James John Walker, often known as Jimmy Walker and colloquially as Beau James, was mayor of New York City from 1926 to 1932. A flamboyant politician, he was a liberal Democrat and part of the powerful Tammany Hall machine, during a corruption scandal he was forced to resign. Walker was the son of Irish-born William H. Walker was not the best of students, Walkers father wanted him to become a lawyer and politician. Walker at first decided that he would write songs and be involved in the music industry but he eventually entered politics in 1909. Walker was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1910,1911,1912,1913 and 1914, in the Senate he heavily opposed Prohibition. After his years in the Senate, Walker set his sights on the 1926 election for Mayor of New York, beginning with the 1925 Democratic primary for mayor, Walker knew that to ultimately win the mayoral election he had to defeat the mayor, John Francis Hylan. Walkers reputation as a flamboyant man-about-town made him a hero to many voters, he was often seen at legitimate theaters.
Walker was a horse, his valet packed 43 suits for his trip to Europe in August 1927. On the other hand, his reputation for tolerating corruption made him suspect to middle-class, Governor Alfred E. Smith was his mentor. Smith knew the secret to how Walker won the election, Smith used his base in the strong political machine of Tammany Hall to secure this victory. Finally, Walker himself had to be willing to change some of his more unscrupulous ways or at least provide a cover for his indiscretions, as with many of the things in Walkers life, he chose the latter. Instead of ending his visits to the speakeasies and his friendships with chorus girls, Walker defeated Hylan in the Democratic primary, after defeating Republican mayoral candidate Frank D. Waterman in the general election, he became mayor of New York. In his initial years as mayor, Walker saw the city prosper and he even managed to maintain the five-cent subway fare despite a threatened strike by the workers. However, Walkers term was known for the proliferation of speakeasies during Prohibition.
It is an aspect of his career as mayor and as a member of the State Senate that Walker was strongly opposed to Prohibition. As mayor, Walker led his administration in challenging the Eighteenth Amendment by replacing the police commissioner with a former state banking commissioner. The new police commissioner immediately dissolved the Special Service Squad and his affairs with chorus girls were widely known, and he left his wife, for showgirl Betty Compton. Walker was re-elected by a margin in 1929, defeating Republican Fiorello La Guardia
Mount Sinai Beth Israel
Mount Sinai Beth Israel is an 825-bed, full-service tertiary teaching hospital in New York City. Originally dedicated to serving immigrant Jews living in the tenement slums of the Lower East Side, now it serves the diverse population of lower Manhattan including Manhattans lower east side, Gramercy, West Village, Chelsea, as well as many neighborhoods in Brooklyn. The main hospital building is known as the Petrie Division, located at First Avenue, other campuses included Mount Sinai Beth Israel Brooklyn and Phillips Ambulatory Care Center at Union Square. It is an affiliate of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The hospital recruited specialists to expand services in heart disease, neurology, other medical specialties include gastrointestinal disease, chemical dependency, psychiatric disorders, pain management and palliative care, and HIV/AIDS research and treatment. The hospital has advanced its commitment to community-based ambulatory care and expanding patient access to primary.
Mount Sinai Beth Israel has one of the nations largest networks of methadone treatment programs, Mount Sinai Beth Israel is a member of the Mount Sinai Health System, a nonprofit health system formed by the merger of Continuum Health Partners and The Mount Sinai Medical Center in September 2013. Beth Israel is Hebrew for House of Israel, Beth Israel was incorporated in 1890 by a group of 40 Orthodox Jews on the Lower East Side each of whom paid 25 cents to set up a hospital serving New Yorks Jewish immigrants, particularly newcomers. At the time New Yorks hospitals would not treat patients who had been in the city less than a year and it initially opened a dispensary on the Lower East Side. In 1891 it opened a 20-bed hospital and in 1892 expanded again, in 1929 it moved into a 13-story, 500-bed building at its current location at the corner of Stuyvesant Square. It purchased its neighbor the Manhattan General Hospital in 1964 and renamed the complex Beth Israel Medical Center, located at First Avenue, by the 1980s it had long extended beyond its Jewish base.
In 1988 it had the largest network of heroin-treatment clinics in the United States with 7,500 patients and 23 facilities, the Mount Sinai Health System of which Beth Israel is a member, provides resident trainees with subsidized housing and a competitive salary. Mount Sinai Beth Israel has a department of Chiropractics, Music Therapy, on November 22,2013 the official name of Beth Israel Medical Center was changed to Mount Sinai Beth Israel, as a part of the merger with Mount Sinai to form the Mount Sinai Health System. On May 25,2016, Mount Sinai announced a significant restructuring of the downtown campus and this would occur over four years, after which the main hospital on 16th street would be closed. Media related to Beth Israel Medical Center at Wikimedia Commons Official website Nursing school
Knickerbocker Trust Company
The Knickerbocker Trust was an American bank based in New York. It was at one time among the largest banks in the United States, eldridge, a friend and classmate of financier J. P. Morgan. As a trust company, its business was serving as trustee for individuals, corporations. Eldridge was the president, he was succeeded in the 1890s by Robert MacClay. When MacClay retired in 1897, Barney was elected president, the New York City bank was housed in a Roman-style temple designed by McKim and White and erected between 1902 and 1904 at the northwest corner of 34th Street and Fifth Avenue. Stanford Whites design allowed for the possibility of adding nine storeys of offices upon the structure and it had branch offices at 60 Broadway, in Harlem and The Bronx. In 1907, its funds were being used by then-president Charles T, Barney in a plan to drive up the cost of copper by cornering the market. This gamble came undone due to the dumping of millions of dollars in copper into the market to stop a takeover in an unrelated organization.
Charles Barney requested a meeting with J. P. Morgan to discuss financial assistance for the bank, shortly after, he shot himself on November 14,1907. The resulting Panic of 1907 exacerbated an ongoing decline in the market that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average lose 48% of its value from January 1906 to November 1907. The banking crisis is seen as the final straw that led Congress to form the Federal Reserve System in 1913. The company reopened some weeks after its closing and paid off all depositors in full with interest. In 1912, its assets were acquired by the Columbia Trust Company and this entity was acquired by the Irving Trust Corporation in 1923, which was in turn acquired by the Bank of New York in 1989. The building was enlarged by ten stories in 1921, and the completely redesigned in 1958, with its signature pilasters covered over, it still remains. The Great Game, The Emergence of Wall Street as a World Power, the Story of the Trust Companies
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
German National Library of Economics
The ZBW is Germany’s central subject library and research infrastructure for economics in Germany. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation, the ZBW holds almost 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents, the search portal EconBiz gives free access to 10 million datasets. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online, the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i. e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics, the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies. The ZBW is a player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output.
It is the negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany. The repository EconStor serves as a platform for the publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor, more than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access. It is a service for RePEc and one of its most frequently used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other relating to empirical articles. The ZBW publishes two journals of economic policy, Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics, the ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in national and international projects to new services for its users.
GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure, the project aims to develop a distributed and linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany. This allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines, the ZBW coordinates the project which is funded by the German Research Foundation. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery, metrics, MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS
It is an eight-lane, median-divided street west of Clinton Street, and a service road for the Williamsburg Bridge east of Clinton Street. West of Bowery, Delancey Street becomes Kenmare Street, which continues as a four-lane, Delancey Street is named after James De Lancey, Sr. whose farm was located in what is now the Lower East Side. Businesses range from delis to check-cashing stores to bars, Delancey Street has long been known for its discount and bargain clothing stores. Until the middle 20th century, Delancey Street was a shopping street in the predominantly Jewish Lower East Side. Since the late 2000s, the neighborhood around Delancey is a mix of professionals and artists along with working-class African Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans. Gentrification has brought more retail and nightlife establishments. The New York City Subway F train, running on the IND Sixth Avenue Line, the J Z trains stop at Bowery. The M9, M14, M15, M103, B39 New York City Bus routes stop on Delancey Street, the Williamsburg Bridge Trolley Terminal, beneath Delancey and Essex Streets, was a station and balloon loop for streetcars crossing the Williamsburg Bridge from Brooklyn.
Because of the width of Delancey Street, and the high rate of fatalities along it. This includes pedestrian plazas, bans on left turns along the street, Kenmare Street runs westward for a total of five blocks from the Bowery to Lafayette Street. It is a thoroughfare for traffic travelling westbound to the Holland Tunnel. The street was founded in 1911 by Tim Sullivan, the son of immigrants Daniel O’Sullivan and Catherine Connelly, film and TV In the 1932 film Taxi. James Cagney plays an Irish cabdriver who can speak Yiddish, prompting a cop to ask what part of Ireland do your folks come from, Cagney replies, Delancey Street, thank you. A1983 episode of The A-Team, titled The Out-Of-Towners, was centered around an extortion racket operating on Delancey Street. In the 1988 Disney animated film Oliver and Company, the song sung by Dodger, Why Should I Worry, mentions the street, One minute Im in Central Park, Im down on Delancey Street. The 1988 film Crossing Delancey is a comedy focusing on the different shades of urban life in the area.
