Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Yugoslav People's Army
The Yugoslav People's Army referred-to by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The origins of the JNA can be found in the Yugoslav Partisan units of World War II; as part of the antifascist People's Liberation War of Yugoslavia, the People's Liberation Army of Yugoslavia, a predecessor of the JNA, was formed in the town of Rudo in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 22 December 1941. After the Yugoslav Partisans liberated the country from the Axis Powers, that date was celebrated as the "Day of the Army" in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 1945, the NOVJ was renamed the "Yugoslav Army" and, on its 10th anniversary, on 22 December 1951, received the adjective "people's"; the JNA consisted of the ground forces, air navy. It was organized into four military regions which were further divided into districts that were responsible for administrative tasks such as draft registration and construction and maintenance of military facilities.
The regions were: Belgrade, Zagreb and Split Naval Region. Of the JNA's 180,000 soldiers, more than 100,000 were conscripts. In 1990, the army had nearly completed a major overhaul of its basic force structure, it eliminated its old divisional infantry organization and established the brigade as the largest operational unit. The army converted ten of twelve infantry divisions into twenty-nine tank and mountain infantry brigades with integral artillery, air defense and anti-tank regiments. One airborne brigade was organized before 1990; the shift to brigade-level organization provided greater operational flexibility, tactical initiative and reduced the possibility that large army units would be destroyed in set piece engagements with an aggressor. The change created many senior field command positions that would develop young and talented officers; the brigade structure had advantages at a time of declining manpower. The arms industry was dominant in the Yugoslav economy. With annual exports of $3 billion, it was twice as large as tourism.
Several companies in Yugoslavia produced airplanes and combat aircraft, most notably SOKO of Mostar, with the Soko J-22 Orao being its best known product and there was Zastava Arms for firearms and artillery. Another important manufacturer was Utva in Serbia; the Yugoslav military-industrial complex produced tanks, armored vehicles, various artillery pieces, anti-aircraft weapons, as well as various types of infantry weapons and other equipment. JNA had modern infrastructure with many air bases including underground shelters and command and control centers in many locations including several mountains; the biggest and best known installation was the Željava Air Base known as the Bihać Underground Integrated Radar Control and Surveillance Centre and Air Base, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ground forces led in number of personnel. In 1991 there were about 140,000 active-duty soldiers, over a million trained reservists could be mobilized in wartime; each of the Yugoslav constituent republics had its own territorial defence forces which in wartime were subordinate to supreme command as an integral part of the defence system.
The territorial defence was made up of former conscripts. The ground forces were organised into infantry, armour and air defence, as well as signal and chemical defence corps; the Yugoslav Air Force had about 32,000 personnel including 4,000 conscripts, operated over 400 aircraft and 200 helicopters. It was responsible for transport and rotary-wing aircraft as well as the national air defence system; the primary air force missions were to contest enemy efforts to establish air supremacy over Yugoslavia and to support the defensive operations of the ground forces and navy. Most aircraft were produced in Yugoslavia. Missiles were supplied by the Soviet Union; the Yugoslav Air Force had twelve squadrons of domestically produced ground attack fighters. The ground attack squadrons provided close air support to ground force operations, they were equipped with 165 new Soko J-22 Orao, Super Galeb and J-21 Jastreb, older Soko J-20 Kraguj fighters. Many ground attack fighters were armed with AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles purchased from the United States.
Others were armed with Soviet Kh-28 missiles. The air force had about ninety armed Mi-8 helicopter gunships to provide added mobility and fire support for small ground units. A large number of reconnaissance aircraft were available to support ground forces operations. Four squadrons of seventy Galeb and Orao-1 fighters were configured for reconnaissance missions; the Yugoslav Air Force had nine squadrons of 130 Soviet-made MiG-21 interceptors for air defence. First produced in the late 1950s, the MiG-21 design was obsolete in 1990 and represented a potential weakness in Yugoslavia's air defence. However, the bulk of the MiG-21 fleet consisted of the bis variant, the latest production MiG-21 model, was armed with Soviet Vympel K-13, air-to-air missiles and some more modern Molniya R-60 (NATO reporting name: AA-8 "Aphid"
The Croatian Parliament or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia. Under the terms of the Croatian Constitution, the Sabor represents the people and is vested with legislative power; the Sabor is composed of 151 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot. Seats are allocated according to the Croatian Parliament electoral districts: 140 members of the parliament are elected in multi-seat constituencies, 8 from the minorities and 3 from the Croatian diaspora; the Sabor is presided over by a Speaker, assisted by at least one deputy speaker. The Sabor's powers are defined by the Constitution and they include: defining economic and political relations in Croatia and use of its heritage and entering into alliances; the Sabor has the right to deploy the Croatian armed forces abroad, it may restrict some constitutional rights and liberties in wartime or in cases of imminent war or following natural disasters.
The Sabor amends the borders of Croatia or the Constitution, enacts legislation, passes the state budget, declares war and decides on cessation of hostilities, adopts parliamentary resolutions and bylaws, adopts long-term national security and defence strategies, implements civil supervision of the armed forces and security services, calls referenda, performs elections and appointments conforming to the constitution and applicable legislation, supervises operations of the Government and other civil services responsible to the parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences and performs other duties defined by the constitution. The oldest Sabor with extant records was held in Zagreb on 19 April 1273; this was the Sabor of Slavonia, not of Croatia and Dalmatia. The earliest Sabor of the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia dates to 1351; the Parliament session held in 1527 in Cetin affirmed the House of Habsburg as Croatian rulers. After this, the Sabor became a regular gathering of the nobility, its official title stabilised by 1558 as the Parliament of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia.
Since 1681, it has been formally called the Diet of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia. In 1712, the Sabor once again invoked its prerogative to select the ruler, supporting what became the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Since the mid-1800s, the Sabor has met and its members have been elected. Exercising its sovereignty once again on 29 October 1918, the Sabor decided on independence from Austria-Hungary and formation of the State of Slovenes and Serbs which joined the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes; the Sabor did not meet between 1918 and 1945, except for an unelected Sabor convened in 1942. The Sabor reconvened as an assembly of State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia in 1943 and evolved since through various structures following the November 1945 elections and several changes of the constitution. After the first multi-party elections since Communist rule and the adoption of the 1990 constitution, the Sabor was bicameral until 2001, when constitutional amendments changed it to the unicameral form used.
The Sabor, in its various forms, has represented the identity and opinions of Croats from the diets of the 9th century nobility to the modern parliament. The oldest Sabor whose records are preserved was held in Zagreb on 19 April 1273 as the Congregatio Regni totius Sclavonie generalis or Universitas nobilium Regni Sclavoniae, its decisions had legislative power. The 1527 Parliament decision was a decisive event of fundamental importance for the extension and confirmation of Croatian statehood, as described by the Constitution of Croatia; the parliament chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as the new ruler of Croatia, after centuries of Croatian personal union with Hungary. Following the entry into the Habsburg Monarchy, the Sabor became a regular noble diet, its official title stabilised by 1558 to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia. Since 1681 it has been formally styled as the Congregatio Regnorum Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae or Generalis Congregatio dominorum statuum et ordinum Regni.
In 1712, the Sabor once again invoked its prerogative to select the ruler, supporting what became the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and electing Maria Theresa of Austria as monarch. This event is specified by the Constitution of Croatia as a part of the foundation of unbroken Croatian statehood from the Middle Ages to the present. In 1848 first modern Diet with the elected representatives was summoned; the Sabor operated as the legislative authority during the existence of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. The events of 1848 in Europe and in the Austrian Empire represent a watershed in Croatian society and politics, given their linkage to the Croatian national revival that influenced and shaped political and social events in Croatia from that point onwards to the end of the 20th century. At the time, the Sabor advocated the implicit severance of ties with the Kingdom of Hungary, emphasizing links to other South Slavic lands within the empire. A period of neo-absolutism was followed by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement, recognizing the limited independence of Croatia, together w
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen known as Transleithania. While Croatia has been granted a wide internal autonomy with "national features", in reality, Croatian control over key issues such as tax and military issues was minimal and hampered by Hungary, it was internally referred to as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia simply know as the Triune Kingdom and had irredentist claims on Dalmatia, part of the Austrian Cisleithania. The city of Rijeka, following a fraud in the 1868 Settlement, known as the Rijeka Addendum became a Corpus separatum and was owned by Hungary, but administrated by both Croatia and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor of Austria under his title as King of Croatia and Dalmatia and was confirmed by the State Sabor upon enthronement. The King's appointed steward was the Ban of Slavonia. On 21 October 1918, Emperor Karl I, known as King Karlo IV in Croatia, issued a Trialist manifest, ratified by the Hungarian side on the next day and which unified all Croatian Crown Lands. One week on 29 October 1918, the Croatian Croatian State Sabor proclaimed an Independent Kingdom which entered the State of Slovenes and Serbs; the kingdom used the formal title of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia, thereby pressing its claim on the Kingdom of Dalmatia, but Dalmatia was a Kronland within the imperial Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, which backed the Croatia-Slavonia in an effort to increase its share of the dual state; the union between the two Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however.
According to the Article 53 of the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, governing Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary, the ban's official title was "Ban of Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". Not only would different parts of the Monarchy at the same time use different styles of the titles, but the same institutions would at the same time use different naming standards for the same institution. For instance, when the Imperial and Royal Court in Vienna would list the Croatian Ban as one of the Great Officers of State in the Kingdom of Hungary, the style used would be Regnorum Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae Banus, but when the Court would list the highest officials of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the title would be styled as "Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia"; the laws passed in Croatia-Slavonia used the phrase "Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In Hungarian, Croatia is referred to as Slavonia as Szlavónia; the combined polity was known by the official name of Horvát-Szlavón Királyság.
The short form of the name was Horvát-Szlavónország and, less Horvát-Tótország. The order of mentioning Dalmatia was a contentious issue, as it was ordered differently in the Croatian and Hungarian language versions of the 1868 Settlement; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the former kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom. The Croatian parliament, elected in a questionable manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia-Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian-Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba; this kingdom included parts of present-day Serbia. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the only remaining open question of the new state was the status of Croatia, which would be solved with the Hungarian-Croatian Compromise of 1868 when agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on one hand and the Parliament of Croatia-Slavonia on the other hand, with regard to the composition by a joint enactment of the constitutional questions at issue between them.
Settlement reached between Hungary and Croatia was in Croatian version of the Settlement named "The Settlement between Kingdom of Hungary, united with Erdély on the one side and the Kingdoms of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In the Hungarian version neither Hungary, nor Croatia and Slavonia are styled kingdoms, Erdély is not mentioned, while Settlement is named as the Settlement between Parliament of Hungary and Parliament of Croatia and Dalmatia. Both versions received Royal sanction and both as such became fundamental laws of the state with constitutional importance, pursuant to article 69. and 70. of the Settlement. With this compromise the parliament of personal union controlled the military, the financial system, Sea Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, matters of commerce, telegraphs, Post Office, harbours and those roads and riv
Yugoslav Air Force
Not to be confused with the air force of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force. The Air Force and Air Defence, was one of three branches of the Yugoslav People's Army, the Yugoslav military. Referred-to as the Yugoslav Air Force, at its height it was among the largest in Europe; the branch was disbanded in 1992 after the Breakup of Yugoslavia. By early 1945, Yugoslav Partisans under Marshal Tito had liberated a large portion of Yugoslav territory from the occupying forces; the NOVJ partisan army included air units trained and equipped by Britain and the Soviet Union and a number of ad-hoc units equipped with aircraft captured from German Luftwaffe and Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia. On 5 January 1945 the various air units of the NOVJ were formally incorporated into a new Yugoslav Air Force. At the same time, a Yugoslav fighter group, under Soviet instruction at Zemun airfield became operational. From 17 August 1944, when the first Yugoslav Spitfire Squadron became operational, until the end of the war in Europe, Yugoslav aircraft undertook 3,500 combat sorties and accumulated 5,500 hours operational flying.
Thus, when peacetime came, the JRV possessed a strong and experienced nucleus of personnel. On 12 September 1945 the Military Aviation Academy in Belgrade was established to train future pilots; the development of the JRV was further helped in late 1945 with the creation of the Aeronautical Union of Yugoslavia. This comprised six aeronautical unions - one for each constituent republic - with the joint aim of promoting sport flying and aeronautical techniques amongst the nation's young people. In June 1947 the first VSJ flying school at Borongaj started training pupils; the organization of the post-war JRV was based on the Soviet pattern of divisions and squadrons. All of the initial equipment was supplied by the Soviet Union – the aircraft captured during the war had been retired. By the end of 1947, the JRV had reached a strength of some 40 squadrons of aircraft, had become the most powerful air arm in the Balkans. In June 1948 Yugoslavia broke off relations with the Stalinist Soviet Union; the country was subjected to extreme political pressure from the Soviet Union and its Balkan neighbors, the JRV's previous sources of aircraft and fuel were cut off.
The possibility of an invasion was taken seriously. The serviceability of JRV aircraft fell with some aircraft being cannibalised to provide spares for the remainder. Renewed efforts to expand the small domestic aircraft industry met with some success – the Ikarus Aero 2 and Ikarus 213 Vihor trainers were followed into service by the Ikarus S-49 single-seat fighter and first Yugoslav-maiden jet aircraft Ikarus 451M. However, the first-line strength of the JRV was still declining, so in 1951 the Yugoslav Chief of Staff, Colonel General Koča Popović, visited the United Kingdom to discuss the situation, it was agreed. In October 1951, the first de Havilland Mosquito F. B.6 fighter-bombers were supplied. The following year, 150 Republic F-47D Thunderbolt fighter-bombers were delivered from the USA under a Mutual Assistance Pact; the first jet aircraft to be operated by the JRV, four Lockheed T-33A jet trainers, arrived on 10 March 1953 and were soon followed by the first of 229 Republic F-84G Thunderjet fighter-bombers.
Serials for the Thunderjets were from 10501 to 10729. The first eight Thunderjets, all former 48 TFW aircraft, arrived at Batajnica on June 9, 1953. At the same time, a number of Yugoslav pilots underwent jet flying training in Germany; these deliveries improved the combat effectiveness of the JRV. Ten Westland Dragonfly helicopters were obtained in 1954, in 1956, after numerous delays due to political considerations, 121 F-86E/Canadair CL-13 F.4 Sabres interceptors were delivered. In 1959 the JRV was merged with the air defence units operated by the Army and became known as the Air Force and Air Defence. Relations with the Soviet Union had drastically improved after Nikita Khrushchev became Soviet leader, in September 1962 this led to the first MiG-21F-13 interceptors being delivered. Lack of possible aircraft for replacement of US-made fighter-bomber jets and trainers induced Yugoslav domestic aircraft industry to make new jet trainers and fighter-bombers. After a number of prototypes, Yugoslav aircraft industry made Soko G-2 Galeb light-attack trainer jet, which replaced a number of Lockheed T-33 aircraft, Galeb's single-seat version, Soko J-21 Jastreb light attack aircraft.
The Galeb was big successes, it was better than Aero L-29 Delfínwhich was the main trainer aircraft in the Warsaw Pact and a number of another air forces. Thus, the Galeb was exported only to Libya; the JRViPVO purchased a number of domestic UTVA-66 utility aircraft. Twenty-five Mi-4 medium transport helicopters were obtained for helicopter units from USSR. At the end of 60's JRViPVO purchased a number of Soviet MiG-21's in MiG-21PFM fighter, MiG-21R reconnaissance and MiG-21U and US trainer versions, fifteen Polish Mi-2 light helicopters, twenty five Zlin Z.526M Trainer Masters for Aviation Military Academy at Zemunik airport and the delivery of Mi-8T medium transport helicopters had started. During the 1970s all t
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia; the son of Croatian Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski, a lieutenant Field Marshal, Austrian mother Anna Portner von Höflein, Jelačić was born in the town of Petrovaradin, at the time part of the Slavonian Military Frontier of the Habsburg Empire. He was educated in Vienna at the Theresian Military Academy, where he received a versatile education, showing particular interest in history and foreign languages, he entrained in the Austrian army on 11 March 1819 with the rank of lieutenant Vinko Freiherr von Knežević Regiment, named for his uncle. He was fluent in all South-Slavic languages, as well as German and French. On 1 May 1825 he was promoted to first lieutenant, to captain by 1 September 1830 in Karlovac, Croatia. On 17 October 1835, he led a military campaign against Bosnian Ottoman troops in Velika Kladuša for which he received a medal.
He was promoted to major on 20 February 1837 in the Freiherr von Gollner regiment, on the first of May in 1841 to lieutenant colonel in the 1st Croatian Frontier Guard Regiment in Glina, Croatia promoted to colonel on October 18. On 22 March, Jelačić was promoted to major-general, the Sabor elected him as Ban of Croatia; the Sabor declared that the first elections or representatives to the assembly would be held in May 1848. Jelačić was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal on 7 April 1848, becoming the commander of all Habsburg troops in Croatia. In 1850 he married daughter of Count Georg Stockau, in Napajedla. Jelačić supported independence for Croatia from the Austrian throne. However, in pursuit of this goal Jelačić sought to support this goal by ingratiating himself with the Austrian throne by supporting Austrian interests in putting down revolutionary movements in northern Italy in 1848 and in opposing the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–1849. Jelačić's, reputation differs in Austria where he was looked upon as a rebel seeking to break up the Austrian Empire, Croatia where he is a national hero, Hungary where he looked up as a traitor to the Hungarian Revolution for independence from Austrian throne.
He traveled to Vienna to take oaths to become counsel of Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand I of Austria, but refused to take the oath as Ban of Croatia, because it was a Hungarian dependent territory. The relations between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Austrian Empire deteriorated after the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution on 15 March 1848, but he took the oath as Ban of Croatia on 5 June 1848. Because of the absence of Bishop Juraj Haulik, he took the oath before the Orthodox Patriarch Josif Rajačić. Jelačić, now Ban, supported the Croatian aim to maintain autonomy from the Kingdom of Hungary. Jelačić proceeded to sever all official ties of Croatia from Hungary; the Austrian Imperial Court opposed this act as one of disobedience and separatism, declaring him to be a rebel and the Sabor to be illegitimate. But the court soon realized Jelačić and his Croatian army were a support against the newly formed Batthyány Government. Traveling back to Zagreb in April, Jelačić refused to cede to this new government, refused any cooperation, called for elections to the Sabor on 25 March 1848.
The Sabor – now acting as the National Assembly – declared the following demands to the Habsburg emperor: The union of all Croatian provinces. Separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. Abolition of serfdom. Full civil rights. Affirmation of the equality of nations. Many of his points about civil rights were part of the Hungarian twelve points, were enacted by the Batthyány Government; the Sabor opposed the "massive nationalist Magyarization politics of the Kingdom of Hungary from the Carpathians to Adria, which the newly formed government represents Lajos Kossuth." On 8 April Jelačić took his banal oath and was appointed a field-marshal-lieutenant and made commander of the Military Frontier. On 19 April 1848 Jelačić proclaimed the union of Croatian provinces, the separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. At the same time, he proclaimed unconditional loyalty to the Habsburg monarchy; the Croatian Constitution of 24 April 1848 declared "languages of all ethnicities should be inviolable". On serfdom, it was apparent that changing the status of the Croatian peasantry would have to wait until the end of the revolution.
Jelačić kept up the institution of the Military Frontier. The people in the region protested to this, but Ban Jelačić quashed the dissent by summary courts martial and by executing many dissenters. In May, Jelačić established the Bansko Vijeće, its scope of authority covered ministerial tasks including Internal Affairs, Justice and Education, Religion and Defense, so this council was acting as a governing body in Croatia. The new Sabor was summoned on 5 June; the Austrian emperor called Jelačić to Innsbruck, to which the Imperial Court had fled, the Emperor there told him that the Croatian and Slavonian troops in the Italian provinces wanted to join forces with those in Croatia, but that this would weaken the forces in Italy. So Jelačić called on all troops stationed in the Italian provinces to stay put; the Austrian court did not grant the separation of Cro