for dropping supplies of ammunition and food to the troops. Baskets have many purposes, including hot air ballooning; because vines have always been accessible and plentiful for weavers, they have been a common choice for basketry purposes.
The runners are preferable to the vine. Pliable materials like kudzu vine to more rigid, woody vines like bittersweet, honeysuckle and smokevine are good basket weaving materials. Although many vines are not uniform in shape and size, they can be manipulated and prepared in a way that makes them used in traditional and contemporary basketry. Most vines dried to store until use. Once vines are ready to be used, they can be boiled to increase pliability; the earliest reliable evidence for basketry technology in the Middle East comes from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic phases of Tell Sabi Abyad II and Çatalhöyük. Although no actual basketry remains were recovered, impressions on floor surfaces and on fragments of bitumen suggest that basketry objects were used for storage and architectural purposes; the well-preserved Early Neolithic ritual cave site of Nahal Hemar yielded thousands of intact perishable artefacts, including basketry containers and various types of cordage. Additional Neolithic b
The Warao are an indigenous Amerindian people inhabiting northeastern Venezuela and Tobago, Suriname. Alternate common spellings of Warao are Waroa, Guarauno and Warrau; the term Warao translates as "the boat people," after the Warao's lifelong and intimate connection to the water. Most of the 20,000 Warao inhabit Venezuela's Orinoco Delta region, with smaller numbers in neighboring Guyana and Tobago, Suriname, they speak Warao. On the wide Orinoco River and its fertile delta composed of islands and marshes, Warao people inhabit wall-less thatched-roof huts built upon stilts for protection against floods; these houses are built on the highest ground to avoid the annual floods. Sometimes a group of houses is built upon a single large platform of trees; the huts each possess a clay cooking pit or oven located in the center, with sleeping hammocks encircling it. Besides the hammocks, the only other furniture sometimes present are wooden stools, sometimes carved in the shapes of animals. Warao use canoes as their main form of transportation.
Other modes, such as walking, are hampered by the hundreds of streams, rivulets and high waters created by the Orinoco. Warao babies and small children are famed for their ability to hold tight to their mothers' necks, as well as to paddle, they learn to swim before they learn to walk. The Warao use two types of canoes. Bongos, which carry up to 5 people, are built in an arduous process that starts with the search for large trees; when an old bongo is no longer usable, a consensus is reached by the male leaders of each household on which tree is best. At the start of the dry season, they kill it. At the end of the dry season, they return to cut it down, it is hollowed out and flattened with stone tools traded from the mountains along with fire. The other type of canoe is a small, seating only three people, is used for daily travel to and from food sources; the Warao diet is varied with an emphasis on the products of the delta fish. By 1500 they had acquired basic horticulture, although many of their daily fruits and vegetables come from the wild orchards of the delta.
In July and August, Warao feast on crabs. Hunting is avoided due to cultural taboos, they also eat grubs found in the moriche palm tree. The Warao are, according to their own reports, descended from an adventurous heavenly figure — the primordial hunter; this man dwelt in a sky world which had men, but was devoid of all animals except birds. Hunting these heavenly birds, the founding man used his arrow to strike a bird in mid-air; the bird fell from the sky and hit the heavenly floor. The birds burst through the floor and proceeded through the clouds and towards terrestrial land below; the hunter looked through. He saw lush and fertile land and resolved to descend to it to partake of its pleasures: beauty, abundant game, fruit, et cetera; the hunter took a long rope of heavenly cotton, tied it to a tree, threw it through the hole and lowered himself through the clouds to what is now Earth, forsaking his sky world. The Warao have shamans, who perform music such as rain songs; the Warao of eastern Venezuela's Orinoco first had contact with Europeans when, soon after Christopher Columbus reached the Orinoco river delta, Alonso de Ojeda decided to navigate the river upstream.
There, in the delta, Ojeda saw the distinctively stilted Warao huts, balanced over the water. Similar architecture in Sinamaica far to the west had been likened to Venice, with its famous canals below and buildings above; the inaccessibility of the Warao's lands make access to health care difficult. Tuberculosis is common. HIV was first detected in 2007 in the Waroa communities of the lower Orinoco Delta region of Venuezuela. Sex between men is a common practice among young Warao before they are married, and, is thought to be a major factor in the rapid spread of the disease. In some communities 35% test positive for the HIV virus. With Venezuela's failing health care system, there is an absence of prevention programs; the culture is felt to be threatened.. In the summer of 2008, indigenous leaders and researchers from the University of California, Berkeley issued a report detailing the deaths of 38 Warao in the Delta Amacuro state from a mysterious illness; the disease, which causes "partial paralysis, convulsions and an extreme fear of water" is believed to be a form of rabies transmitted by bats.
Upon reaching Caracas to inform the government of the outbreak and request assistance, the leaders and researchers "met with disrespect on every level, as if the deaths of indigenous people are not worth anything." In April 2017, The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented a film by Cuban-Venezuelan director Mario Crespo with a cast of nonprofessional actors. The film presents the difficulty of choosing to stay with the Warao traditions and life or to leave to gain an education among the "Creoles"; the film includes a detailed look at Warao life along the river. The film is: "Dauna. Lo que lleva el río. 2015, Venezuela, in Spanish and Warao languages. Tourism has come to the Warao. Several individuals have set up ready tourist accommodation in their own homes, they offer canoe trips
Timoto–Cuica people were an indigenous group composed of two tribes, the Timote and the Cuica, that inhabited in the Andean region of western Venezuela. They were related to the Muisca of the Andes, who spoke Muysccubun, a version of Chibcha; the Timoto-Cuicas were not only composed of the Timoto and the Cuica tribes, but the Mucuchíes, the Migures, the Tabayes, the Mucuñuques. Pre-Columbian Venezuela had an estimated indigenous population of one million, with the Andean region being the most densely populated area; the two tribes lived in what are today the states of Mérida, Táchira. Timoto-Cuica society was complex with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields, they stored water in tanks. Their houses were made of stone and wood with thatched roofs, they were peaceful, for the most part, depended on growing crops. Regional crops included ullucos, they left behind works of art anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into mats for housing.
They are credited with having invented a staple in Venezuelan and Colombian cuisine. Mahoney, James. "Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish American in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-11634-3. Indigenous Culture in Venezuela De los timoto-cuicas a la invisibilidad del indigena andino y a su diversidad cultural Caciques de Venezuela) Get to know Venezuela
The Pemon or Pemón are indigenous people living in areas of Venezuela and Guyana. They are known as Arecuna, Aricuna Jaricuna and Taurepang; the Pemon are part of the larger Cariban language family, include six groups including the Arekuna, Ingarikó, Tualipang and Macushi/Makushi. While ethnographic data on these groups are scant, Iris Myers produced one of the most detailed accounts of the Makushi in the 1940s, her work is relied upon for comparisons between historical and contemporary Makushi life; the Pemon were first encountered by westerners in the 18th century and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Their society is based on trade and considered egalitarian and decentralized, in Venezuela, funding from petrodollars have helped fund community projects, ecotourism opportunities are being developed. In Venezuela, Pemon live in the Gran Sabana grassland plateau dotted with tabletop mountains where the Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall, plunges from Auyantepui in Canaima National Park.
The Makuxi, who are Pemon speakers, are found in Brazil and Guyana in areas close to the Venezuelan border. Arekuna, or Pemon, is a Cariban language spoken in Venezuela in the Gran Sabana region of Bolívar State. According to the 2001 census there were 15,094 Pemon speakers in Venezuela; the Pemon have a rich mythic tradition, merged into their present Catholic and Christian faiths. Pemon mythology includes; the mountains are off-limits to the living, as they are home to ancestor spirits called mawari. The first non-native person to study Pemon myths and language was the German ethnologist Theodor Koch-Grunberg, who visited Roraima in 1912. Important myths describe the origins of the sun and moon, the creation of the tepui mountains — which rise from the savannahs of the Gran Sabana — and the activities of the creator hero Makunaima and his brothers. In 1999, Wolfgang Kraker von Schwarzenfeld arranged the transport of a red stone boulder, weighing about 35 metric tons, from Venezuela's Canaima National Park to Berlin Tiergarten for his "global stone" project.
Since that time, a dispute is ongoing but yet unsuccessful, of the Pemon trying to get the stone back, involving German and Venezuelan authorities and embassies, up to the former president Hugo Chávez. Theodor Koch-Grunberg 1917 – "Vom Roraima Zum Orinoco" David John Thomas 1982 – "Order Without Government: The Society of the Pemon Indians of Venezuela" Pemon Myths and Legends Pemón health
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration