Economy of Tajikistan
Since independence, Tajikistan followed the path of transition economy, reforming its economic policies. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon exports of cotton and aluminium, the economy is vulnerable to external shocks. Tajikistan's economy incorporates a massive black market focused on the drug trade with Afghanistan, heroin trafficking in Tajikistan is estimated to be equivalent 30-50% of national GDP as of 2012. In fiscal year 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, thus helping keep the peace. International assistance was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. Tajikistan's economy grew after the war; the gross domestic product of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of 2000-2007 according to the World Bank data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries, which have degraded economically since.
As of August 2009, an estimated 60% of Tajikistani citizens live below the poverty line. The 2008 global financial crisis has hit Tajikistan hard, both domestically and internationally. Tajikistan has been hit harder than many countries because it has a high poverty rate and because many of its citizens depend on remittances from expatriate Tajikistanis; this is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Tajikistan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of ruling currency. For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 0.82 Somoni only. The Tajikistani economy has been gravely weakened by six years of civil conflict and loss of markets for its products. Tajikistan thus depends on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. If the peace agreement of June 1997 is honored, the country faces major problems in integrating refugees and former combatants into the economy; the future of Tajikistan's economy and the potential for attracting foreign investment depend upon stability and continued progress in the peace process.
In 2006 GDP per capita of Tajikistan was 85% of 1990s level. While population has increased from 5.3 million in 1991 to 7.3 million in 2009. Despite resistance from vested interests, the Government of Tajikistan continued to pursue macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform in FY 2000. In December 1999, the government announced that small-enterprise privatization had been completed, the privatization of medium-sized and large-owned enterprises continued incrementally; the continued privatization of medium-sized and large SOEs, land reform, banking reform and restructuring remain top priorities. Shortly after the end of FY 2000, the Board of the International Monetary Fund gave its vote of confidence to the government's recent performance by approving the third annual Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility Loan for Tajikistan. Improved fiscal discipline by the Government of Tajikistan has supported the return to positive economic growth; the government budget was nearly in balance in 2001 and the government’s 2002 budget targets a fiscal deficit of 0.3% of GDP, including recent increases in social sector spending.
The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1997–2017. In 2005 Tajikistan’s GDP grew by 6.7%, to about US$1.89 billion, growth for 2006 was about 8%, marking the fifth consecutive year of annual growth exceeding 6%. The official forecast for GDP growth in 2007 is 7.5%. Per capita GDP in 2005 was lowest among the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union. In 2005 services contributed 48%, agriculture 23.4%, industry 28.6% to GDP. The recent global recession has reduced Tajikistan's GDP growth rate to 2.8% in the first half of 2009. Remittances from expatriate Tajikistanis is estimated to account for 30-50% of Tajikistan's GDP. Although the government has announced an expedited land reform program, many Soviet-era state farms still existed in 2006, the state retains control of production and harvesting on privatized farms. Privatization of cotton farms has been slow, unresolved debts of cotton farmers remained a problem in 2006. In the early 2000s, the major crops were cotton, potatoes, vegetables and rice.
Cotton makes an important contribution to both the national economy. Cotton accounts for 60 percent of agricultural output, supports 75 percent of the rural population, uses 45 percent of irrigated arable land. More than 80% of the 8,800 square kilometers of land in use for agriculture depends on irrigation. Tajikistan must import grain from Uzbekistan. 3% of Tajikistan is forested at elevations between 1,000 and 3,000 meters. No forest region is classified as commercially usable. Wood production is negligible. Streams and lakes produce a limited amount of fish, some fish is produced by aquaculture. In 2003 some 158 tons of fish were caught and 167 tons raised on fish farms. Tajikistan has rich deposits of gold and antimony; the largest silver deposits are in Sughd Province, where Tajikistan’s largest gold mining operation is located. Russia’s Norilsk nickel company has explored a large new silver deposit at Bolshoy Kanimansur. Tajikistan produces strontium, lead, zinc and mercury. Uranium, an important mineral in the Soviet era, remains in some quantity but no longer is ext
Dhaka known as Dacca, is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is one of the largest and most densely populated cities in the world, with a population of 18.89 million people in the Greater Dhaka Area. Dhaka is the economic and cultural center of Bangladesh, it is one of the major cities of South Asia, the largest city in Eastern South Asia and among the Bay of Bengal countries. As part of the Bengal plain, the city is bounded by the Buriganga River, Turag River, Dhaleshwari River and Shitalakshya River; the city is located in division. The area of Dhaka has been inhabited since the first millennium; the city rose to prominence in the 17th century as a provincial capital and commercial center of the Mughal Empire in South Asia. Dhaka was the capital of Mughal Bengal for 75 years; as the center of the muslin trade in Bengal, it was one of the most prosperous cities in the Indian subcontinent. The medieval city was named in honor of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and hosted the seat of the Mughal Subahdar, Naib Nazims and Dewans.
Medieval Dhaka's glory peaked in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was home to merchants from across Eurasia. The Mughals decorated the city with well-laid out gardens, mosques and forts; the city was once called the Venice of the East. Under the British Empire, the city saw the introduction of electricity, cinemas, Western-style universities and colleges and a modern water supply, it became an important administrative and educational center in Eastern Bengal and Assam after 1905. In 1947, after ending of British rule, it became the administrative capital of the East Pakistan, it was declared as the legislative capital of Pakistan in 1962. In 1971, it became the capital of an independent Bangladesh. Article 5 of the Constitution of Bangladesh declares Dhaka as the capital of the republic. Since its establishment as a modern capital city, the population and social and economic diversity of Dhaka have grown tremendously. Dhaka is now one of the most densely industrialized regions in the country.
By the 21st century, it emerged as a megacity, now listed as a Beta- Global City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Dhaka is a major financial center in the region, being home to many local and international companies, its stock exchange has over 750 listed companies. The city hosts over 50 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of BIMSTEC; the city's culture is known for its cycle-rickshaws, art festivals and religious diversity. The old city is home to around 2000 buildings from the Mughal and British periods, including notable structures such as the Bara Katra and Choto Katra caravansaries; the city's modernist national assembly is one of the largest parliaments in the world. The origins of the name for Dhaka are uncertain. Once dhak trees were common in the area and the name may have originated from it. Alternatively, this name may refer to the hidden goddess Dhakeshwari, whose temple is located in the south-western part of the city. Another popular theory states that Dhaka refers to a membranophone instrument, dhak, played by order of Subahdar Islam Khan I during the inaugurating of the Bengal capital in 1610.
Some references say it was derived from a Prakrit dialect called Dhaka Bhasa. According to Rajatarangini written by a Kashmiri Brahman, the region was known as Dhakka; the word Dhakka means watchtower. Bikrampur and Sonargaon—the earlier strongholds of Bengal rulers were situated nearby. So Dhaka was most used as the watchtower for the fortification purpose; the history of urban settlement in the area of modern-day Dhaka dates to the first millennium. The region was part of the ancient district of Bikrampur, ruled by the Sena dynasty. Under Islamic rule, it became part of the historic district of Sonargaon, the regional administrative hub of the Delhi and the Bengal Sultanates; the Grand Trunk Road passed through the region, connecting it with North India, Central Asia and the southeastern port city of Chittagong. The Mughal Empire governed the region during the early modern period. Under Mughal rule, the Old City of Dhaka grew on the banks of the Buriganga River. Dhaka was proclaimed the capital of Mughal Bengal in 1608.
Islam Khan Chishti was the first administrator of the city. Khan named it "Jahangirabad" in honour of the Emperor Jahangir; the name was dropped soon after the English conquered. The main expansion of the city took place under Mughal governor Shaista Khan; the city measured 19 by 13 kilometres, with a population of nearly one million. Dhaka was one of the most prosperous cities in South Asia, it grew into a regional economic center during the 17th and 18th centuries, serving as a hub for Eurasian traders, including Bengalis, Kashmiris, Armenians, Persians, Dutch, French and the Portuguese. The city was a center of the worldwide muslin and jute industries, with 80,000 skilled weavers. Mughal Bengal generated 50% of the Mughal Empire's GDP, which at the time constituted 29% of world GDP. Dhaka was the commercial capital of the empire; the city had well-laid out gardens, mosques, bazaars and caravansaries. The Bara Katra was the largest caravansary; the riverbanks were dotted with numerous stately mansions.
Eurasian traders built neighborhoods in Farashganj, Armanitola
Mymensingh is the capital of Mymensingh Division of Bangladesh. The city is located on the Brahmaputra River, about 120 km north of Dhaka the capital of the country. Border area cover Himalayan state of India, Tangail, Netrokona, Kishorganj. Mymensingh is the 8th administrative divisional headquarter and 12th City corporation of Bangladesh. According to Ministry of Public Administration, Mymensingh is ranked 4 in district status, it is a major financial center of North Central Bangladesh. It is fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in Bangladesh; the density of Mymensingh city is 44,458/km2, the second most densely populated city in Bangladesh. Mymensingh attracts 25 percent of health tourists visiting Bangladesh. Mymensingh is the anglicised pronunciation of the original name Momenshahi, referring to a ruler called Momen Shah, its elevation is over 19 m above the highest of Bangladesh's major cities. Mymensingh related with old Brahmaputra river, handcrafted duvet called Nakshikantha and a rural ballad called Maimansingha Gitika The cadet college established in Tangail in 1963 was called Momenshahi Cadet College.
The city is known for educational institutions. Other landmark institutions include Mymensingh Army Cantonment, once the HQ of 19th Infantry Division and now the Headquarters of ARTDOC.. Mymensingh is one of the 16 old districts of Bangladesh, constituted by the British East India Company on 1 May 1787. Being more than 220 years old, Mymensingh has a rich political history. At the beginning Begunbari was chosen as the headquarters of the district; however the district headquarters was relocated to Mymensingh when Begunbari devastated by flash flood. Earlier Mymensingh was called Nasirabad, after Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah. During the British Raj most of the inhabitants of the town were Hindus. From the early 20th century Muslims moved into town. Since this city has played an important role as a centre for secularism; the Vidyamoyee Uccha Balika Bidyalaya and Muminunnesa Women's College have played a great role in educating Bengali Muslim women. A majority of first-generation successful Bangladeshi women have attended these schools and colleges, including the first woman justice of the High Court of Bangladesh, Justice Nazmun Ara Sultana.
However, many Hindu families left Bangladesh during the partition of India in 1947. A second spell of exodus took place following the Indo-Pak war of 1965. Many people born and raised Mymensingh have left for West Bengal since the 1960s; the exodus continues albeit at a slower pace. The nine-month liberation war of Bangladesh started on 27 March 1971. Mymensingh remained free from the occupation army until 23 April 1971. Pakistani occupation forces deserted Mymensingh on 10 December, Mukti Bahini took over on 11 December, just five days ahead of the victory of Dhaka on 16 December, it is home town of Md Nasim Mia Joy The city has no defined geographical limits. Since the 1980s the city has expanded with fast urbanisation. Mymensingh city is marked by the old Brahmaputra river flowing along its north. Shambhuganj is situated on the other side of the Brahmaputra, connected by the Shambhuganj Bridge. Other ends of the city are marked by the beginning of the Agricultural University campus, the Medical College, Army cantonment and Sultanabad, a township built for the followers of Aga Khan.
A railway line connecting Dhaka with northern districts, built between 1885 and 1899, passes through the city and divides it into two sides. The climate of Mymensingh is moderate, much cooler than Dhaka; the monsoon continues till August. It rains and sometimes for days and weeks. During the monsoon, the temperature varies between 20 degrees; the temperature falls below 15 °C in winter, spread over December and January and may well include November and February. The highest temperature is felt during April–May period, when the temperature may be as high as 40 °C. High humidity causes heavy sweating during this period. For western travellers, the best time to visit is between February. Mymensingh district was known for jute production, termed'golden fibre' due to revenue it generated as a cash crop. Due to the high demand for polythene bags and other economic reasons, the jute industry has declined; as Mymensingh is the capital of Mymensingh Division, government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce.
Mymensingh has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who earn their livelihood as hawkers, Rickshaw pullers, taxi drivers and other such professions. Agriculture is the most important sector contributing to GDP, followed by the growing service sector in the city; the increasing demand for fish in the local and global markets has generated a new opportunity for local fishermen as well as businessmen to exploit fishing in Mymensingh, today it is important to the economy. People are cultivating fish. Prawns, sometimes reaching a large size in the winter, are sold in Mymensingh in great numbers; the entire area between Durgabari Road, Maharaja Road comprises the traditional shopping area. There are places like Boro Bazaar, Choto Bazaar, Mechua Bazaar within this area. There are spots like Jilapi Patty, for making and selling jilapi; the main road from Notunbazar to the railway station hosts a number of shops for manufactured products and clothing. The City Center of Mymensingh is along the Ganginarpar Road, known as the vein or life l
MCB Bank Limited
MCB Bank Limited was incorporated by the Adamjee Group on July 9, 1947. The bank was established to provide banking facilities to the business community of South Asia; the bank was nationalized in 1974 during the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. This was the first bank to be privatized in 1991 and the bank was purchased by a consortium of Pakistani corporate groups led by Nishat Group; as of June 2008, the Nishat Group owns a majority stake in the bank. The president of the bank is Imran Maqbool; the group has a presence in the business sectors of the country such as banking, textile and insurance. Mian Muhammad Mansha is chairman of both the group and MCB; the bank has established an Islamic Banking unit to offer Shariah-compliant products and services, with dedicated Islamic banking branches in six cities In 2005, the management of the bank abbreviated its name from Muslim Commercial Bank Limited to MCB Bank Limited to explore international markets. In 2008 the head office of MCB was shifted from Karachi to Lahore in a newly constructed building, namely MCB House located at Sharea Ghous-ul-Azam known as Jail Road.
MCB, advised by Merrill Lynch, became the fourth Pakistani company to list on the London Stock Exchange when it raised US$150 million global depositary receipts. In year 2005, the name of the bank was changed from "Muslim Commercial Bank Limited" to "MCB Bank Limited"; this need was felt because the bank was known and popular as "MCB" among its clients and the public, most people would refer it to as MCB instead of its full name.. In 2008, the Maybank announced acquisition of 20% of stake in MCB Bank Limited’s equity by purchasing a little more than 94 million ordinary shares from the Nishat Group; this transaction amounted to MYR 2.17 billion in value. Price paid by the Maybank was Pak. Rupees 470 per ordinary share of MCB; as per Maybank, “The acquisition is in-line with Maybank’s strategy, as Malaysia’s financial services leader in the region, to build its presence in key growth markets across the region.” In year 2000, the bank established its Islamic Banking Business Group and opened its first branch in 2003, by 2014 the Islamic Banking network had grown to 34 branches.
This was in addition to and separate from bank's 1,100 conventional banking branches. In 2015, given the potential of Islamic Banking business, the bank proceeded to establish an independent but wholly owned subsidiary bank named "MCB Islamic Bank Limited", referred to as "MIB "in short. MCB Bank Ltd appointed Raza Mansha as its first Chairman of the Board of Directors and Ali Muhammad Mahoon as the first President of the MIB. Long Term Credit Rating of MCB Bank Ltd is June 19, 2017, maintained at AAA and Short-Term Credit Rating of the bank is maintained at A1+ by Pakistan Credit Rating Agency. Economy of Pakistan List of banks in Pakistan Dawn NewsMuslim Commercial Bank Dawn News
National Bank of Pakistan
National Bank of Pakistan is a major Pakistani commercial bank with headquarters in Karachi. Although state-owned, it operates as commercial bank, while still continuing to act as trustee of public funds and as the agent to the State Bank of Pakistan in places where SBP does not have a presence, as SBP is the major share holder of NBP; the bank provides both public sector banking services. It is a lead player in the debt equity market, corporate investment banking and consumer banking, agricultural financing, treasury services; as of March 2017 it has 1,450 branches across Pakistan with assets of USD 17.2 billion. The Bank operates a network of 21 international branches, 2 international Subsidiaries and 3 international Representative Offices; the Bank has presence in the UK through United National Bank Ltd, a banking institution incorporated in the UK National Bank of Pakistan has developed a wide range of consumer products, to enhance business and cater to the different segments of society and meet its social responsibilities.
Some schemes have been designed for the low to middle income segments of the population. It has implemented special credit schemes like small finance for agriculture and industries, administrator to Qarz-e-Hasna loans to students, self-employment scheme for unemployed persons, public transport scheme; the Bank has expanded its range of products and services to include Shariah Compliant Islamic Banking products. It has put in place a remittance service for overseas Pakistanis to send their money back to Pakistan. Customer Social Responsibility is a new department which provide Social services for Education and women empowerment; the bank runs the Annual Awards for Excellence in Literature that confer awards to the best books in Urdu and in all prominent regional languages. The Bank is the largest sponsor of sports in Pakistan. 1949 National Bank of Pakistan was established under the National Bank of Pakistan Ordinance of 1949 and was government-owned. NBP acted as an agent of the central bank, it undertook government treasury operations.
Its first branches were in jute growing areas in East Pakistan. Offices in Karachi and Lahore followed. 1950 NBP established a branch in Saudi Arabia. 1955 By this time NBP had branches in Calcutta. 1957 NBP established a branch in Iraq. 1962 NBP established a branch in Tanganyika. 1964 The Iraqi government nationalized NBP's Baghdad branch. 1965 The Indian government seized the Calcutta branch on the outbreak of hostilities between India and Pakistan. 1967 The Tanzanian government nationalized the Dar es Salaam branch. 1971 NBP acquired one in Karachi and one at Chittagong. At separation of East Pakistan NBP lost its branches there. NBP merged with Eastern Bank Corporation. 1974 The government of Pakistan nationalized NBP. As part of the concomitant consolidation of the banking sector, NBP acquired Bank of Bahawalpur. 1977 NBP opened an offshore brain Cairo. 1994 NBP amalgamated Mehran Bank. 1997 NBP branch in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan commenced operations. 2000 NBP opened a representative office in Kazakhstan.
2001 State Bank of Pakistan and Bank of England agree to allow only 2 Pakistani banks to operate in the UK. NBP and United Bank agreed to merge their operations to form Pakistan International Bank, of which NBP would own 45% and United Bank 55%. 2002 Pakistan International Bank renamed itself United National Bank Limited. The ownership structure of the UNB remained as before; the only change to the shareholding structure is that UNB had been privatized in Pakistan and was now owned 49% by the Government of Pakistan and 51% by a joint foreign consortium of Abu Dhabi. NBP needed to shed the public sector bank image, for a modern commercial bank, it has offloaded 23.2 percent share in the stock market, while it has not been privatized like the other three public sector banks, partial privatization has taken place. It is now listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange. 2003 NBP opened its branch in Kabul, the first ATM in Afghanistan was installed there. 2005 NBP closed its offshore branch in Cairo. 2010 NBP opened its branch in Karaganda.
2011 NBP opened its representative office in Toronto. A number of initiatives have been taken, in terms of institutional restructuring, changes in the field structure, in policies and procedures, in internal control systems with special emphasis on corporate governance, adoption of Capital Adequacy Standards under Basel III framework, in the upgradation of the IT infrastructure and developing the human resources. National Bank of Pakistan has built an extensive branch network with 1450 branches in Pakistan and operates in major business centre abroad; the Bank has representative offices in Beijing, Tashkent and Toronto. It has agency arrangements with more than 3000 correspondent banks worldwide; the Bank saw significant growth between 2000 and 2006. In 2016, total assets were estimated at PKR 1,799 billion, with total deposits being PKR 1,657 billion. Pre-tax profit rose to PKR 37.14 billion. Earnings per share have jumped to PKR 10.69. The increase in profit was achieved through strong growth in core banking income.
Gross Interest income increased to PKR 114 billion through growth in the loan portfolio as well as increase in spreads. Gross Advances increased to PKR 781 billion, it ranges from providing credit to the unbanked market segment under NBP Karobar, to small and medium enterprises, to agricultural loans, to large corporate customers. It has taken various measures to facilitate overseas Pakistanis to send their remittances. In
East Bengal was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh. With its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, it bordered Burma, it was located near to, but did not share a border with, China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Its capital was Dacca; the Partition of British India, which divided Bengal along religious lines, established the borders of Muslim majority East Bengal. The province existed during the reign of two monarchs, including George VI and Elizabeth II, its provincial governors included several Pakistani statesmen. Its chief ministership was held by leading Bengali politicians. East Bengal was the most cosmopolitan province in the dominion. East Bengal was a hub of political movements, including the Bengali Language Movement and pro-democracy groups, it was dissolved and replaced by East Pakistan during the One Unit scheme implemented by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra. The provincial legislature was the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.
Between 1905 and 1911, a province called Eastern Bengal and Assam existed in the region as part of the British Indian Empire. The All India Muslim League was founded in the British province in 1906; the All India Muslim League adopted the Lahore Resolution in 1940 which envisaged the creation of sovereign states in the Muslim majority areas of eastern and northwestern British India. The League won elections in Bengal in 1946; the Sylhet region in Assam voted to be part of East Bengal due to the campaign of the League. The Chittagong Hill Tracts, which had a 97% non-Muslim population, was awarded to Pakistan by the Boundary Commission due to it being inaccessible to India and to provide a substantial rural buffer to support Chittagong, a major city and port; as a result of these mandates, the Mountbatten Plan and Radcliffe Line established East Bengal as a province of the newly formed Dominion of Pakistan in August 1947. Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, a former Prime Minister of Bengal, was the first Chief Minister of East Bengal after partition.
Nazimuddin was a senior leader of the Muslim League and a close confidante of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne was the first Governor of East Bengal. Partition resulted in making many Hindus to leave East Bengal while Muslims from different parts of the Indian subcontinent migrated to East Bengal; the East-West Bengal border did not see as much violence as seen in the Punjab border between North India and Pakistan. Jinnah made his sole visit to East Bengal as governor general in 1948. During a speech to students in Dhaka University, he resisted demands to make Bengali a federal language, his refusal sparked fierce protests among East Bengalis who comprised the majority of Pakistan's population. The proposal for Urdu as the sole national language met with strong opposition in East Bengal, where Urdu considered rather alien in light in Bengali's rich literary heritage; when Jinnah died in 1948, Nazimuddin became the Governor General of Pakistan. The conservative Muslim League leader Nurul Amin succeeded Nazimuddin as Chief Minister.
According to some sources, Amin had strained relations with the federal government, including Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and Governor General Khawaja Nazimuddin. Historians have noted that Amin's government was not strong enough to administer the provincial state, his government did not enjoy enough power and lacked vision and initiatives. In 1949, Maulana Bhashani led left-wing elements in the Muslim League to break away and form the Awami Muslim League; the new party was joined by a former Prime Minister of British Bengal. The new party dropped the word Muslim, fashioned itself as secular and courted votes from East Bengal's large non-Muslim minorities; the language movement reached a climax in 1952. During the unrest, the police shot dead four student activists; this raised more opposition in the region to the Muslim League. Leading politicians in West and East Pakistan called for Amin's resignation. In subsequent provincial elections, Amin lost his seat in the legislative assembly. In the 1954, the United Front coalition resoundingly defeated the Muslim League with a landslide majority.
The coalition included the Awami League, the Krishak Praja Party, the Democracy Party and Nizam-e-Islam. The esteemed lawyer A. K. Fazlul Huq, popularly known as the Sher-e-Bangla, became Chief Minister. Huq called for greater provincial autonomy, he wanted the federal government's responsibilities limited to defense. King Saud of Saudi Arabia sent a plane to bring Huq to a meeting with the monarch; the New York Times published an article claiming. While visiting Calcutta and New Delhi, Huq was received by Indian leaders. A few months into office, Huq was dismissed by Governor General Ghulam Muhammad due to allegations against of Huq of inciting secession. After Governor General's rule was withdrawn in 1954, Abu Hussain Sarkar served as chief minister, before Governor General's rule was again imposed, he started the construction of Central Shaheed Minar. Governor General's rule was withdrawn in June 1955. Ataur Rahman Khan of the Krishak Sramik Party was the last Chief Minister, his government declared 21 February, the anniversary of the language
Partition of Bengal (1947)
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan. Predominantly Hindu West Bengal became a state of India, predominantly Muslim East Bengal became a province of Pakistan. On 20 June 1947, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide the future of the Bengal Presidency, on whether it would be a United Bengal within India or Pakistan. At the preliminary joint session, the assembly decided by 120 votes to 90 that it should remain united if it joined the new Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. A separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal decided by 58 votes to 21 that the province should be partitioned and that West Bengal should join the existing Constituent Assembly of India. In another separate meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided by 106 votes to 35 that that province should not be partitioned and 107 votes to 34 that East Bengal should join Pakistan in the event of partition.
On 6 July 1947, the Sylhet referendum decided to sever Sylhet from Assam and merge it into East Bengal. The partition, with the power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14–15 August 1947, was done according to what has come to be known as the "3 June Plan" or "Mountbatten Plan". India's independence on 15 August 1947 ended over 150 years of British influence in the Indian subcontinent. East Bengal became the independent country of Bangladesh after the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. In 1905, the first partition in Bengal was implemented as an administrative preference, making governing the two provinces and East Bengal, easier. While the partition split the province between West Bengal, in which the majority was Hindu, the East, where the majority was Muslim, the 1905 partition left considerable minorities of Hindus in East Bengal and Muslims in West Bengal. While the Muslims were in favour of the partition, as they would have their own province, Hindus were not; this controversy led to increased violence and protest and in 1911, the two provinces were once again united.
However, the disagreements between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal which had sparked the Partition of Bengal in 1905 still remained and laws, including the Partition of Bengal in 1947, were implemented to fulfill the political needs of the parties involved. As per the plan, on 20 June 1947, The members of the Bengal Legislative Assembly cast three separate votes on the proposal to partition Bengal: In the joint session of the house, composed of all the members of the Assembly, the division of the joint session of the House stood at 126 votes against and 90 votes for joining the existing Constituent Assembly Then the members of the Muslim-majority areas of Bengal in a separate session passed a motion by 106–35 votes against partitioning Bengal and instead joining a new Constituent Assembly as a whole; this was followed by the separate meeting of the members of the non-Muslim-majority areas of Bengal who by a division of 58–21 voted for partition of the province. Under the Mountbatten Plan, a single majority vote in favour of partition by either notionally divided half of the Assembly would have decided the division of the province, hence the house proceedings on 20 June resulted in the decision to partition Bengal.
This set the stage for the creation of West Bengal as a province of the Union of India and East Bengal as a province of the Dominion of Pakistan. In accordance with the Mountbatten Plan, in a referendum held on 7 July, the electorate of Sylhet voted to join East Bengal. Further, the Boundary Commission headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe decided on the territorial demarcation between the two newly created provinces. Power was transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 and 15 August under the Indian Independence Act 1947. After it became apparent that the division of India on the basis of the Two-nation theory would certainly result in the partition of the Bengal province along religious lines, Bengal provincial Muslim League leader Suhrawardy came up with a new plan to create an independent Bengal state that would join neither Pakistan nor India and remain unpartitioned. Suhrawardy realised that if Bengal was partitioned, it would be economically disastrous for East Bengal as all coal mines, all jute mills but two and other industrial plants would go to the western part since these were in an overwhelmingly Hindu majority area.
Most important of all, Calcutta the largest city in India, an industrial and commercial hub and the largest port, would go to the western part. Suhrawardy floated his idea on 24 April 1947 at a press conference in Delhi. However, the plan directly ran counter to that of the Muslim League's, which demanded the creation of a separate Muslim homeland on the basis of the two-nation theory. Bengal provincial Muslim League leadership opinion was divided. Barddhaman's League leader Abul Hashim supported it. On the other hand, Nurul Amin and Mohammad Akram Khan opposed it, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah realised the validity of Suhrawardy's argument and gave his tacit support to the plan. After Jinnah's approval, Suhrawardy started gathering support for his plan. On the Congress side, only a handful of leaders agreed to the plan. Among them was the influential Bengal provincial congress leader Sarat Chandra Bose, the elder brother of Netaji and Kiran Shankar Roy; however most other BPCC leaders and Congress leadership including Nehru and Patel rejected the plan.
The Hindu nationalist party Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Shyama Prasad Mukherjee vehemently opposed it. Their opinion was that the plan is nothing but a ploy by Suhrawardy to stop the partition of the state so that the industrially developed western part includi