Scott Lynch is an American fantasy author who wrote the Gentleman Bastard series of novels. His first novel, The Lies of Locke Lamora, was purchased by Orion Books in August 2004 and published in June 2006 under the Gollancz imprint in the United Kingdom and under the Bantam imprint in the United States; the next two novels in the series, Red Seas Under Red Skies and The Republic of Thieves, were published in 2007 and 2013, respectively. Lynch's debut novel, The Lies of Locke Lamora, was a World Fantasy Award finalist in 2007. In both 2007 and 2008 Lynch was nominated for the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer. Lynch received the Sydney J. Bounds Best Newcomer Award from the British Fantasy Society in 2008; the Lies of Locke Lamora Red Seas Under Red Skies The Republic of Thieves The Thorn of Emberlain The Ministry of Necessity The Mage and the Master Spy Inherit the Night The series take place in the world of the shattered Therin Throne Empire and its descendant states. It follows the life of the young professional thief and con artist Locke Lamora, over a period of some fifteen to twenty years.
Lynch has stated that there will be a sequel series set twenty years after with new protagonists, which will be seven books long. He has described each novel of the series as " what you might call a different general situation" in which "the same characters getting into trouble but the backdrop changes." In August 2009 Lynch began to publish the online novel Queen of the Iron Sands. A planetary romance, in the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs' Barsoom novels; the story concerns female aviator and ex-WASP, transported to a fantastic Mars. Chapters were scheduled to be released weekly; the serialization ran until September 2009 and picked up in June 2010 and halted again in September 2012. Lynch resides in Wisconsin. Lynch has had a variety of jobs including dishwasher, waiter, web designer, office manager, prep cook, freelance writer. Scott Lynch is a volunteer firefighter, certified in both Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lynch married novelist Elizabeth Bear in October 2016. Official website Scott Lynch at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Reviews at Fantasy Literature Scott Lynch at Library of Congress Authorities, with 3 catalog records Interview by Alison Bone for The Bookseller, 10 April 2006 Interview by Jay Tomio, May 27, 2006 Interview by Pat's Fantasy Hotlist, 21 June 2006 Video Interview on YouTube, 21 July 2006 Interview by Elbakin.net, 7 August 2006 Interview by Katharine Stubbs for Shades of Sentience, 21 September 2009 Interview by Fantasy-Faction, 16 September 2011 Interview by Audible, 30 November 2016
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ellen Kushner is an American writer of fantasy novels. From 1996 until 2010, she was the host of the radio program Sound & Spirit, produced by WGBH in Boston and distributed by Public Radio International. Kushner was born in Washington, D. C. and grew up in Ohio. She graduated from Barnard College, she lives in sometime collaborator, Delia Sherman. They held a wedding in 1996 and were married in Boston in 2004. Kushner identifies as bisexual. Kushner's first books were five Choose Your Own Adventure gamebooks. During that period, she published her first novel, Swordspoint in 1987. A sequel set 18 years after Swordspoint, called The Privilege of the Sword, was published in July 2006, with a first hardcover edition published in late August 2006 by Small Beer Press; the Fall of the Kings is set 40 years after Swordspoint. All three books are considered mannerpunk novels, take place in a nameless imaginary capital city and its raffish district of Riverside, where swordsmen-for-hire ply their trade. From 2011 to 2014 audiobook versions of all three novels were produced under the label of Neil Gaiman Presents.
The Swordspoint adaptation won the 2013 Audie Award for Best Audio Drama, an Earphones Award from AudioFile, the 2013 Communicator Award: Gold Award of Excellence. The adaptation of The Fall of the Kings won the 2014 Wilbur Award. Kushner's second novel, Thomas the Rhymer, won the World Fantasy Award and the Mythopoeic Award in 1991, she has published short stories and poetry in various anthologies, including The Year's Best Fantasy and Horror and The Borderland Series of urban fantasy anthologies for teenage readers. In 2002, she released a CD of her story The Golden Dreydl: A Klezmer Nutcracker, which uses music from Pyotr Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker to tell a Hanukkah story; the music on the CD is performed by Shirim Klezmer Orchestra. The Golden Dreydl won a Gracie Award from American Women in Television. A live theater version of The Golden Dreydl was performed in 2008 and 2009 at Vital Theater in New York City, written by Kushner and directed by Linda Ames Key. In 2007, along with Elizabeth Schwartz and Yale Strom, scripted the musical audio drama The Witches of Lublin for public radio.
Based on the history of Jewish women who were klezmer musicians in 18th Century Europe, The Witches of Lublin premiered on radio stations nationwide in April 2011 with performances by Tovah Feldshuh and Simon Jones. It won the 2012 Wilbur Award for Radio. In 2011 she co-edited Welcome to Bordertown, an anthology of new stories from Terri Windling's seminal shared-world series. In an audiobook adaptation Neil Gaiman read his own work, set to an original score by Boiled in Lead's Drew Miller. With Sherman and others, she is involved in the interstitial art movement, she is the co-founder and past president of the Interstitial Arts Foundation. She is a member of the Endicott Studio and has taught classes and seminars as part of Hollins University's MFA program. 47. Outlaws of Sherwood Forest 56; the Enchanted Kingdom 58. Statue of Liberty Adventure 63. Mystery of the Secret Room 86. Knights of the Round Table Swordspoint The Fall of the Kings Nominated for Mythopoeic Award Adult Literature Nominated for Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel Nominated for 2003 Gaylactic Spectrum Award Best Novel The Privilege of the Sword Winner of 2007 Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel Nominated for 2007 Nebula Award, Best Novel Nominated for 2007 Gaylactic Spectrum Award Best Novel The Man with the Knives Thomas the Rhymer Winner of 1991 World Fantasy Award and the Mythopoeic Award St. Nicholas and the Valley Beyond the World's Edge Basilisk Nominated for Balrog Award for Best Fantasy Anthology The Horns of Elfland Nominated for Locus Award Best Anthology Welcome to Bordertown Official website Ellen Kushner at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Ellen Kushner at Library of Congress Authorities, with 18 catalog records
Constance Elaine Trimmer Willis known as Connie Willis, is an American science fiction and fantasy writer. She has won eleven Hugo Awards and seven Nebula Awards for particular works—more major awards than any other writer—most the "Best Novel" Hugo and Nebula Awards for Blackout/All Clear, she was inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2009 and the Science Fiction Writers of America named her its 28th SFWA Grand Master in 2011. Several of her works feature time travel by history students at a faculty of the future University of Oxford—sometimes called the Time Travel series, they are the short story "Fire Watch", the novels Doomsday Book and To Say Nothing of the Dog, as well as the two-part novel Blackout/All Clear. All four won the annual Hugo Award but Doomsday Book and Blackout/All Clear won both the Hugo and Nebula Awards. Willis is a 1967 graduate of Colorado State College, now the University of Northern Colorado, where she completed degrees in English and Elementary Education.
She lives in Greeley, with her husband Courtney Willis, a former professor of physics at the University of Northern Colorado. They have Cordelia. Willis's first published story was "The Secret of Santa Titicaca" in Worlds of Fantasy, Winter 1970. At least seven stories followed before her debut novel, Water Witch by Willis and Cynthia Felice, published by Ace Books in 1982. After receiving a National Endowment for the Arts grant that year, she left her teaching job and became a full-time writer. Scholar Gary K. Wolfe has written, "Willis, the erstwhile stand-up superstar of SF conventions – having her as your MC is like getting Billy Crystal back as host of the Oscars – and the author of some of the field's funniest stories, is a woman of greater complexity and gravity than her personal popularity reflects, for all her facility at screwball comedy knock-offs and snappy parody, she wants us to know that she's a writer of some gravity as well."Willis is known for writing "romantic'screwball' comedy in the manner of 1940s Hollywood movies."Much of Willis's writing explores the social sciences.
She weaves technology into her stories in order to prompt readers to question what impact it has on the world. For instance, Lincoln's Dreams plumbs not just the psychology of dreams, but their role as indicators of disease; the story portrays a young man's unrequited love for a young woman who might or might not be experiencing reincarnation or precognition, whose outlook verges on suicidal. Bellwether is exclusively concerned with human psychology. Other Willis stories explore the so-called "hard" sciences, following in the classic science fiction tradition. "The Sidon in the Mirror" harks back to the interplanetary and interstellar romanticism of the 1930s and 1940s. "Samaritan" is another take on the theme of Heinlein's "Jerry Was a Man", while "Blued Moon" is reminiscent of Heinlein's "The Year of the Jackpot". At the 2006 Hugo Awards ceremony, Willis presented writer Harlan Ellison with a special committee award; when Ellison got to the podium Willis asked him "Are you going to be good?"
