National Day of the Republic of China
The National Day of the Republic of China referred to as Double Ten Day or Double Tenth Day, is the national day of the Republic of China. It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of 10 October 1911, which led to the end of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Chinese Republic on 1 January 1912. During the course of the Chinese Civil War, the government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China, fleeing to the Island of Taiwan in December 1949; the National Day is now celebrated in ROC-controlled Taiwan, but is celebrated by some overseas Chinese. During the establishment of the ROC, Taiwan was under Japanese rule, which began in 1895. In 1945, after surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II, Taiwan was placed under the control of the ROC. In Taiwan, the official celebration begins with the raising of the flag of the Republic of China in front of the Presidential Building, along with a public singing of the National Anthem of the Republic of China.
It is followed by celebrations in front of the Presidential Building. Festivities include many aspects of traditional Chinese and/or Taiwanese culture, such as the lion dance and drum teams, cultural features coming from Taiwanese aborigines are integrated into the display in recent years. In the day, the president of the Republic of China would address the country and fireworks displays are held throughout the major cities of the island. In 2009, all government sponsored festivities for the Double Ten Day were cancelled, the money intended for the festivals were reallocated for reconstruction of the damage done by Typhoon Morakot. In the past, the Republic of China Armed Forces have traditionally put on a military parade. During this parade and equipment are marched past a reviewing platform in front of the Presidential Building. Foreign ambassadors, military officers, other representatives and dignitaries are invited to view the parade; the parade has been held intermittently during the period of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The military parade on 10 October 1949, was the first public military parade held in Taiwan with Chen Cheng serving as the Grand Review Officer. The 1964 National Day parade was struck by tragedy when a low flying air force F-104 Starfighter fighter aircraft struck a Broadcasting Corporation of China tower, causing the plane's fuel tank to fall and kill three people including a woman and her baby in front of the Central Weather Bureau building in downtown Taipei; the other two remaining F-104 aircraft were ordered to look for the crashed aircraft and accidentally collided and crashed in Tucheng City, Taipei County, killing both pilots. The parade was not held again until 1971, while the mobile column and flypast segments returned in 1975; when Chen Shui-bian became president, the parade was not held until 2007 and it was entitled a "Celebration Drill" and not a traditional military parade. Since Ma Ying-jeou became president, one parade has been held on the centenary celebrations of the Double Tenth Day.
The tradition of shouting Long Live the Republic of China! at the end of the addresses by the president of the Republic of China was not held for the first time in 2016. It was the year that fire and police services joined the parade for the first time in history, breaking a tradition of a purely-military parade to include personnel from civil uniformed services. List of Republic of China National Day Parades Overseas Chinese played a key role in the birth of the ROC since the nation’s founding father Sun Yat-sen, a medical doctor by training, received financial support from the overseas Chinese communities abroad to overthrow the imperial Qing dynasty and establish the second republic in Asia in 1912. Outside Taiwan, the National Day is celebrated by many Overseas Chinese communities. Sizable National Day parades occur yearly in the Chinatowns of San Chicago; the ROC National Day was a public holiday in Hong Kong until the government of the United Kingdom cut its diplomatic ties with the ROC Government, it was cancelled.
After the civil war in mainland China, the National Day was celebrated in regions inhabited by Chinese patriots who remained loyal to the Republic, such as Tiu Keng Leng. Before the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC in 1997, many ROC supporters there would display patriotic and colourful flags to celebrate the National Day. Taiwan agencies such as the Kwang Hwa Information and Cultural Center in Hong Kong have annually held a public ceremony to celebrate the National Day of ROC with members of pro-ROC private groups; the day continues to be celebrated in Hong Kong after the transfer of sovereignty to the mainland, but the national flags publicly shown have been removed by Police of Hong Kong since July 1997. Flag-raising ceremony at Hung Lau, Tuen Mun, Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary base, is the most noticeable event; as the Communist Party of China seized control of mainland China in 1949, October 10 is now celebrated in the People's Republic of China as the anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution and the Wuchang Uprising.
History of the Republic of China National Day of the People's Republic of China 10/10/1943 uprising against the Japanese occupation of British Borneo Hong Kong 1956 riots Double Tenth Agreement Media related to National Day of the Republic of China at Wikimedia Commons Republic of China Centenary Foundation
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Yokohama Specie Bank Building
The Yokohama Specie Bank Building is a seven-story building in The Bund, Shanghai. It is now a branch of the Shanghai Textile Holding Corporation; the building was designed by architects at T Architects & Engineers Ltd.. The building was built on the site of David Sassoon's 1845 building; the Japanese bank purchased the site in 1920, began construction of the current building in 1923, completed construction in 1924. After World War II the Chinese government confiscated the bank's assets, the building became the headquarters of the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau. Shea, Marilyn. "The Bund - Picture Guide to Historic Buildings". The University of Maine. 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2012. Buildings of the Bund
The renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China. The yuan is the basic unit of the renminbi, but is used to refer to the Chinese currency especially in international contexts where "Chinese yuan" is used to refer to the renminbi; the distinction between the terms renminbi and yuan is similar to that between sterling and pound, which refer to the British currency and its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao, a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen; the renminbi is issued by the People's Bank of the monetary authority of China. Until 2005, the value of the renminbi was pegged to the US dollar; as China pursued its transition from central planning to a market economy, increased its participation in foreign trade, the renminbi was devalued to increase the competitiveness of Chinese industry. It has been claimed that the renminbi's official exchange rate was undervalued by as much as 37.5% against its purchasing power parity. More however, appreciation actions by the Chinese government, as well as quantitative easing measures taken by the American Federal Reserve and other major central banks, have caused the renminbi to be within as little as 8% of its equilibrium value by the second half of 2012.
Since 2006, the renminbi exchange rate has been allowed to float in a narrow margin around a fixed base rate determined with reference to a basket of world currencies. The Chinese government has announced that it will increase the flexibility of the exchange rate; as a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the world's 8th most traded currency in 2013, 5th by 2015. On 1 October 2016, the RMB became the first emerging market currency to be included in the IMF's special drawing rights basket, the basket of currencies used by the IMF; the ISO code for renminbi is CNY, or CNH when traded in off-shore markets such as Hong Kong. The currency is abbreviated RMB, or indicated by the yuan sign ¥; the latter may be written CN¥ to distinguish it from other currencies with the same symbol. In Chinese texts the currency may be indicated with the Chinese character for the yuan, 圆; the renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Macau. However, Renminbi is accepted in Hong Kong and Macau, are exchanged in the two territories, with banks in Hong Kong allowing people to maintain accounts in RMB and withdraw RMB banknotes from ATM terminals.
In 1889, the yuan was equated at par with the Mexican peso, a silver coin deriving from the Spanish dollar which circulated in southeast Asia since the 17th century due to Spanish presence in the Philippines and Guam. It was subdivided into 1000 cash, 100 cents or fen, 10 jiao, it replaced. The sycees were denominated in tael; the yuan was valued at 0.72 tael. Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with the Imperial Bank of China and the "Hu Pu Bank", established by the Imperial government. During the Imperial period, banknotes were issued in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan, although notes below 1 yuan were uncommon; the earliest issues were silver coins produced at the Guangdong mint, known in the West at the time as Canton, transliterated as Kwangtung, in denominations of 5 cents, 1, 2 and 5 jiao and 1 yuan. Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s producing similar silver coins along with copper coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 cash.
Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s. The central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with banks established by the Imperial government; the central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. These were brass 1 cash, copper 2, 5, 10 and 20 cash, silver 1, 2 and 5 jiao and 1 yuan. After the revolution, although the designs changed, the sizes and metals used in the coinage remained unchanged until the 1930s. From 1936, the central government issued 1⁄2 yuan coins. Aluminium 1 and 5 fen pieces were issued in 1940. A variety of currencies circulated in China during the Republic of China era, most of which were denominated in the unit yuán; each was distinguished by a currency name, such as the fabi, the "gold yuan", the "silver yuan". The renminbi was introduced by the People's Bank of China in December 1948, about a year before the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
It was issued only in paper money form at first, replaced the various currencies circulating in the areas controlled by the Communists. One of the first tasks of the new government was to end the hyperinflation that had plagued China in the final years of the Kuomintang era; that achieved, a revaluation occurred in 1955 at the rate of 1 new yuan = 10,000 old yuan. As the Communist Party of China took control of larger territories in the latter part of the Chinese Civil War, its People's Bank of China began in 1948 to issue a unified currency for use in Communist-controlle
Bank of China
Bank of China is one of the four biggest state-owned commercial banks in China. Bank of China is separate from its subsidiary Bank of China, although they maintain close relations in management and administration and co-operate in several areas including reselling BOC's insurance and securities services, it was founded in 1912 by the Republican government to replace the Daqing Bank. It is the oldest bank in mainland China still in existence. From its establishment until 1942, it issued banknotes on behalf of the Government along with the "Big Four" banks of the period: the Farmers Bank of China, Bank of Communications and Central Bank of the Republic of China, its headquarters are in Beijing. As of 31 December 2009, it was the second largest lender in China overall, the 5th largest bank in the world by market capitalization value; as of end 2017, it was the fourth largest bank in the world in terms of assets, ranked after the other 3 Chinese banks. The Bank of China's history began in 1905, when the Qing government established Daqing Hubu Bank in Beijing, in 1908 renamed to Daqing Bank.
When the Republic of China was established in 1912, it was further renamed as Bank of China by President Sun Yat-sen's government, adding a new role of the central bank. After the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, the Bank of China split into two operations. Part of the bank relocated to Taiwan with the Kuomintang government, was privatized in 1971 to become the International Commercial Bank of China. In 2002, it merged with Chiao Tung Bank to become the Mega International Commercial Bank; the Mainland operation is the current entity known as the Bank of China. It is the second largest lender in China overall, the fifth largest bank in the world by market capitalization value. Once 100% owned by the central government, via China Central Huijin and National Council for Social Security Fund, an Initial public offering of its shares took place in June 2006, the free float is at present over 26%. In the Forbes Global 2000 it ranked as the 4th-largest company in the world, it is the most globally-active of China's banks, with branches on every inhabited continent.
Outside of mainland China, BOC operates in 27 countries and areas including Australia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Russia, United States, Brazil, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Zambia, South Africa, a branch office in the Cayman Islands. In December 2010, the Bank of China New York branch began offering renminbi products for Americans, it was the first major Chinese bank. Although it is present in the above countries/territories, its operations outside China accounted for less than 4% of the activity of the bank by both profits and assets. Mainland China accounts for 60% of the bank by profits and 76% by assets as at December 2005. 1917: BOC opened a branch in Hong Kong. 1929: BOC opened its first overseas branch in London. The branch managed the government's foreign debt, became a center for the bank's management of its foreign exchange, acted as an intermediary for China's international trade. 1931: BOC opened a branch in Osaka. 1936: BOC opened a branch in Singapore to handle remittances to China of overseas Chinese.
It opened an agency in New York. 1937: On the outbreak of hostilities with Japan, Japanese forces blockaded China's major ports. BOC opened a number of branches in Batavia, Kuala Lumpur, Hanoi, Rangoon and Calcutta to facilitate the gathering of remittances and the flow of military supplies, it opened sub-agencies in Surabaya, Dabo, Batu Pahat, Mandalay, Lashio and Seremban. 1941-1942: The Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia forced BOC to close all overseas its branches, sub-branches and sub-agencies, except London, New York and Bombay. In 1942, it manages to set up six new overseas branches, such as in Sydney and Havana, Karachi. 1946: BOC reopened its branches and agencies in Hong Kong, Haiphong, Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta. It moved the Hanoi agency to Saigon. At the suggestion of the Allied Forces Headquarters, it liquidated the branch in Osaka and opened a sub-branch in Tokyo. 1947: BOC opened agencies in Bangkok and Tokyo. 1950: After victory of Communist forces in the civil war, some branches of Bank of China joined the bank headquartered in Beijing, while others opted to remain with the Bank of China headquartered in Taipei.
In 1971, this bank took the name International Commercial Bank of China. 1963: The Burmese government nationalized all banks and domestic, including the Bank of China's Rangoon branch. 1971: The Bank of China transferred its two branches in Karachi and Chittagong to the National Bank of Pakistan. 1975: The Republic of South Vietnam nationalized the Bank of China's branch in Saigon and the Khmer Rouge government nationalized its Phnom Penh branch. 1979: BOC opened a branch in Luxembourg, which became its European headquarters through the 1990s. 1981: BOC opened a branch in New York. 1985: BOC opened a branch in Paris 1987: BOC became an ordinary member of the LBMA. 1992: BOC opens a representative office in Toronto. 1993: Bank of China established to conduct business in Canada as a Schedule II bank. 2001: Kwangtung Provincial Bank was closed and m
Bank of China Tower, Shanghai
The Shanghai Bank of China Tower, is a 53-story tower in the Pudong District, China. It was built for the Bank of China by the Japanese architectural firm Nikken Sekkei, it was one of the three buildings that were part of the filming of Mission: Impossible III starring Tom Cruise. It is the building. List of tallest buildings in Shanghai Official website Branch Details for Shanghai Bank of China Tower Bank of China Tower, Shanghai at Emporis "Bank of China Tower, Shanghai". SkyscraperPage
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle; some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. China fought Japan with aid from the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged with other conflicts of World War II as a major sector known as the China Burma India Theater; some scholars consider the start of the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century, it accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence and other causes.
The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves and labor. The period after World War I brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity. Leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production; the Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction; this faction was led at its height by the Hideki Tojo cabinet of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association under edict from Emperor Hirohito. In 1931, the Mukden Incident helped spark the Japanese invasion of Manchuria; the Chinese were defeated and Japan created a new puppet state, Manchukuo. This view has been adopted by the PRC government. From 1931 to 1937, China and Japan continued to skirmish in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".
The Japanese scored major victories, capturing both Shanghai and the Chinese capital of Nanjing in 1937. After failing to stop the Japanese in the Battle of Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior. By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, with Japan's lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate; the Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. While Japan ruled the large cities, they lacked sufficient manpower to control China's vast countryside. During this time, Chinese communist forces launched a counter offensive in Central China while Chinese nationalist forces launched a large scale winter offensive. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the following day the United States declared war on Japan; the United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road.
In 1944 Japan launched Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces. In 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook West Hunan and Guangxi. Despite continuing to occupy part of China's territory, Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, to Allied forces following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria; the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9, 1945, with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29, 1946. At the outcome of the Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, the Allies of World War II decided to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan by restoring all the territories that Japan annexed from China, including Manchuria, Taiwan/Formosa, the Pescadores, to China, to expel Japan from the Korean Peninsula.
China was recognized as one of the Big Four of the Allies during the war and became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. In China, the war is most known as the "War of Resistance against Japan", shortened to the "Resistance against Japan" or the "War of Resistance", it was called the "Eight Years' War of Resistance", but in 2017 the Chinese Ministry of Education issued a directive stating that textbooks were to refer to the war as the "Fourteen Years' War of Resistance", reflecting a focus on the broader conflict with Japan going back to 1931. It is referred to as part of the "Global Anti-Fascist War", how World War II is perceived by the Communist Party of China and the PRC government. In Japan, the name "Japan–China War" is most used because of its perceived objectivity; when the invasion of China proper began in earnest in July 1937 near Beijing, the government of Japan used "The North China Incident", with the outbreak of the Battle of Shanghai the following month, it was changed to "The China Incident"