Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
TD Centre (Halifax)
TD Centre is an office building home to the Toronto-Dominion Bank in downtown Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The complex was completed in 1974 and reconstructed in 2014; the TD Centre stood at 73 metres with 18 floors. Its 2014 expansion added 10 metres to the building's overall height and three additional floors of office space; the building is adjacent to the CIBC Building to which it is connected through the Downtown Halifax Link system. On its remaining sides it is bounded by Barrington Street on the west, George Street on the south and Granville Street on its lowest, eastern side. In 2010, TDB Halifax Holdings Limited announced its intention to enlarge the structure on its east side and to make substantial modifications to the roof; the changes doubled the original floor area to about 200,000 square feet and resulted in a more economical structure using "green" technologies. The project, which entailed stripping the building to its original concrete frame while it continued under occupancy, was designed by Lydon Lynch Architects.
It incorporates the facade of an historic 19th century building home to a leather harness maker, on its Granville Street level. Construction began in November 2012 with the expanded structure topping out in late 2014. In July 2013, building owner TDB Halifax Holdings announced it had signed a new 10-year lease with TD Bank Group to continue as the building's anchor tenant; the Building incorporates photovoltaic sun-shades on the south facade and on the street level sidewalk canopies. Photovoltaic cells have been laminated between sheets of glass to form a shade device that generates electricity while it is acts as a shade and reduces glare for computer screens. List of tallest buildings in the Halifax Regional Municipality List of buildings in the Halifax Regional Municipality TD Centre Emporis
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Downtown Halifax Link
The Downtown Halifax Link system is similar to Toronto's PATH or Montreal's RÉSO system, but on a much smaller scale. It consists of a network of climate-controlled pedways connecting various office buildings, hotels and entertainment venues around downtown Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; these walkways are all open to the public, are convenient during inclement weather and the winter months. Hotels: The Prince George Hotel The Hotel Halifax The Barrington Hotel Marriott Halifax Harbourfront Office buildings: TD Tower Barrington Tower Duke Tower Cogswell Tower CIBC Building Brunswick Place Trade Mart World Trade and Convention Centre Purdy's Wharf Purdy's Landing Purdy's Wharf Tower 1 Purdy's Wharf Tower 2Residential: Plaza 1881 Entertainment and retail: Scotiabank Centre Casino Nova Scotia Scotia Square Mall Granville Mall Barrington Place Shops Trade Centre Limited, the developers of the new Halifax Convention Centre, have sought to connect the new facility with the Downtown Halifax Link via a new tunnel along Grafton Street.
Scott Ferguson, president of TCL, said that such a tunnel would help Halifax compete by linking the new centre with the existing network of hotel rooms. The tunnel is expected to cost $7-10 million. City staff have not ruled the tunnel out. Downtown Halifax Link website
Downtown Halifax is the city centre of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Located on the eastern-central portion of the Halifax Peninsula, on Halifax Harbour, it serves as the business and tourism hub of the region. Unlike other historic Canadian cities such as Quebec and Montreal or comparably size New England cities such as Portland, Halifax has not preserved any heritage districts and has few intact blocks of historic buildings, although the downtown is known for the historic architecture of some individual landmark buildings. Demolition and urban renewal in the 1960s and 1970s replaced most of the downtown with blocks with office towers. One of the few blocks to have retained its heritage character is Granville Mall, a pedestrian mall part of Granville Street, made up of an array of shops and pubs in a conglomeration of rowed historic buildings built in the 1860s, it is known for the stone facades on each building. Historic Properties, a collection of 19th-century warehouses converted into shops and restaurants, is located nearby.
Despite the heritage focus of these remaining blocks of heritage buildings, none are protected as heritage districts. The downtown is home to individual government landmarks such as Province House, built in 1819 and home to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly. Builders such as George Lang created many landmark Victorian Era buildings. Citadel Hill, a 40-acre star-shaped fort, is another historic attraction in the downtown. Established with the arrival of Edward Cornwallis and the out break of Father Le Loutre's War, the current fort was built in the Victorian Era as the hub of the historic defence system for the port; as a result, there is viewplane legislation that restricts vertical development that might block the direct line of sight from Citadel Hill to the harbour and George's Island in particular. Recent developments have challenged the viewplane limits; the Halifax Public Gardens and Victoria Park bear many Victorian era monuments. Downtown Halifax is the financial centre of Atlantic Canada.
Bell Aliant and Emera are headquartered in downtown Halifax. All Big Five Canadian banks have major operations in the CBD; the Bank of Canada has one of its five Canadian regional offices located in the area. Major recent commercial developments include the Nova Centre; the latter development will house the new Halifax Convention Centre. Many of the Halifax region's hotels are located in the downtown area, with many major hotel chains maintaining a location here. There are a considerable number of small hostels nearby. Hotels in the downtown area include: Downtown Halifax is the home of the Halifax Regional Council chamber at Halifax City Hall. Offices for the mayor, city councillors, additional staff can be found downtown. At the provincial level, the downtown is the home of Nova Scotia's Province House where the Nova Scotia House of Assembly meets. Government House, where the Lieutenant-Governor resides, is located on Barrington Street; the provincial government has offices in several other downtown office buildings.
Canada's federal government maintains a significant presence in the area, working from various buildings including the Dominion Public Building, the Ralston Building, the Maritime Centre. Downtown Halifax has hotels, annual festivals and events, an array of attractions, many restaurants. There are several museums and art galleries in downtown Halifax. Pier 21, an immigrant entry point prominent throughout the 1930s, 40s, 50s, was opened to the public as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1999; the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic is a maritime museum containing extensive galleries including a large exhibit on the famous Titanic, over 70 small craft and a 200-foot steamship CSS Acadia. In summertime the preserved World War II corvette HMCS Sackville operates as a museum ship and Canada's naval memorial; the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia is housed in a 150-year-old building containing over 9,000 works of art. The waterfront in Downtown Halifax is the site of the Halifax Harbourwalk, a 3 km boardwalk popular amongst tourists and locals alike.
Many mid-sized ships dock here at one of the many wharves. The harbourwalk is home to a Halifax Transit ferry terminal, hundreds of stores, Historic Properties, several office buildings, the Casino Nova Scotia, several public squares where buskers perform, most prominently at the annual Halifax International Busker Festival in August. Downtown Halifax, being home to many small shops and vendors, is a major shopping area in the HRM, it is home to several small malls, including Scotia Square, Barrington Place Shops, Maritime Mall. Numerous malls on Spring Garden Road are located nearby; the area is home to 200 restaurants and bars, providing an interesting array of world cuisine. There are over 60 sidewalk cafes that open in the summer months; the nightlife is made up of bars and small music venues as well as Casino Nova Scotia, a large facility built over the water. Neptune Theatre, a 43-year-old establishment located on Argyle Street, is Halifax's largest theatre, it performs an assortment of professionally produced plays year-round.
The Shakespeare by the Sea theatre company performs at nearby Point Pleasant Park. Eastern Front Theatre performs at Alderney Landing in Downtown Dartmouth which can be accessed from the area via the Halifax Transit ferry service; the Scotiabank Centre is one of the largest buildings in Downtown Halifax, as well as the largest arena in Atlantic Canada. It is the home of the popular Halifax Mooseheads hockey team, it plays host to most of the major sporting events and concerts that visit Halifax; the Nova Scotia International Tattoo is held here every year. It is connected to the Dow
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce referred to as CIBC, is one of the "Big Five" banks in Canada. The bank is headquartered at Commerce Court in Ontario. CIBC's Institution Number is 010, its SWIFT code is CIBCCATT, it is one of the two major banks founded in Toronto alongside Toronto-Dominion Bank. The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce was formed through the June 1, 1961, merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce and the Imperial Bank of Canada, the largest merger between chartered banks in Canadian history; the bank has four strategic business units: Canadian Personal and Small Business Banking, Canadian Commercial Banking and Wealth Management, U. S. Commercial Banking and Wealth Management, Capital Markets, it has international operations in the United States, the Caribbean and Europe. Globally, CIBC serves more than eleven million clients, has over 40,000 employees; the company ranks at number 172 on the Forbes Global 2000 listing. In 2012, CIBC was named the strongest bank in North America and the 3rd strongest bank in the world by Bloomberg Markets magazine.
William McMaster founded the Canadian Bank of Commerce which opened on May 15, 1867, in Toronto as competition for the Bank of Montreal. The Imperial Bank of Canada opened in Toronto on March 18, 1875, founded by former Commerce Vice-president Henry Stark Howland. By the end of 1895, the Canadian Bank of Commerce had grown to 58 branches and the Imperial Bank of Canada to 18; the 1896 gold strike in the Yukon prompted the Dominion Government to ask the Canadian Bank of Commerce to open a branch in Dawson City. Acquisitions in the 1920s caused the Commerce Bank to become one of the strongest branch networks in Canada with over 700 local branches. Wood, Gundy & Company, the precursor of CIBC's investment banking arm, opened its doors on February 1, 1905. During World War I, it took a active role in the organization of Victory Loans; the Canadian Bank of Commerce opened its new head office in Toronto in 1931. An observation gallery on the 32nd floor attracted visitors who could get an aerial view of the city.
In 1936, the Commerce was the first Canadian bank to establish a personal loans department. Following World War II, both banks opened new branches. Although the banks had been barred from the mortgage business since 1871, the Canadian government now called upon them to provide mortgage services. So, in 1954, Canadian banks started offering mortgages for new construction. In 1960, Imperial chairman Stuart Mackersy approached Neil McKinnon, the president of the Commerce, with a proposal to merge the two banks; this followed a decade of expansion in the Canadian economy and Canada's capitalization of the industrialization of its natural resources. They reached a deal between the two banks. On June 1, 1961, the Canadian Bank of Commerce and the Imperial Bank of Canada merged to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce with over 1,200 branches across Canada; the new bank possessed the most branches of any bank in the country. In 1964, the bank operated a floating branch using the passenger vessel MV Jean Brilliant along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, billed as the only floating branch in Canada for 5000 customers.
Following the merger, the new bank commissioned a new head office. While planning to retain Commerce Court North, the bank hired architect I. M. Pei to design a three-building complex; the result was Commerce Court consisting of a landscaped courtyard complementing the existing building and included the newly built 786 ft Commerce Court West. When completed in 1973, the 57-storey building was the tallest in Canada, the largest stainless-steel-clad building in the world. In 1967, both Canada and CIBC celebrated their centenaries and CIBC was the only chartered bank to have a branch on-site at Expo 67. At this time computerization began to change banking services and the Yonge and Bloor branch in Toronto was the first Canadian bank branch to update customer bank books via computer; this marked the introduction of inter-branch banking. Before the decade was out, CIBC had introduced the first 24-hour cash dispenser, which would become the ATM. Changes to federal and provincial regulations ending the separation of banks, investment dealers, trust companies and insurance companies came in 1987.
CIBC took advantage of this and became the first Canadian bank to operate an investment dealer, CIBC Securities, offering services to the public. In 1988, CIBC acquired a majority interest in Wood Gundy which brought a well-respected name and reputation in underwriting. Shortly thereafter, the corporation merged Wood Gundy and CIBC Securities under the name CIBC Wood Gundy which became CIBC Oppenheimer in 1997 and CIBC World Markets. In 1992, CIBC introduced automated telephone banking. In 1998, CIBC joined with Loblaws to create President's Choice Financial which it launched in 28 Ottawa area stores. CIBC agreed to merge with the Toronto-Dominion Bank in 1998; however the Government of Canada, at the recommendation of Finance Minister Paul Martin, blocked the merger – as well as another proposed by the Bank of Montreal with the Royal Bank of Canada – as not in the best interest of Canadians. CIBC sold its corporate and purchasing credit card business to U. S. Bank Canada in October 2006 which joined it with business charge cards it acquired from Royal Bank of Canada.
In 2006, the stock ticker symbol on the New York S