In the 1992 Disney film Newsies, the song Carry the Banner contains the line, the 1994 film Rhythm Thief opens on Delancey Street and features a foot chase on same. A1974 episode of the TV series McCloud was titled Shivaree on Delancey Street, the 1997 film Mimic directed by Guillermo del Toro is partially set at the Delancey Street – Essex Street subway station
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
East New York, Brooklyn
East New York is a residential neighborhood in the eastern section of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City, United States. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community District 5, covered by Brooklyn Community Board 5, Linden Boulevard and Atlantic Avenue are the primary thoroughfares through East New York. ZIP codes include 11207,11208, and 11239, the area is patrolled by the 75th Precinct located at 1000 Sutter Avenue. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by P. S. A, during the latter part of the twentieth century, East New York came to be predominantly inhabited by African Americans and Latinos. The southern portions of the neighborhood, consisted of salt marshes and several creeks and these areas were originally settled by the Jameco Native Americans, and used by the Canarsee and Rockaway tribes as fishing grounds. In the 1650s, Dutch colonists began settling in the sections of Brooklyn, forming the towns of Flatbush, Bushwick. The area along with the rest of Brooklyn and modern New York City was ceded to the British Empire in 1664.
A few 18th Century roads, including the road or Palmer Turnpike from Brooklyn to Jamaica, passed through the chain of hills. In 1835, Connecticut merchant John Pitkin purchased the land of the Town of New Lots north of New Lots Avenue, opening a factory at what is now Williams Street. Pitkin named the area East New York to signify it as the end of New York City. In 1836 the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad opened through the area, it did not originally stop in East New York, in 1860 the LIRR moved its terminus to Queens, and the line through Brooklyn was shortened to end at East New York. In 1852, New Lots was officially ceded from the Town of Flatbush, in the middle 19th century, the road between Brooklyn and Jamaica became the Brooklyn and Jamaica Plank Road. The New York and Manhattan Beach Railway and the Long Island Rail Road were built through the pass, the point where they met was called Broadway Junction. As often happened at 19th Century railroad junctions, a town arose. The road to Brooklyn was renamed Fulton Street, the one to Jamaica, Jamaica Avenue, in the 20th Century its name came to be applied to much of the former township.
During this same period, large numbers of Puerto Ricans from the Caribbean island, East New York, no longer replete with the jobs the new residents had come for, was thereby faced with a host of new socioeconomic problems, including widespread unemployment and crime. Since the late 1950s East New York has had some of the highest crime rates in Brooklyn, many social problems associated with poverty from crime to drug addiction have been prevalent in the area for decades. Despite the decline of crime compared to their peaks during the crack and heroin epidemics, East New Yorks 75th Police Precinct reported the highest murder rate in the city in 2011, according to crime reports compiled by DNAinfo. com
Southern Boulevard (Bronx)
Southern Boulevard is a street in the Bronx, New York City. It stretches from 142nd Street in the south to White Plains Road in the north, until 2011, the portion north of Fordham Road, adjacent to the New York Botanical Garden, was named Dr. Theodore L. Kazimiroff Boulevard. The 25 trains run directly above Southern Boulevard from Simpson Street to 174th Street, the 6 <6> trains run under Southern Boulevard from East 143rd Street to Hunts Point Avenue
Wall Street Crash of 1929
The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchanges crash of September, signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries. The Roaring Twenties, the decade that followed World War I and led to the crash, was a time of wealth, while the American cities prospered, the overproduction of agricultural produce created widespread financial despair among American farmers throughout the decade. This would be blamed as one of the key factors that led to the 1929 stock market crash, despite the dangers of speculation, many believed that the stock market would continue to rise forever. On March 25,1929, after the Federal Reserve warned of excessive speculation, two days later, banker Charles E. Mitchell announced his company the National City Bank would provide $25 million in credit to stop the markets slide. Mitchells move brought a halt to the financial crisis and call money declined from 20 to 8 percent. Despite all these economic trouble signs and the breaks in March and May 1929, stocks resumed their advance in June.
The market had been on a run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average increase in value tenfold. Shortly before the crash, economist Irving Fisher famously proclaimed, Stock prices have reached what looks like a high plateau. The optimism and financial gains of the bull market were shaken after a well publicized early September prediction from financial expert Roger Babson that a crash was coming. The initial September decline was thus called the Babson Break in the press and this was the start of the Great Crash, although until the severe phase of the crash in October, many investors regarded the September Babson Break as a healthy correction and buying opportunity. On September 20, the London Stock Exchange crashed when top British investor Clarence Hatry and many of his associates were jailed for fraud, the London crash greatly weakened the optimism of American investment in markets overseas. In the days leading up to the crash, the market was severely unstable, periods of selling and high volumes were interspersed with brief periods of rising prices and recovery.
On October 24, the market lost 11 percent of its value at the bell on very heavy trading. Several leading Wall Street bankers met to find a solution to the panic and chaos on the trading floor. The meeting included Thomas W. Lamont, acting head of Morgan Bank, Albert Wiggin, head of the Chase National Bank and they chose Richard Whitney, vice president of the Exchange, to act on their behalf. With the bankers financial resources behind him, Whitney placed a bid to purchase a block of shares in U. S. Steel at a price well above the current market. As traders watched, Whitney placed similar bids on other blue chip stocks and this tactic was similar to one that ended the Panic of 1907. It succeeded in halting the slide, the Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered, closing with it down only 6.38 points for the day