Hibernia as a national personification representing Ireland appeared in numerous cartoon and drawings in the nineteenth century. As depicted in frequent cartoons in Punch, a magazine outspokenly hostile to Irish nationalism, Hibernia was shown as "Britannia's younger sister", she is an vulnerable girl. She is threatened by manifestations of Irish nationalism such as the Fenians or the Irish National Land League depicted as brutish, ape-like monsters. Unable to defend herself, Hibernia is depicted turning to the strong, armoured Britannia for defence. John Tenniel, now remembered as the illustrator of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, produced a number of such depictions of Hibernia. At times nationalist publications did use the image of Hibernia; however because of the pro-union publications' adoption of the "helpless" image of Hibernia, nationalist publications would use Erin and Kathleen Ni Houlihan as personifications of Irish nationhood.. A statue, derived from an original by Edward Smyth and depicting a more confident Hibernia, stands in the central position of three atop the General Post Office in Dublin
The pound is the currency of Guernsey. Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Guernsey pound, but where a distinct code is desired GGP is used; until the early 19th century, Guernsey used predominantly French currency. Coins of the French livre were legal tender until 1834, with French francs used until 1921. In 1830, Guernsey began production of copper coins denominated in doubles; the double was worth 1⁄80 of a French franc. The name "double" derived from the French "double deniers", although the value of the coin was equal to the liard still circulating. Coins were issued in denominations of 2, 4 and 8 doubles; the 8 double coin was a "Guernsey penny", with twelve to the "Guernsey shilling".
However, this shilling was not equal to the British shilling. Banknotes were produced by the States of Guernsey from 1827, denominated in pounds. In 1848, an ordinance was passed that the pound sterling should be legal tender at a value of £1 1s 3d; this was rescinded two years and French currency, supplemented by local issues, continued to circulate. In 1870, British coins were made legal tender, with the British shilling circulating at 12 1⁄2 Guernsey pence. Bank of England notes became legal tender in 1873. In 1914, new banknotes appeared, some of which carried denominations in Guernsey shillings and francs. After the First World War, the value of the franc began to fall relative to sterling; this caused Guernsey to adopt a pound equal to the pound sterling in 1921. For amounts below 1 shilling, the conversion rate of 1 Guernsey penny = 1 British penny applied, allowing the Guernsey coins to continue to circulate. For amounts above 1 shilling, an exchange rate of 21 Guernsey shillings to the pound sterling was used, applying an approximation to the pre-war exchange rate of 25.2 francs = 1 pound sterling, rather than the exact rate of 25.22.
This conversion increased the value of the double from 1⁄2016 to 1⁄1920 of a pound. The World War I issues of banknotes were overstamped with the word "British" to indicate this change. New banknotes and British silver coinage circulated alongside the double coins, with 3-pence coins minted specially for Guernsey from 1956. In 1971, along with the rest of the British Isles, Guernsey decimalised, with the pound subdivided into 100 pence, began issuing a full range of coin denominations from 1⁄2p to 50p; the Guernsey pound, other notes denominated in pound sterling may be used in Guernsey. The Guernsey pound is legal tender only in the Bailiwick of Guernsey although it circulates in Jersey but cannot be used in the UK, it can be exchanged in other places at banks and bureaux de change. Between 1830 and 1956, Guernsey's four coin denominations, 1, 2, 4 and 8 doubles, all carried similar designs, with the Island's arms and name on the obverse and the denomination and date on the reverse. In addition, the 8 double coins featured a wreath on both sides.
In 1956, new designs were introduced for the 8 doubles. These featured the Island's seal and name on the obverse with the English name, the date and the Guernsey lily on the reverse. Threepence coins were issued from 1956, with the same obverse and a reverse featuring the Guernsey cow; as in the UK, 5- and 10-new-pence coins were introduced in 1968, followed by 50-new-pence coins in 1969, before decimalisation took place in 1971 and the 1⁄2-, 1- and 2-new-pence coins were introduced. These coins were the same composition as the corresponding British coins; the word "new" was dropped in 1977. The £1 coin was introduced in 1981, two years before its introduction in the UK, although the 20-pence and £2 coins were introduced at the same time as in the UK: 1982 and 1998, respectively; the thickness of the 1981 coin was thinner than the modern version and the diameter measured less. The 1-pound coin ceased to be legal tender on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK.
The UK's new twelve-sided £1 coin will be the only £1 coin, legal tender on the island. The first decimal issues continued with the same obverse as the last pre-decimal issues until 1985, when Raphael Maklouf's portrait of Queen Elizabeth II was added. Ian Rank-Broadley's portrait of the Queen has appeared since 1998. Designs on the reverses of Guernsey's decimal coins are: In 1827, the States of Guernsey introduced one-pound notes, with the Guernsey Banking Company and the Guernsey Commercial Banking Company issuing one-pound notes from 1861 and 1886, respectively; the commercial banks lost their right to issue notes in 1914, although the notes circulated until 1924. In 1914, the States introduced five- and ten-shilling notes denominated as 6 and 12 francs. In 1921, States notes were over-stamped with the word "British" to signify the island's conversion to a pound equal to sterling. From 1924, ten-shilling notes were issued without any reference to the franc; the five-shilling note was discontinued.
The Royal Bank of Scotland £1 note
The Royal Bank of Scotland £1 note is a banknote of the pound sterling. It is the smallest denomination of banknote issued by The Royal Bank of Scotland; the current cotton note, first issued in 1987 bears an image of Lord Ilay, one of the founders of the bank, on the obverse and a vignette of Edinburgh Castle on the reverse. The £1 note is the smallest denomination of banknote issued by The Royal Bank of Scotland; the bank ceased regular production of £1 notes in 2001. In common with a number of other banks in Scotland, the Royal Bank of Scotland has retained the right to issue its own banknotes, it first issued notes in the same year the bank was founded. The issuing of banknotes by Scottish banks was regulated by the Banknote Act 1845 until it was superseded by the Banking Act 2009. Scottish banknotes are legal tender and as currency are accepted throughout the United Kingdom. Scottish banknotes are backed such that holders have the same level of protection as those holding genuine Bank of England notes.
In 1727, the Royal Bank of Scotland began issuing twenty-shilling notes. Early banknotes were monochrome, printed on one side only; the first twenty-shilling notes were dated 8 December 1727 and were hand-signed by a bank cashier and given a unique number. The cashier added by hand the equivalent value in old Scots pounds — a currency, abolished 20 years earlier in the Acts of Union 1707 which united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain. Twenty shillings was equivalent to £12 Scots; the bank continued the custom of including the value in old Scots pounds until 1792 to encourage acceptance of its banknotes. This series of banknotes was the first British banknote to have a royal portrait, as they featured a vignette of King George II, who had ascended to the British throne earlier that year. At the time, printing portraits was a difficult and expensive process, including a likeness of the King served as an effective anti-counterfeiting device; the banknotes were held at the bank in bound bundles, similar to modern cheque books.
When issued, the cashier would cut the note out with a wavy line. The Royal Bank's 1826 issue of the £1 note displayed much more intricate detail as printing processes were improved by the introduction of steel plates, it the first British banknote to be printed on both sides; this issue featured a portrait of King George IV, this was the last standard-issue Royal Bank of Scotland banknote to depict a reigning monarch. It was issued after the controversy of the Bankers Act 1826, in which the British government attempted unsuccessfully to prohibit the issue of low-value banknotes; the Royal Bank of Scotland's 1832 issue of £1 notes established the design for all the bank's £1 note issues for 136 years. It featured the bank's name surmounted by the Royal Arms of Scotland, in which the heraldic supporters of The Lion and the Unicorn flanked a portrait of King George I, commemorating his royal assent for the formation of the bank in 1727; the note featured illustrations of the allegorical figures of Britannia, looking out over the seas, Plenty, holding a cornucopia.
This design remained unchanged with only minor alterations. In 1968, the Royal Bank's £1 note design underwent its first major change to match the 1966 £5 note issue. For the first time, Royal Bank notes no longer bore a royal portrait, it was the Royal Bank's first full-colour note, bore the bank's coat of arms and included a steel security strip. The Dale Series was short-lived; these notes were the first Royal Bank notes to conform to the banknote colour conventions across the UK, so that all £1 notes were coloured green. The front of the note featured the coat of arms of the Royal Bank of Scotland, on the reverse was an illustration of the Forth Road Bridge. In 1987, the Royal Bank issued its Ilay series of banknotes, named after Lord Ilay, first governor of the bank, whose portrait appears on the front of all the notes; the illustration is based on a 1744 portrait painting of Lord Ilay by Allan Ramsay. Other common design elements include the bank's coat of arms and logo, the facade of Dundas House, the bank's headquarters in Edinburgh, a pattern representing the ceiling of the headquarters' banking hall, an image of Lord Ilay as watermark.
All of the Ilay series notes feature a castle on the back. On the reverse of the £1 note is an image of Edinburgh Castle and the National Gallery of Scotland.£1 notes are now used. The Royal Bank was the last bank in Scotland to issue £1 notes, stopped production in 2001. In 2015, a new series of polymer banknote was introduced by the Royal Bank, replacing its Ilay series £5 and £10 notes. Information taken from The Committee of Scottish Bankers website. Design elements on the Ilay Series £1 note In 1992, The Royal Bank of Scotland issued the first special commemorative banknote in Britain and in Europe; the first commemorative £1 note was issued to mark the European Council Summit, held in Edinburgh on 8 December 1992. Since the Royal Bank has issued a number of c
Bank of England note issues
The Bank of England, now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694. In 1921 The Bank of England gained a legal monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, a process that started with the Bank Charter Act of 1844 when the ability of other banks to issue notes was restricted. Banknotes were hand-written. Notes were printed from 1855. Since 1970, the Bank of England's notes have featured portraits of British historical figures. Of the eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the UK, only the Bank of England can issue banknotes in England and Wales, where its notes are legal tender. Bank of England notes are not legal tender in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but are accepted there along with the respective countries' national banknotes. There are four different denominations of notes – £5, £10, £20 and £50; each value has its own distinct colour scheme and the size of each note increases in length and width as the value increases. These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre.
For table standards, see the banknote specification table. Source: Bank of England website All current Bank of England banknotes are printed by contract with De La Rue at Debden, Essex, they include the printed signature of the Chief Cashier of the Bank of England and depict Elizabeth II in full view, facing left. On the left hand side of the £20 and £50 notes there is a hidden watermark, featuring the Queen facing right; the £5 and £10 polymer notes do not contain a watermark. More recent issues include the EURion constellation; this is a pattern of yellow circles. They are identified by photocopiers. Elizabeth II has appeared on all the notes issued since Series C in 1960; the custom of depicting historical figures on the reverse began in 1970 with Series D, designed by the bank's first permanent artist, Harry Eccleston. In 2015, the Bank of England launched a public competition to nominate historic personalities with links to the visual arts for a future redesign of the £20 banknote; the Governor of the Bank of England asked the public to "think beyond the obvious" when nominating suggestions, with over 29,700 nominations made.
In September 2015 the Bank of England announced that the next £20 note will be printed on polymer, rather than cotton paper. This was followed by an announcement in April 2016 that Adam Smith will be replaced by artist J. M. W. Turner on the next £20 note which will enter circulation in 2020. Images on the reverse of the new note will include a 1799 self-portrait of Turner, a representation of his painting The Fighting Temeraire, the quotation "Light is therefore colour" from an 1818 lecture by him, a copy of Turner's signature as made on his will. On 13 October 2018, the Bank of England announced that the next £50 note will be printed on polymer, rather than cotton paper. Members of the public have been invited to nominate a scientist to feature on it; the Bank of England has not always had a monopoly of note issue in Wales. Until the middle of the 19th century, private banks in Great Britain and Ireland were free to issue their own banknotes, notes issued by provincial banking companies were in circulation.
Over the years, various Acts of Parliament were introduced by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to increase confidence in banknotes in circulation by limiting the rights of banks to issue notes. The Bank of England gained a monopoly of note issue in England and Wales. Attempts to restrict banknote issue by banks other than the Bank of England began in 1708 and 1709, when Acts of Parliament were passed which prohibited banking companies of more than six partners or shareholders. Notes under 1 guinea & 5 guineas were prohibited in the 1770s and thereafter all the provincial banks were established by the more substantial merchants, landed gentry etc of a town and district. Gold shortages in the 18th century, caused by the Seven Years' War and war with Revolutionary France, began to affect the supply of gold bullion reserves, giving rise to the "Restriction Period"; the result was that the Bank was unable to pay out gold for its notes, at the same time began to issue lower denominations £1 and £2 notes in place of gold guineas, that were hoarded as so was the case in time of war.
Confidence in the value of banknotes was affected, except during 1809–11 and 1814–15 under the extreme conditions of war. The Country Bankers’ Act 1826 allowed some joint-stock banks outside London to issue notes, allowed the Bank of England to open branches in major provincial cities, enabling better distribution of its notes. With the passing of the Bank Notes Act 1833, Bank of England notes over £5 in value were first given the status of "legal tender" in England and Wales guaranteeing the worth of the Bank's notes and ensuring public confidence in the notes in times of crisis or war; the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1954 extended the definition of legal tender to ten shilling and £1 notes. The Bank of England ten-shilling note was withdrawn in 1969 and the £1 was removed from circulation in 1988, leaving a legal curiosity in Scots law whereby there is now no paper legal tender in Scotland; the Bank Charter Act 1844 began the process which gave the Bank of England exclusive note-issuing powers.
Under the Act, no new banks could start issuing notes, note-issuing banks in England and Wales were barred from expanding their no
The Gibraltar pound is the currency of Gibraltar. It is pegged to – and exchangeable with – the British pound sterling at par value. Coins and banknotes of the Gibraltar pound are printed by the Government of Gibraltar; until 1872, the currency situation in Gibraltar was complicated, with a system based on the real being employed which encompassed British and Gibraltarian coins. From 1825, the real was tied to the pound at the rate of 1 Spanish dollar to 4 shillings 4 pence. In 1872, the Spanish currency became the sole legal tender in Gibraltar. In 1898, the Spanish–American War made the Spanish peseta drop alarmingly and the pound was introduced as the sole currency of Gibraltar in the form of British coins and banknotes. In 1898, the British pound was made sole legal tender, although the Spanish peseta continued in circulation until the Spanish Civil War. Since 1927, Gibraltar has issued its own banknotes and, since 1988, its own coins. Gibraltar decimalised in 1971 at the same time as the UK, replacing the system of 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence with one of 1 pound = 100 pence.
The since repealed Currency Notes Act 1934, conferred on the Government of Gibraltar the right to print its own notes. Notes issued are either backed by Bank of England notes at a rate of one pound to one pound sterling, or can be backed by securities issued by the Government of Gibraltar. Although Gibraltar notes are denominated in "pounds sterling", they are not legal tender anywhere in the United Kingdom. Gibraltar's coins are the same weight and metal as British coins, although the designs are different, they are found in circulation across Britain. Under the Currency Notes Act 2011 the notes and coins issued by the Government of Gibraltar are legal tender and current coin within Gibraltar. British coins and Bank of England notes circulate in Gibraltar and are universally accepted and interchangeable with Gibraltarian issues. In 1988, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pence and 1 pound were introduced which bore specific designs for and the name of Gibraltar, they were the same sizes and compositions as the corresponding British coins, with 2 pound coins introduced in 1999.
A new coin of 5 pounds was issued in 2010 with the inscription "Elizabeth II · Queen of Gibraltar". This issue caused controversy in Spain, where the title of King of Gibraltar corresponds to the crown of Castile; the £2 coin has featured a new design every year since its introduction, as it depicts each of the 12 Labours of Hercules. In 2004 the Government of Gibraltar minted a new edition of its coins to commemorate the tercentenary of British Gibraltar. At the outbreak of World War I, Gibraltar was forced to issue banknotes to prevent paying out sterling or gold; these notes were issued under emergency wartime legislation, Ordinance 10 of 1914. At first the typeset notes were signed by hand by Treasurer Greenwood, though he used stamps; the notes bore the embossed stamp of the Anglo-Egyptian Bank Ltd. and circulated alongside British Territory notes. The 1914 notes were issued in denominations of 2s, 10s, £1, £5 and £50; the 2s and £50 notes were not continued when a new series of notes was introduced in 1927.
The 10s note was replaced by the 50p coin during the process of decimalization. In 1975, £10 and £20 notes were introduced, followed by £50 in 1986; the £1 note was discontinued in 1988. In 1995, a new series of notes was introduced which, for the first time, bore the words "pounds sterling" rather than just "pounds"; the government of Gibraltar introduced a new series of banknotes beginning with the £10 and £50 notes issued on July 8, 2010. On May 11, 2011, the £5, £20 and £100 notes were issued. Economy of Gibraltar Currency board Christopher Ironside, OBE, coin designer: reverse design of the 25 New Pence coin, Barbary ape. Banknotes of Gibraltar: Catalog of Gibraltar Shillings and Pounds The current banknotes of Gibraltar
Bank of England £5 note
The Bank of England £5 note known as a fiver, is a banknote of the pound sterling. It is the smallest denomination of banknote issued by the Bank of England. In September 2016, a new polymer note was introduced, featuring the image of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse and a portrait of Winston Churchill on the reverse; the old paper note, first issued in 2002 and bearing the image of prison reformer Elizabeth Fry on the reverse, was phased out and ceased to be legal tender after 5 May 2017. Five pound notes were introduced by the Bank of England in 1793, following the ten pound note, introduced in 1759 as a consequence of gold shortages caused by the Seven Years' War; the 5 pound note was introduced again, due to gold shortages caused by the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars and was the lowest denomination of note issued until 1797. The earliest notes were issued to individuals as needed; these notes were written on one side only and bore the name of the payee, the date and the signature of the issuing cashier.
In 1797, due to the extra money need to fund the war and the uncertainty caused as Britain declared war on France, a series of bank runs drained the Bank of England of its gold supply. The Bank was forced to issue notes of £ 1 and £ 2 denominations; this was known as the'restriction period', as the exchange of notes for their value in gold was restricted. The Restriction Period ended in 1821 as the Government had to anchor the value of the currency to gold in order to control rising inflation and national debt. After a brief period to offset any sudden deflation, the UK returned to the gold standard on 1 May 1821; these notes could again be exchanged in full, or in part, for an equivalent amount of gold when presented at the bank. If redeemed in part, the banknote would be marked to indicate the amount, redeemed. From 1853 printed notes replaced handwritten notes, with the declaration "I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of five pounds" replacing the name of the payee; this declaration remains on Bank of England banknotes to this day.
A printed signature of one of three cashiers appeared on the printed notes, though this was replaced by the signature of the Chief Cashier from 1870 onward. The right to redeem banknotes for gold ceased in 1931, when Britain stopped using the gold standard. Metal thread was introduced on the £5 note in 1945 as a security feature; the printed black and white notes were replaced from 1957 onward by two-sided notes. The first two-sided £5 notes were blue and featured a bust of Britannia on the front and a lion on the back. Series C notes, first introduced in 1963, were the first notes to feature an image of the monarch on the front, with Britannia being relegated to the back. From 1971 onward, with the introduction of series D, a British historical figure was portrayed on the reverse: the soldier and statesman the Duke of Wellington in this case. Series E notes, first issued in 1990, are multicoloured, although they are predominantly turquoise-blue; these notes feature a portrait of railway pioneer George Stephenson, as well as for the first time'windowed' metal thread.
In 2002, a problem was identified in. The problem was highlighted after six members of the public complained to The Bank of England; the Bank said the move was a "precautionary measure while we carry out further tests and investigative work into what might have caused the fault and how widespread the problem is". The bank did rigorous testing and found the problem to be that the serial numbers were printed over the varnish rather than under it allowing the ink to be removed if enough force was applied; the Bank started to varnish the notes in an attempt to make them last longer than previous notes which only had an estimated lifespan of nine months. A spokesman for the Bank of England said: "The notes are still legal tender and the public shouldn't have a problem spending them in the shops; as long as shopkeepers check the anti-counterfeit measures the lack of serial numbers is not a problem. "If members of the public are concerned they should take the notes back to the bank where they will be exchanged."
In April 2013, the Governor of the Bank of England Sir Mervyn King announced on behalf of the bank that Elizabeth Fry would be replaced by Winston Churchill on the next £5 note which would enter circulation in 2016. It was announced that the images featured on the reverse would include a 1941 portrait of Churchill by Yusuf Karsh, a view of the Houses of Parliament, a quote by Churchill and a background image of Churchill's Nobel Prize in Literature, while the obverse would feature an image of Queen Elizabeth II. In December 2013 the Bank of England announced that the next £5 note would be printed on a polymer, rather than cotton paper; the bank cited that they would be "cleaner, more secure and more durable". It was said that the new polymer notes would be more environmentally friendly, lasting 2.5 times as long as cotton paper notes, according to the Bank's own environmental testing. The note was introduced on 13 September 2016, with an initial print run of 440 million notes, over the period of co-circulation.
It was announced that there would be a co-circulatory period with the old series E notes, on 5 May 2017, the series E would cease to be legal tender. However, as with all Bank of England notes, they can be exchanged at f
Queen's University Belfast
Queen's University Belfast is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The university was chartered in 1845, opened in 1849 as "Queen's College, Belfast", it offers academic degrees at various levels and across a broad subject range, with over 300 degree programmes available. Its president and vice-chancellor is Ian Greer; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £369.2 million of which £91.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £338.4 million. Queen's is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK; the university is associated with one Turing Award laureate. Queen's University Belfast has its roots in the Belfast Academical Institution, founded in 1810 and which remains as the Royal Belfast Academical Institution; the present university was first chartered as "Queen's College, Belfast" in 1845, when it was associated with the founded Queen's College and Queen's College, Galway, as part of the Queen's University of Ireland – founded to encourage higher education for Catholics and Presbyterians, as a counterpart to Trinity College, Dublin an Anglican institution.
Queen's College, opened in 1849. Its main building, the Lanyon Building, was designed by Sir Charles Lanyon. At its opening, it had 195 students; some early students at Queen's University Belfast took University of London examinations. The Irish Universities Act, 1908 dissolved the Royal University of Ireland, which had replaced the Queen's University of Ireland in 1879, created two separate universities: the current National University of Ireland and Queen's University of Belfast; the university was one of only eight United Kingdom universities to hold a parliamentary seat in the House of Commons at Westminster until such representation was abolished in 1950. The university was represented in the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1920 to 1968, when graduates elected four members. On 20 June 2006, the university announced a £259 million investment programme focusing on facilities and research. One of the outcomes of this investment has been a new university library; the building has been named in honour of Sir Allen McClay, a major benefactor of Queen's University and of the Library.
In June 2010, the university announced the launch of a £7.5m Ansin international research hub with Seagate Technologies. Queen's is one of the largest employers in Northern Ireland, with a total workforce of 3,903, of whom 2,414 were members of academic, academic-related and research staff and 1,489 were administrative employees. In addition to the main campus on the southern fringes of Belfast city centre, the university has two associated university colleges, St Mary's and Stranmillis located in the west and south-west of the city respectively; these colleges offer teacher training for those who wish to pursue teaching careers and a range of degree courses, all of which are centred around a liberal arts core. While the university refers to its main site as a campus, the university's buildings are in fact spread over a number of public streets in South Belfast, principally Malone Road, University Road, University Square and Stranmillis Road, with other departments located further afield. Academic life at Queen's is organised into fifteen schools across three faculties.
The three faculties are the Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences, the Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine, Health & Life Sciences. Each of the schools operates as a primary management unit of the university and the schools are the focus for education and research for their respective subject areas. School of Biological Sciences School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science School of Arts and Languages School of History, Anthropology and Politics School of Law Queen's Management School School of Mathematics and Physics School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery School of Pharmacy School of Natural and Built Environment School of Psychology School of Social Sciences and Social Work Gibson Institute- involved in education and research in the areas of sustainability, rural development, environmental management, food marketing, renewable energy, physical activity and public health Institute for Collaborative Research in the Humanities – established in 2012, supports interdisciplinary research in the Humanities at all levels.
On Feb 18th 2016 BBC Northern Ireland reported. Institute for Global Food Security Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice Institute of Cognition and Culture- Founded in 2004, this is one of the world's first centres for research in the cognitive science of culture, it has brought together a range of cutting-edge cognitive scientists via a series of visiting fellowships. Institute of Electronics and Information Technology - established in 2003 to commercialise world-class research and expertise in a variety of enabling digital communications technologies at the School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Queen's University Belfast. Institute of Irish Studies- It was the first of its kind to be established in the world and is one of the lead