When she asked the question a second time, Ellison put the microphone in his mouth, to the crowd's laughter. He momentarily put his hand on her left breast. Ellison subsequently complained. Willis is a Christian. In 1996, Willis wrote, "I sing soprano in a Congregationalist church choir, it is my belief that everything you need to know about the world can be learned in a church choir." Wins Fire Watch: novelette: 1983 The Last of the Winnebagos: novella: 1989 Doomsday Book: novel: 1993 Even the Queen: short story: 1993 Death on the Nile: short story: 1994 The Soul Selects Her Own Society: Invasion and Repulsion: A Chronological Reinterpretation of Two of Emily Dickinson's Poems: A Wellsian Perspective: short story: 1997 To Say Nothing of the Dog: novel: 1999 The Winds of Marble Arch: novella: 2000 Inside Job: novella: 2006 All Seated on the Ground: novella: 2008 Blackout/All Clear: novel: 2011Nominations Daisy, In the Sun: short story: 1980 The Sidon in the Mirror: novelette: 1984 Blued Moon: novelette: 1985 Spice Pogrom: novella: 1987 At the Rialto: novelette: 1990 Time-Out: novella: 1990 Cibola: short story: 1991 In the Late Cretaceous: short story: 1992 Jack: novella: 1992 Miracle: novelette: 1992 Remake: novel: 1996 Passage: novel: 2002 Just Like the Ones We Used to Know: novella: 2004 Wins Fire Watch: novelette: 1983 A Letter from the Clearys: short story: 1983 The Last of the Winnebagos: novella: 1988 At the Rialto: novelette: 1990 Doomsday Book: novel: 1993 Even the Queen: short story: 1993 Blackout/All Clear: novel: 2010Nominations The Sidon in the Mirror: novelette: 1984 Schwarzschild Radius: novelette: 1988 Jack: novella: 1992 Death on the Nile: novelette: 1994 Bellwether: novel: 1998 To Say Nothing of the Dog: novel: 1999 Passage: novel: 2002 Just Like the Ones We Used to Know: novella: 2005 Wins Doomsday Book: SF novel: 1993 To Say Nothing of the Dog: SF Novel: 1999 Passage: SF novel: 2001 Blackout/All Clear: novel: 2010Nomination Lincoln's Dreams: Fantasy Novel: 1988 Nominations Doomsday Book: SF novel: 1993 Passage: SF novel: 2001 Nominations Chance: novella: 1987 The Winds of Marble Arch: novella: 2000 Win Lincoln's Dreams: 1988 Nomination Doomsday Book: SF novel: 1993 Lifetime achievement, 2011, presented at the Nebula Awards banquet, May 2012 Water Witch – with Cynthia Felice Lincoln's Dreams – John W. Campbell Memorial Award winner, Locus Fantasy Award nomine
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Pat Murphy (writer)
Patrice Ann "Pat" Murphy is an American science writer and author of science fiction and fantasy novels. Murphy was born on March 1955 in Washington state. Murphy has used the ideas of the absurdist pseudophilosophy pataphysics in some of her writings. Along with Lisa Goldstein and Michaela Roessner, she has formed The Brazen Hussies to promote their work. Together with Karen Joy Fowler, Murphy co-founded the James Tiptree, Jr. Award in 1991. With her second novel, The Falling Woman, she won the Nebula Award, another Nebula Award in the same year for her novelette, "Rachel in Love." Her short story collection, Points of Departure won the Philip K. Dick Award, her 1990 novella, won the World Fantasy Award in 1991, she lives in Nevada and, for more than 20 years, when she was not writing science fiction, she worked at the Exploratorium, San Francisco's museum of science and human perception. There, she published non-fiction as part of the museum staff. Since 2014, Murphy has worked at Mystery Science creating science curriculum for elementary school teachers.
She has a black belt in the martial art kenpō. The Shadow Hunter The Falling Woman The City, Not Long After Nadya: The Wolf Chronicles There and Back Again Wild Angel Adventures in Time and Space with Max Merriwell The Wild Girls CollectionsPoints of Departure Women Up to No Good Stories The James Tiptree Award Anthology 1 with Debbie Notkin, Karen Joy Fowler and Jeffrey D. Smith. Anthology of winners of the James Tiptree, Jr. Award. Tachyon Publications; the James Tiptree Award Anthology 2 with Debbie Notkin, Karen Joy Fowler and Jeffrey D. Smith. Tachyon Publications; the James Tiptree Award Anthology 3 with Debbie Notkin, Karen Joy Fowler and Jeffrey D. Smith. Tachyon Publications. Joseph, Witold Klawe and Pat Murphy. Tuna and billfish: fish without a country. Paintings by George Mattson. La Jolla, Calif.: Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Imaginary Friends Before and After Explorabook: A Kid's Science Museum in a Book by John Cassidy, Pat Murphy, Paul Doherty Bending Light: An Exploratorium Toolbook by Pat Murphy By Nature's Design by Pat Murphy The Science Explorer by Pat Murphy, Ellen Klages, Linda Shore The Color of Nature by Pat Murphy and Paul Doherty The Science Explorer Out and About by Pat Murphy, Ellen Klages, Linda Shore Zap Science: A Scientific Playground in a Book by John Cassidy, Paul Doherty, & Pat Murphy Doherty, Paul & Pat Murphy.
"Playing with fire". Science. F&SF. 99: 112–120. — & —. "Death rays and other experiments to try at home". Science. F&SF. 100: 114–121. Exploratopia Pat Murphy's page at Brazen Hussies Pat Murphy at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Pat Murphy interview at The Well Mystery Science: Open and Go lessons that inspire kids to love science
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi