Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo. It comprises 73% of the islands area, the non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesian, the term Kalimantan refers to the island of Borneo. It consists of the two words kal and manthan, the word Kalamanthana is spelled Kalmantan, and the indigenous people fixed it into Klemantan. The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, the non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei and East Malaysia, the latter comprising the states of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan. The region within Indonesia is known as Indonesian Borneo, kalimantans total area is 544,150 square kilometres. Kalimantan is divided into five provinces, 1)North Kalimantan split off East Kalimantan with resulting population, languages of Kalimantan Kalimantan travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Dutch Empire comprised the overseas colonies and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently, the Dutch Republic and the modern Netherlands. This was reflective of the fact that the network of the Dutch Empire was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over a homogeneous landmass. The companies brief domination of global commerce contributed greatly to a commercial revolution, in their search for new trade passages between Asia and Europe Dutch navigators explored and charted vast regions such as New Zealand and parts of the eastern coast of North America. Shortly after reaching its zenith, the Dutch Empire began to decline as a result of the Anglo-Dutch Wars, in which it lost many of its colonial possessions and trade monopolies to the British Empire. Nevertheless, some portions of the empire survived until the advent of global decolonisation following World War II, namely the East Indies, three former colonial territories—Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten—are retained as constituent countries within the Netherlands.
In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, led by William of Orange, independence was declared in the 1581 Act of Abjuration. The revolt resulted in the establishment of an de facto independent Protestant republic in the north by Treaty of Antwerp, the coastal provinces of Holland and Zeeland had for centuries prior to Spanish rule been important hubs of the European maritime trade network. Their geographical location provided convenient access to the markets of France, Germany, efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets in the Mediterranean and the Levant. In the 1590s, Dutch ships began to trade with Brazil and the Dutch Gold Coast of Africa, and towards the Indian Ocean, by attacking Portuguese overseas possessions, the Dutch forced Spain to divert financial and military resources away from its attempt to quell Dutch independence. Thus began the several decade-long Dutch-Portuguese War, in 1594, the Compagnie van Verre was founded in Amsterdam, with the aim of sending two fleets to the spice islands of Maluku.
The first fleet sailed in 1596 and returned in 1597 with a cargo of pepper, the second voyage, returned its investors a 400% profit. The success of these led to the founding of a number of companies competing for the trade. The competition was counterproductive to the interests as it threatened to drive up the price of spices at their source in Indonesia whilst driving them down in Europe. As a result of the caused by inter-company rivalry, the Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602. The directors of the company, the Heeren XVII, were given the authority to establish fortresses and strongholds, to sign treaties. The company itself was founded as a joint stock company, similarly to its English rival that had founded two years earlier, the English East India Company. The Spanish-Dutch War was for the Dutch part of their struggle for independence and religious freedom, the Netherlands became part of the domains of the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty when Emperor Charles V divided the holdings of the Habsburg Empire following his abdication in 1555.
From 1517, the port of Lisbon in Portugal was the main European market for products from India that was attended by other nations to purchase their needs
Siege of Galle (1640)
The Siege of the Portuguese fort Santa Cruz de Gale at Galle in 1640, took place during the Dutch–Portuguese and Sinhalese–Portuguese Wars. The Galle fort commanded 282 villages, which contained most fertile lands in southern Sri Lanka It was an important strategic coastal defense of Portuguese Ceylon. The Dutch, who were in an alliance with the Kingdom of Kandy, landed a force under Commodore Willem Jacobszoon Coster of Akersloot, at the Bay of Galle. After bombarding the fort for four days, Dutch troops stormed the fort. With this victory the Dutch gained access to a port which they used as a convenient naval base to attack Goa. They gained access to the Sri Lankan cinnamon trade and gained a permanent foothold on the island, the Portuguese arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505 and established trade relations with the kingdom of Kotte. They erected a fortress in Colombo and garrisoned it, in 1521, during events which became known as the “Spoiling of Vijayabahu”, Kotte King Vijayabahu VII’s three sons mutinied and killed their father.
They divided the kingdom among themselves giving rise to three kingdoms, Kotte and Principality of Raigama. Subsequent rivalries among these kingdoms gave the Portuguese an opportunity to get involved in internal politics, in 1557, the Kingdom of Kotte became a vassal state of Portugal. In 1591, the Jaffna Kingdom was subjugated and in 1594, by April 1594, only the Kingdom of Kandy stood in the way of the Portuguese completing their conquest of Sri Lanka. The Portuguese invaded the Kingdom of Kandy in 1594,1602 and 1630, after 1602, Dutch envoys began visiting Kandy, and by 1638 negotiations were taking place for a Dutch–Kandyan alliance. A Portuguese army, led by Diogo de Melo de Castro, the Portuguese army was annihilated on 28 March 1638 in a decisive battle at Gannoruwa. Meanwhile, the Dutch fleet arrived in Sri Lanka on 2 April 1638, priority was given to capture the Batticaloa and Trincomalee forts. These forts were situated within Kandyan territory and had been ten years earlier by the Portuguese in violation of the peace treaty that had existed between the Portuguese and Kandyans.
On 18 May, after being besieged for eight days by a combined Dutch-Kandyan army, five days later, on 23 May 1638, a treaty was signed establishing an alliance between the Dutch and the Kandyans. On 2 May 1639, after a siege that lasted for 40 days, the Dutch captured the Trincomalee fort and on 9 February 1640, by the end of February, preparations were being made for the siege of Galle. Goa, the headquarters of Portugals Asian territories, was resupplied annually from Lisbon by Portugals India armadas and these resources were distributed to the other Portuguese strongholds through further supply convoys and Sri Lanka received supplies and reinforcements twice a year in May and September. However, when ever a Portuguese stronghold was under threat, reinforcements were rushed to that place disregarding the normal procedures of supply, in 1636, Antonio van Diemen was appointed Governor General of Dutch East India Company
Battle of Macau
The Battle of Macau in 1622 was a conflict of the Dutch-Portuguese War fought in the Portuguese settlement of Macau, in southeastern China. The Portuguese and without adequate fortification, managed to repel the Dutch in a victory on 24 June after a three-day battle. To date, the remains the only major engagement that was fought between two European powers on the Chinese mainland. Portugals success in Macau drew the envy of other European maritime powers who were slower to gain a foothold in East Asia. Macau had already sustained Dutch raids in 1601,1603, and 1607, the fall of Macau would leave the Spaniards in the Philippines without means of support and make it easier for the Dutch to mount an attack on Manila. Despite the raids, the Portuguese authorities were unable to raise an extensive system for the city due to interference from Chinese officials. The sorry state of Macaus defenses were made known to the Hollanders when the Dutch ship Gallias seized a Portuguese ship carrying a case of letters off the coast of Malaya at the end of 1621.
Coen was so satisfied with the fleet that when he wrote to the VOC directors at The Hague he expressed regret for not being able to lead so magnificent an expedition in person. So when the fleet set sail again from Cam Ranh Bay two days later, the fleet was composed of eleven ships, a few days later, the fleet encountered a Siamese war junk carrying 28 Siamese and 20 Japanese people. The Japanese asked to join the Dutch expedition, and their request was granted, the landing force now amounted to about six hundred, with some Japanese and Bandanese among the numbers. The invasion fleet arrived in sight of Macau on 21 June, according to Coens directives, the English were free to join in maritime operations but were not allowed to take part in the landing or take any share of the spoils of victory. As a result, the English captains refused to commit their ships for the attack, now Reijersen had thirteen ships under his command for the attack on Macau, totaling 1300 men, including a landing force of 800.
In the night of 22 June, Reijersen sent ashore a scouting party of three men and a Chinese guide to see if the 10,000 Chinese residents of the city would remain neutral and they soon returned after finding the Chinese had fled the city ahead of the invasion. To distract the defenders from the landing site, three ships – Groeningen and Engelsche Beer – started to bombard the São Franciso battery in the south on 23 June. After an afternoon of cannon volleys and insults, the ships withdrew for the night without inflicting any casualties on the Portuguese side, the Dutch celebrated their expected victory in advance by blowing their trumpets and beating their drums all night. Not to be outdone, the Portuguese retaliated with similar martial festivities in the citys bulwarks, the Dutch ships Groeningen and Gallias resumed their attack on São Francisco at daybreak the very next day, the Feast-day of St. John the Baptist. The Portuguese gunners at the bastion responded with such ferocity that the Gallias became so damaged she had to be scuttled a few weeks later.
At approximately two hours after sunrise, the party of 800 set off for Cacilhas Beach while São Francisco was being bombarded