Indiana General Assembly
The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state of Indiana. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the Indiana House of Representatives, an upper house, the Indiana Senate; the General Assembly meets annually at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. Members of the General Assembly are elected from districts. Representatives serve terms of senators serve terms of four years. Both houses can create bills, but bills must pass both houses before it can be submitted to the governor and enacted into law; the Republican Party holds supermajorities in both chambers of the General Assembly. Republicans outnumber Democrats in the Senate by a 40–10 margin, in the House of Representatives by a 67–33 margin; the Indiana General Assembly is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Indiana has a part-time legislature; the General Assembly convenes on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January. During odd-numbered years the legislature meets for 61 days and must be adjourned by April 30.
During even-numbered years the legislature meets for 30 days and must be adjourned by March 15. The General Assembly may not adjourn for more than three days without a resolution approving adjournment being passed in both houses; the governor has the authority to call on the General Assembly to convene a special session if legislators are unable to complete necessary work within the time allotted by the regular sessions. Special sessions of the General Assembly were called in the state's early history, but have become more commonplace in modern times; the General Assembly delegates are elected from districts. Every ten years the districts are realigned by the General Assembly using information from the U. S. Census Bureau to ensure that each district is equal in population; the districting is maintained to comply with the United States Supreme Court ruling in Reynolds v. Sims; the Indiana Senate and House of Representatives each have several committees that are charged with overseeing certain areas of the state.
Committees vary from three to eleven members. The committees are chaired by senior members of the majority party. Senators and representatives can be members of multiple committees. Most legislation begins within the committees who have responsibility for the area that the bill will affect. Once approved by a committee, a bill can be entered into the agenda for debate and vote in the full chamber. Although not common, bills can be voted on by the full house without going through the committee process. Indiana legislators make a base annual salary of $22,616, plus $155 for each day in session or at a committee hearing and $62 in expense pay every other day. Article 4, Section 7, of the Indiana Constitution states the qualifications to become a Senator or Representative; the candidate must have been a U. S. citizen for a minimum of two years prior to his candidacy and must have been resident of the district that he seeks to represent for one year. Senators must be at least twenty-five years of age and representatives must be twenty-one when sworn into office.
The candidate cannot hold any other public office in the state or federal government during their term. The candidate must be a registered voter within the district they seek to represent. Candidates are required to file papers stating their economic interests. Article 4, Section 3, of the state constitution places several limitations on the size and composition of the General Assembly; the Senate can contain no more than fifty members, the senators serve for a term of four years. The House of Representatives can contain no more than one hundred members, the representatives serve terms of two years. There is no limit to how many terms a state representative may serve. There are several checks and balances built into the state constitution that limit the power of the General Assembly. Other clauses allow the General Assembly to balance and limit the authority of the other branches of the government. Among these checks and balances is the governor's authority to veto any bill passed by the General Assembly.
The General Assembly may, in turn, override his veto by simple majority vote in both houses. Bills passed by a supermajority automatically become law without requiring the signature of the governor. Once the bill is made law, it can be challenged in the state courts which may rule the law to be unconstitutional repealing the law; the General Assembly could override the court's decision by amending the state constitution to include the law. The General Assembly has been the most powerful branch of the state government, dominating a weak governor's office. Although the governor's office has gained more power since the 1970s, the General Assembly still retains the power to remove much of that authority; the authority and powers of the Indiana General Assembly are established in the state constitution. The General Assembly has sole legislative power within the state government; each house can initiate legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not permitted to initiate legislation that will affect revenue.
Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but must be passed by both houses before they can submit to the governor. Each law passed by the General Assembly must be applied uniformly to the entire state; the General Assembly is empowered to regulate the state's judiciary system by setting the size of the courts and the bounds of their districts. The body has the authority to monitor the activities of t
Noah Noble was the fifth Governor of the U. S. state of Indiana from 1831 to 1837. His two terms focused on internal improvements, culminating in the passage of the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act, viewed at the time as his crowning achievement, his taxing recommendations to pay for the improvements were not enacted, the project led the state to negotiate a partial bankruptcy only a few years later. The debacle led to a gradual collapse of the state Whig party, which never regained control of the government, led to a period of Democratic control that lasted until the middle of the American Civil War. After his term as governor he was appointed to the Board of Internal Improvement where he unsuccessfully advocated a reorganization of the projects in an attempt to gain some benefit from them. Noah Noble was born in Berryville, Virginia, on January 15, 1794, one of fourteen children of Dr. Thomas Noble and Elizabeth Clair Sedgwick Noble. Around 1800, his family moved to the frontier where his father opened a medical practice in Campbell County, Kentucky.
In 1807, the family moved again to Boone County where his father acquired a 300-acre plantation, operated by slave labor. Noble moved to Brookville, around 1811 at age seventeen, following his brother James Noble, who had moved there some time earlier. James was a prominent lawyer and United States Senator. In Indiana he made several business ventures with his partner Enoch D. John. Together they operated a hotel in Brookville, became involved in land speculation, opened a water-powered weaving mill with a wool carding machine. Noble opened a trading company called N. Noble & Company; the company shipped it to New Orleans to be sold. In 1819 a boating accident destroyed one of his shipments and left him with a large debt that took several years to repay; that year he married his cousin, Catherin Stull van Swearingen. The two shared the same great-grandfather, they had three children, but only one survived into adulthood. Noble entered politics in 1820. By the time of his 1822 reelection bid he had become popular in the county, he won reelection 1,186 to 9 votes.
He was commissioned a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Regiment of the Indiana militia in 1817, a colonel in 1820. When his term as sheriff expired, he ran to represent the county in the Indiana House of Representatives, winning overwhelmingly, he was resigned following the death of his brother Lazarus. Lazarus had been the Receiver of Public Moneys of the Indianapolis Land Office, his death left a vacancy, his brother, Senator James Noble, used his influence to secure the post for Noble, who remained in the position until 1829. The job took him to Indianapolis, where he was responsible for collecting revenue for the federal government; the position brought him into contact with many of the leading men in the state and he was quick to create good relationships with them. Following the election of President Andrew Jackson and the employment of the spoils system, Noble was removed from the position. Finding himself without a job, Noble launched another business venture. Before he could open the new business, his friends in the Indiana General Assembly appointed him to a commission, responsible for laying out the Michigan Road.
He remained on the commission until 1831, at which time he announced his candidacy for governor of Indiana as a Whig candidate, secured the Whig nomination. During the campaign, he accused his Democratic opponent James G. Read of being ineligible to run because he was a Federal Receiver; the state constitution forbade state officials from holding both federal and state positions simultaneously. His opponent made a similar charge against Noble, who still held his position as a federal commissioner working on the Michigan Road. Noble campaigned on the internal improvement platform and won the election by a plurality of 23,518 votes to Read's 21,002, with independent Milton Stapp taking 6,894. After becoming governor he purchased several lots on the eastern edge of the capitol, planting an orchard and vineyard and building a large brick home, he brought some of his father's emancipated slaves with him to work in his household, one of whom was the model for Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom. She visited Noble's home on more than one occasion.
Indiana was continuing to experience a period of prosperity as a large influx of settlers purchased land, thereby providing a large income for the government. Noble's predecessor had begun the framework for the large-scale internal improvements that were to come, but had delayed the start of the canal projects. Noble set to work and within a few months he completed surveying the route of the Wabash and Erie Canal and made several recommendations regarding its construction. Noble was opposed to railroads, which he viewed as monopolies since only the rail company could transport goods on the line, whereas canals were open to anyone had a boat. Construction on the canal began in earnest in 1832. Construction on state roads was progressing because of a lack of funding. Noble proposed the state borrow money to speed the construction process, but the legislature rejected his proposal, he recommended the creation of an Internal Improvement Board to coordinate the projects and reduce costs through better organization and purchase of supplies in bulk, but again the General Assembly rejected the proposal, instead kept the projects operating under several different project boards.
His first term passed with little advancement on the internal improvement front
Richmond is a city in east central Indiana, United States, bordering on Ohio. It is the county seat of Wayne County, in the 2010 census had a population of 36,812. Situated within Wayne Township, its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township, where the Richmond Municipal Airport is located. Richmond is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because the earliest jazz recordings, records were made at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. Gennett Records was the first to record such artists as Bix Beiderbecke. Jelly Roll Morton, Hoagy Carmichael, Lawrence Welk, Gene Autry, among others; the city has twice received the All-America City Award, most in 2009. Richmond is located at 39°49′49″N 84°53′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles, of which 23.91 square miles is land and 0.157 square miles is water. Richmond is located about 12 miles S of the highest point in Indiana; as of the census of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, 8,909 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 15,098 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, 9,918 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile. There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population. There were 16,287 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. In 1806 the first European Americans in the area, Quaker families from North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River; this was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith was one of the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion; the first post office in Richmond was established in 1818 with Robert Morrison as the first postmaster. The town was not incorporated until 1840 with John Sailor being elected as the first mayor.
Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family and newsmen at Jenkins' cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience; the motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March 1895. A modified version of the Phantoscope was sold to Thomas Edison who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema. Richmond is believed to have been the smallest community in the United States to have supported a professional opera company and symphony orchestra; the Whitewater Opera has since closed but the Richmond Symphony Orchestra has continued.
In 1899 Will Earhart formed the first complete high school orchestra in the nation. A high school orchestra director, Joseph E. Maddy, went on to found what is now known as the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan. In the 1920s during the national revival of the Ku K
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne is a city in the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles west of the Ohio border and 50 miles south of the Michigan border. With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, the 75th-most populous city in the United States, it is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the economic center of northeastern Indiana; the city is within a 300-mile radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Louisville and Milwaukee. In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077. Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga.
Named in Wayne's honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers; the village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution and logistics, healthcare and business services and hospitality, financial services; the city is a center for the defense industry. There are many jobs through local healthcare providers Parkview Health and Lutheran Health Network. Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, 2009; the city received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1999; this area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph, St. Marys rivers.
It was the capital of related Algonquian tribes. In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost; the French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis; the first census in 1744 recorded a population of 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami. Increasing tension between France and Great Britain developed over control of the territory. In 1760, France ceded the area to Britain after its forces in North America surrendered during the Seven Years' War, known on the North American front as the French and Indian War. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion; the Miami regained control of Kekionga. In 1790, after the United States achieved independence, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory.
Three battles were fought at Kekionga against the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U. S. forces in the first two battles. General Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U. S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, tribal forces advanced to Fallen Timbers, where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U. S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built Fort Wayne, named in honor of the general. The first settlement started in 1815. In 1819, the military garrison moved to Detroit. In 1822, a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818. Platted in 1823 at the Ewing Tavern, the village became an important frontier outpost, was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300; the Wabash and Erie Canal's opening improved travel conditions to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, exposing Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities.
The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840. Pioneer newspaperman George W. Wood was elected the city's first mayor. Fort Wayne's "Summit City" nickname dates from this period, referring to the city's position at the highest elevation along the canal's route; as influential as the canal was to the city's earliest development, it became obsolete after competing with the city's first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854. At the turn of the 20th century, the city's population reached nearly 50,000, attributed to a large influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne's "urban working class" thrived in railroad-related jobs; the city's economy was based on manufacturing, ushering in an era of innovation with several notable inventions and developments coming out of the city over the years, such as gasoline pumps, the refrigerator, in 1972, the first home video game console. A 1913 flood caused seven deaths, left 15,000 homeless, damaged over 5,500 buildings in the worst natural disaster in the city's history.
As the automobile's prevalence grew, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway. Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of Smith Field; the airport se
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include corporate bonds; the bond is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to pay them interest or to repay the principal at a date, termed the maturity date. Interest is payable at fixed intervals; the bond is negotiable, that is, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is liquid on the secondary market, thus a bond is a form of loan or IOU: the holder of the bond is the lender, the issuer of the bond is the borrower, the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit or short-term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is the length of the term of the instrument.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that stockholders have an equity stake in a company, whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company. Being a creditor, bondholders have priority over stockholders; this means they will be repaid in advance of stockholders, but will rank behind secured creditors, in the event of bankruptcy. Another difference is that bonds have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks remain outstanding indefinitely. An exception is an irredeemable bond, such as a consol, a perpetuity, that is, a bond with no maturity. In English, the word "bond" relates to the etymology of "bind". In the sense "instrument binding one to pay a sum to another", use of the word "bond" dates from at least the 1590s. Bonds are issued by public authorities, credit institutions and supranational institutions in the primary markets; the most common process for issuing bonds is through underwriting. When a bond issue is underwritten, one or more securities firms or banks, forming a syndicate, buy the entire issue of bonds from the issuer and re-sell them to investors.
The security firm takes the risk of being unable to sell on the issue to end investors. Primary issuance is arranged by bookrunners who arrange the bond issue, have direct contact with investors and act as advisers to the bond issuer in terms of timing and price of the bond issue; the bookrunner is listed first among all underwriters participating in the issuance in the tombstone ads used to announce bonds to the public. The bookrunners' willingness to underwrite must be discussed prior to any decision on the terms of the bond issue as there may be limited demand for the bonds. In contrast, government bonds are issued in an auction. In some cases, both members of the public and banks may bid for bonds. In other cases, only market makers may bid for bonds; the overall rate of return on the bond depends on the price paid. The terms of the bond, such as the coupon, are fixed in advance and the price is determined by the market. In the case of an underwritten bond, the underwriters will charge a fee for underwriting.
An alternative process for bond issuance, used for smaller issues and avoids this cost, is the private placement bond. Bonds sold directly to buyers may not be tradeable in the bond market. An alternative practice of issuance was for the borrowing government authority to issue bonds over a period of time at a fixed price, with volumes sold on a particular day dependent on market conditions; this was called a tap bond tap. Nominal, par, or face amount is the amount on which the issuer pays interest, which, most has to be repaid at the end of the term; some structured bonds can have a redemption amount, different from the face amount and can be linked to the performance of particular assets. The issuer has to repay the nominal amount on the maturity date; as long as all due payments have been made, the issuer has no further obligations to the bond holders after the maturity date. The length of time until the maturity date is referred to as the term or tenor or maturity of a bond; the maturity can be any length of time, although debt securities with a term of less than one year are designated money market instruments rather than bonds.
Most bonds have a term of up to 30 years. Some bonds have been issued with terms of 50 years or more, there have been some issues with no maturity date. In the market for United States Treasury securities, there are three categories of bond maturities: short term: maturities between one and five years; the coupon is the interest rate. This rate is fixed throughout the life of the bond, it can vary with a money market index, such as LIBOR, or it can be more exotic. The name "coupon" arose because in the past, paper bond certificates were issued which had coupons attached to them, one for each interest payment. On the due dates the bondholder would hand in the coupon to a bank in exchange for the interest payment. Interest can be paid at different frequencies: semi-annual, i.e. every 6 months, or annual. The yield is the rate of return received from investing in the bond, it refers either to The current yield, or running yield
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J